What is Spectrum

In wireless communication data are sent through waves without using any physical conductor. These waves are divided into three broad group having different ranges of frequencies.

Waves and Frequencies

Radio waves

Micro waves

Types of wire less Technology

There are 4 types wire less technology presently in future it may extend further. 1G net work used for analog (require frequency modulation for speech and data transmission by circuit based devices). 2G stands for second generation wire less telephone technology (transfer voice services and data). 3G stands for third generation services used to enhance mobile phone standards to facilitate growth and support more diverse applications. 4G stands for future standard of wire less devices.

Evolution of Mobile Systems to 3G - drivers are capacity, data speeds, lower cost of delivery for revenue growth

Evolution of Mobile Systems to 3G
- drivers are capacity, data speeds, lower cost of delivery for revenue growth Expected market share



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CDMA2000 CDMA2000 1x 1x

First Step into 3G

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What is 3G

A telecommunication hardware standards and general Technology based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards. 3G is a enhanced telecommunication services with capability for seamless transmission and reception of high quality sound, data and picture message by fixed and fast-moving subscriber. It access high-speed to the internet, entertainment, information and electronic commerce (e-Commerce) services at our pc’s and our television. It consists of two main standards – CDMA 2000 & w-CDMA.


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First pre-commercial 3G network was launched by Japan in May 2001. First post-commercial launch by Japan in Oct 2001 The second network is SK Telecom of South Korea in Jan 2002. First commercial 3G network of US is Monet Mobile Network on CDMA 2000. Second network id Verizon Wireless in Oct 2003 on CDMA 2000.

3G different from 2G

3G (third-generation) technology is used to enhance mobile phone standards. 3G helps to simultaneously transfer both voice data and non-voice data like downloading information, exchanging e-mail, and instant messaging. The highlight of 3G is video telephony. It enables to surf the Internet, view pictures of the people they are talking to, watch movies and listen to music on their handsets .

3G Applications
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Interactive news delivery (voice, video, e-mail, graphics) Voice /High-quality audio Still photography Video/Audio streaming Data transmission services File transfer from intranet Multimedia e-mail (graphics, voice, video) Video conferencing Web browser – On-line services – Time schedules -Global Positioning Services/Geographical Information Systems

Benefits of 3G Wireless Networks in Higher Education
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3G technology supports video telephony. Live video lectures can be cast to the learner. Two-way video conferencing becomes possible. Faster downloads of assignments .


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New radio spectrum to relieve overcrowding in existing systems. More bandwidth, security and reliability. Interoperability between services providers. Fixed and variable data rates. Asymmetric data rates. Backward compatibility of devices with existing networks. Rich multimedia services.


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High spectrum licensing fees for the 3g services. Huge capital is required to build infrastructure for 3G services. Health impact of electro magnetic waves. Prices are high for 3G mobile services. Takes time to catch up the service. Battery life of 3G phones. Lack of coverage in some areas.

Issues of 3G

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What are the frequency bands and quota for CDMA? Issues regarding 3G for providers and users? Issues regarding 3G pricing? Companies have applied for 3G license? What is the pricing issue in India?

Frequency bands and quota for CDMA

The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India has recommended three sets of frequency bands 450 MHz, 800 MHz and 2.1 GHz. For CDMA players like Reliance and Tata Teleservices 1.25 MHz each is offered. CDMA operators are free to bid both in the 2.1 GHz and the 450 MHz bands, but they will be allocated spectrum only in one. GSM players operate on 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz, while CDMA players operate on 800 MHz.

Issues for providers and users

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High spectrum licensing fees for the 3G services Huge capital required to build infrastructure for 3G services. Health impact of electromagnetic waves. Prices are very high for 3G mobile services. Will 2G users switch to 3G services. Takes time to catch up as the service is new

Issues regarding 3G pricing

In Europe, spectrum licensing fees were collected years before the 3G service was developed and it required huge investments to build 3G networks, hitting mobile operators' margins. However, in Japan and South Korea, spectrum licensing fees were not applicable as the focus of these countries were national IT infrastructure development.

Companies applied for 3G license

3G spectrum has been provided to GSM players like BSNL, MTNL, Bharti, and Hutch to carry out an interface check on a non-commercial basis ahead of the start of 3G mobile services. Trial spectrum has been given for a period of one month. This will be only 1/1000th of the actual 3G spectrum capability. has been given to all those who have applied under the National Frequency Allocation Plan on the 2.1 GHz band.

Pricing issue in India

Tata have welcomed Trai's RS 1,400-crore (RS 14 billion) base price for a nationwide rollout of 3G services, the rest of the players find the price too exorbitant. Bharti-Airtel is disappointed with the pricing as they were expecting it to be RS 300-400 crore. Bharti-Airtel has appealed to lower the prices specially for rural penetration.

Future of 3G

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Now 3G has been uploaded in all the latest handsets from the leading manufacturers including Sony Ericsson, Samsung, LG, Nokia and Motorola. A new technology called HSDPA has been added with the 3G system which works faster than 3G. 3G opens the door to anything you can imagine. You will be able to do a multitude of things while going through your daily schedule, whether at work or at leisure. According to the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), in India, the 3G subscriber is expected to be 90 million by 2013.

3G is for high speed networks for variety of data intensive applications. 3G provides more advanced services like wide-area wireless voice Telephone, video calls and broadband wireless data and also it provides advanced multimedia access and global roaming. 3G is giving way to new generation wireless networks i.e. 4G

3G Mobile Phones

By: Sky Aimers

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