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HISTOLOGY DEPARTMENT

MEDICAL FACULTY
LAMPUNG UNIVERSITY

Presentation outline
The structure of the Kidneys
The structure of Urinary tract (Ureters, Urinary
bladder, urethra)

General Functions of the system


Filter metabolic wastes and
foreign substance from the blood.
Regulate the ion, salt and water
concentrations of the fluids.
Produce rennin and
erythropoietin

Kidneys
The paired, bean shape
Retroperitoneal organ
Located in the posterior wall of
the abdominal cavity

The kidney

The Structure of the kidney


Hillum, concave medial border
nerve enter
blood and lymph vessels enter & exit
the ureters exits
Renal sinus
Renal pelvis
Renal lobes and lobules
Blood Supply : Renal arteries are
branches from the aorta

Kidneys
1. Renal sinus contains :
The renal pelvis
The entering and exiting blood vessels
and nerves, and adipose tissue

2. Hillum, this contains of the renal sinus and


its contents

3. Cortex, it contains : renal corpuscle,


proximal and distal convoluted tubules,
peritubular capillaries, and medullary rays.

4. Medulla, it consist : medullary pyramids,


collecting duct, loop of Henle, and vasa
recta.

5. Medullary rays : these fingerlike


extensions of medullary tissue, consist of
collecting tubules and duct.

6. Renal lobes : each lobe consist of a


medullary pyramid.

7. Renal lobules : Medullary ray


center of each renal lobules

the

Nephrons
The functional subunit of the kidney.

Each includes : a renal corpuscle, a


proximal convoluted tubule, a loop of
Henle, and a distal convoluted tubule.

The nephron

Renal Corpuscle
As the blood filtering unit of the, nephron
consists of :

Glomerulus is a small tuft of fenestrated


capillaries.

Bowmans capsule is a double walled


epithelial chamber.

Renal corpuscle

Filtration barrier, separate the capillary


lumen from the urinary space.
Filtration barrier includes :
1. The diaphragm-covered capillary
fenestrations
2. The fused basal lamina of capillary
endothelial cells and podocytes
3. The diaphragm-covered filtrations slits
that lie between the interdigitating
pedicels.

Vascular pole:
the afferent arterioles enter
the efferent arterioles exiting

Urinary pole : the proximal convoluted tubule


exits

Filtration mechanism :
Blood

afferent

glomerulus

A reduce volume of blood


the glomerulus
efferent

leaves

The raw filtrate


in urinary space
proximal convoluted tubule.

Glomerular capillary & podocytes

Filtration membrane

Mesangial cell

Proximal Convoluted Tubule


Lining by simple low columnar to cuboidal
epithelium, has abundant brush border.

Loop of Henle
a U-shape epithelial tube, it extend from

the proximal convoluted tubule.


It empties into the distal convoluted tubule.

Distal Convoluted Tubule


This final segment of the nephron lies
in the cortex.
Its epithelial lining is low cuboidal with
no brush border.
The distal tubule epithelium form a
macula densa .

Renal cortex

Collecting Tubules & Duct


They are lining by cuboidal epithelial in the
smaller tubule and columnar epithelial in
the larger ducts of the medulla.

Collecting ducts (renal medulla)

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Located near the vascular pole of a
renal corpuscle.
This includes :
a. Juxtaglomerular cells
b. Macula densa
c. Polkissen (extraglomerular mesangial
cells)

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

Blood Supply & Circulation


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Renal artery
Interlobar arteries
Arcuate arteries
Interlobar arteries
Afferent arterioles
Efferent arterioles
Vasa recta

The vascularisation of the nephron

Wall of the Ureter

Transitional epithelium

Connective tissue / lamina


propria

Smooth muscle layer

Internal of the Urinary bladder

Tunica mucosa : transitional

epithellium

Tunica muscularis :

three layers of smooth

muscle (involuntar ),

longitudinal (2 layers) and


circular (1 layers) called as

detrusor muscles

Tunica adventitia

The trigone

Mucosa of the Urinary Bladder

Transitional epithelium

A : when U.B. empty


(polypoid/cuboid)

B : when U.B. full


(squamous)

Male Urethra
Two sphincters :
Internal sphincter
Involuntary
In the wall of bladder
External sphincter
Voluntary
In The urogenital diaphragm
Parts of Male urethra

Prostatic urethra (transitional


epithelium)

Membranous urethra (stratified or


pseudostratified columnar epithelium)

Penile urethra (pseudostratified


columnar epithelium)

Female Urethra

Approximately 3.7 cm
(mid part : external sphincter)

Stratified squamous epithelium

Urethral glands open into the


urethra

Paraurethral glands open into

the vestibule

Urethral orificium lies in the


vestibule between the labia

minor

Now I know
The structure of the Kidneys
The structure of Urinary tract (Ureters,
Urinary bladder, urethra)