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**PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN
**

PROBLEM SET 4B – QUESTION 5

11/04/2012

BY,

CH09B006

CH09B022

CH09B047

CH09B081

Problem Statement:

A vertical tube condenser and sub-cooler is to be

**selected to condense 10,000 lb/h of benzene vapor at 1
**

atm. and to cool the liquid condensate to 900 F. The

benzene will flow inside the tubes. Cooling water flows

through the shell side and enters at 750 F at the

condensate end of the equipment. The exit cooling water

temperature is to be 1300 F. Assuming that the overall

coefficient corresponding to the condensing section is

250 Btu/h.ft2.0F and that for the cooling section is 100

Btu/h/ft2.0F, determine the total square feet of heat

transfer surface required. Condensing temperature of

benzene at 1 atm is 176.20 F and the latent heat of

condensation at 176.20 F is 169.3 Btu/lb. Design the

condenser.

with condensation in the shell Vertical. and the cooling medium in the tubes Horizontal. . with condensation in the tubes The construction of a condenser will be similar to other shell and tube exchangers. with condensation in the shell. typically lB = Ds.Introduction: Condenser: Heat transfer equipment where heat energy transfer takes place accompanied by a phase change Shell and tube heat exchangers are designed as condensers 4 condenser configurations are possible: Horizontal. but with a wider baffle spacing. with condensation in the tubes Vertical.

Block Diagram .

Benzene vapor Assumption:.Benzene vapor is entering at 176.2 0F (also its boiling point) Temperature data: Tube side inlet = 176.2 .Data given: Mass flow rate of benzene vapor (m) = 10000 lb/hr Shell side:.Cooling water Tube side:.2 0F Condensate outlet = 90 0F Shell side inlet = 75 0F Shell side outlet = 130 0F Over-all heat transfer coefficients: Condensing = 250 Btu/hr/ft2/0F Cooling = 100 Btu/hr/ft2/0F Latent heat of vaporization (L) of benzene vapor (at 176.

0533 * 106 Btu/hr Mass flow rate of coolant water (mc): Q = mc*Cpw* ΔT { Heat balance} Cpw = 1Btu/lb/0F ΔT=(130 – 75) 0F = 55 0F mc = 3.733 * 104 lb/hr Final temperature of condensing section water (Tinter): mL = mc*Cpw*(130.Calculations: Over-all heat balance: Total heat transferred from vapor (Q) = mL + mCpΔT Cp = 0.2 – 90) 0F = 86. Q = 2.418 Btu/lb/0F ΔT = (176.65 0F .Tinter) Tinter = 84.2 0F On substitution.

25 times the tube outside diameter .Design fundamentals: Tube side Tube diameters in the range 16 mm to 50 mm are used. and therefore cheaper. exchangers. as they will give more compact.782 inch (19. Larger tubes are easier to clean by mechanical methods and would be selected for heavily fouling fluids. The smaller diameters 16 to 25 mm are preferred for most duties. A tube inner diameter of 0. square. or rotated square pattern The recommended tube pitch (distance between tube centres) is 1.86mm) is selected Tube arrangements The tubes in an exchanger are usually arranged in an equilateral triangular.

.

Tube side passes The fluid in the tube is usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of “passes” through groups of tubes arranged in parallel. to increase the length of the flow path Single tube side pass is chosen in our case Tube sheet layout Cross sectional view of the shell .

Shell side passes The fluid in the shell is usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of “passes” to increase the length of the flow path Single shell side pass is chosen Baffles Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid stream across the tubes. baffle spacing = Shell diameter .3 to 0. to increase the fluid velocity and so improve the rate of transfer Baffle cut:.Height of the segment removed to form the baffle. expressed as a percentage of the baffle disc diameter Baffle cuts from 15 to 45 per cent are used A baffle cut of 20 to 25 per cent will be the optimum The optimum baffle spacing will usually be between 0.5 times the shell diameter For condensers.

.

Pressure drop: Tube Shell .

ΔTlm = 66.Condenser Design: Assume: Single shell and single tube pass Calculation of LMTD Condensing region: On substitution.31 0F .

32 0F Heat transfer area: Condensing region: U1A1 ΔT = mL A1 = 102. Cooling section: On substitution.13 ft2 = 9.476 m2 . ΔTlm = 42.

Cooling section: U2A2 ΔTlm = mCp (ΔT)benzene A2 = 85.397 m2 Weighted Overall coefficient (Uc): A1U 1 A2U 2 Uc A1 A2 Uc = 181.14 ft2 = 7.909 m2 Total area required = A1 + A2 = 187.80 Btu/hr/ft2/0F .27 ft2 = 17.

2618 ft2/lin ft Inside (Ai)= 0.2048 ft2/lin ft Number of tubes (n): Q nAil Uc T ' where T ' Q q q T cond T cool .Choosing the specifications: Length of shell (l) = 6 ft = 1.479 inch2 Surface area per linear feet of tube Outside = 0.83 m Tube outer diameter = 1 inch Tube inner diameter (di)= 0.782 inch Flow area per tube = 0.

n1 = 2.319.142 . = 60.T ' On substitution. n = 152 Bundle and shell diameter Selecting a triangular pitch for the tubes K1 = 0.31 0F Hence.

95 mm Shell side diameter (Ds) Ds = Db + 56mm = 507. baffle diameter = 506.35 mm Baffle spacing (lB)= Ds = 506.95 mm Baffle diameter Hence.35 mm Number of baffles = 3 . Bundle diameter (Db) = 451.

Pressure drop calculation: Tube side .

0305 m/s o Tube side Reynolds number utdi Re Re = 1299 m = 0.s ρ (benzene) = 879 kg/m3 o Tube side velocity (ut) m ut n AtubeCS On substitution.25 .37 mPa.41 mPa.μ = 0.s μw = 0. ut = 0.

.

ΔPt = 3.66 kPa Shell side de = Equivalent diameter Ds = Shell diameter L = Length of shell lB = Baffle spacing ρ(water) = 1000 kg/m3 μw = μ = 1 cP .jf = 9 * 10-3 On substitution.

o Shell side velocity (us) mc us As Calculation of As (Area of cross flow): On substitution. As = 0.021 m2 .

Re = 2300 .01m o Shell side Reynolds number On substitution. de = 0.o Equivalent diameter (de) On substitution.

.

jf = 1. from graph.684 Pa . ΔPshell = 1161.2 * 10-2 Hence.Note: Optimum value of baffle cut is 25% So.

95 mm Baffle diameter = 506.35 mm Number of baffles = 3 ΔPt = 3.479 inch2 Number of tubes = 152 Bundle diameter (Db) = 451.35 mm Baffle spacing (lB)= Ds = 506.684 Pa .83 m Tube outer diameter = 1 inch Tube inner diameter (di)= 0.Results: Length of shell (l) = 6 ft = 1.66 kPa ΔPshell = 1161.782 inch Flow area per tube = 0.95 mm Shell side diameter (Ds) = 507.

Vol 6 .References Process Heat transfer – Donald Q Kern Chemical process and equipment (Selection and design) – Stanley M Walas Coulson and Richardson.

Thank You .

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