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•Epidemics of Avian Flu caused by the viral strain H7N9 in China in 201314 underpins the urgency of creating and

managing a global biosecurity.
•The main drivers for emerging diseases are:
(i) Movements of people and agricultural goods in trade,
(ii) Agricultural change: intensification, diversification and globalization,
(iii) Evolution: more interaction, more recombination, more selection,
(iv) Weather: extreme events and climate change.
Stem rust of wheat caused by the race UG99 is already a threat to wheat
security, thus to food security, in Africa, Middle East and India.

•Biosecurity covers the incidence of plant pests, animal pests
and diseases, zoonoses, the introduction and release of
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their products
•Biosecurity is being challenged by large increases in the
volume of food and agricultural products being traded
internationally, by the expanding variety of imported products
and by the growing number of countries from which these
imports are originating. Increased travel is also creating more
pathways to spread pests, diseases and other hazards that are
moving faster and farther than ever before

Source: Adopted from Gibbs, E.P.J. (2005); many serious outbreaks (not necessarily
global) not included.

Here needs a biosecurity system
•risk analysis and management as a framework for biosecurity
becomes the central binding force across various sectors.

State of India’s Biosecurity System
Animal Biosecurity - The biosecurity problem is most acute in
livestock, particularly the threat from transboudary animal
diseases (TAD).
biosecurity efforts can be categorized into
(a) external measures (external biosecurity) ─ those directed
at prevention of entry of new diseases into a group, and
(b) internal measures (internal biosecurity) ─ those directed
at prevention of spread of disease within a group (Dargatz
et al., 2002).
A number of diseases have emerged in recent times. Many of them have
zoonotic (Table 1) and bioterror potential (Table 2).

•Today India is world's fifth largest egg producer and the
eighteenth largest producer of broilers. Due to the demand
for poultry increasing and production reaching 37 billion eggs
and 1 billion broilers, the Poultry Industry today employs
around 1.6 million people.

Plant Biosecurity
•Threat from the Ug99 wheat —a devastating strain of black wheat stem
rust disease — that reached the borders of Iran in 2009. So far the
Indian sub-continent had been safe. If the disease were to hit
Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, it would hurt wheat availability around
the globe. The spread of the wind-blown disease would depend on the
west-east air flow pattern. In 2012-13, the country produced 92.46
million tonnes of wheat. This is 13.2 per cent of the world’s production.
After the disease hit wheat crop in North America and travelled to
Canada in 1953, huge tracts of wheat were replaced with corn. In 1999,
a new race of the causative agent of stem rust, the Ug99, was detected
in Uganda followed by Kenya in 2003 and Yemen in 2007. The virulent
race, if not contained, may migrate to the Middle-East and Central Asia,
it is feared.

Source: ‘No immediate threat to India from Ug99 wheat
rust’ – The Hindu

References:•Adopted from Gibbs, E.P.J. (2005); many serious outbreaks
(not necessarily global) not included.