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# CH3080

PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN
PROBLEM SET 4B – QUESTION 5
11/04/2012

BY,
CH09B006
CH09B022
CH09B047
CH09B081

Problem Statement:
 A vertical tube condenser and sub-cooler is to be

selected to condense 10,000 lb/h of benzene vapor at 1
atm. and to cool the liquid condensate to 900 F. The
benzene will flow inside the tubes. Cooling water flows
through the shell side and enters at 750 F at the
condensate end of the equipment. The exit cooling water
temperature is to be 1300 F. Assuming that the overall
coefficient corresponding to the condensing section is
250 Btu/h.ft2.0F and that for the cooling section is 100
Btu/h/ft2.0F, determine the total square feet of heat
transfer surface required. Condensing temperature of
benzene at 1 atm is 176.20 F and the latent heat of
condensation at 176.20 F is 169.3 Btu/lb. Design the
condenser.

with condensation in the shell  Vertical. and the cooling medium in the tubes  Horizontal. . with condensation in the tubes  The construction of a condenser will be similar to other shell and tube exchangers. with condensation in the shell. typically lB = Ds.Introduction: Condenser:  Heat transfer equipment where heat energy transfer takes place accompanied by a phase change  Shell and tube heat exchangers are designed as condensers  4 condenser configurations are possible: Horizontal. but with a wider baffle spacing. with condensation in the tubes  Vertical.

Block Diagram .

Benzene vapor  Assumption:.Benzene vapor is entering at 176.2 0F (also its boiling point)  Temperature data:  Tube side inlet = 176.2 .Data given:  Mass flow rate of benzene vapor (m) = 10000 lb/hr  Shell side:.Cooling water  Tube side:.2 0F  Condensate outlet = 90 0F  Shell side inlet = 75 0F  Shell side outlet = 130 0F  Over-all heat transfer coefficients:  Condensing = 250 Btu/hr/ft2/0F  Cooling = 100 Btu/hr/ft2/0F  Latent heat of vaporization (L) of benzene vapor (at 176.

0533 * 106 Btu/hr Mass flow rate of coolant water (mc):  Q = mc*Cpw* ΔT { Heat balance}  Cpw = 1Btu/lb/0F  ΔT=(130 – 75) 0F = 55 0F  mc = 3.733 * 104 lb/hr Final temperature of condensing section water (Tinter):  mL = mc*Cpw*(130.Calculations: Over-all heat balance:  Total heat transferred from vapor (Q) = mL + mCpΔT  Cp = 0.2 – 90) 0F = 86. Q = 2.418 Btu/lb/0F  ΔT = (176.65 0F .Tinter)  Tinter = 84.2 0F  On substitution.

25 times the tube outside diameter .Design fundamentals:  Tube side  Tube diameters in the range 16 mm to 50 mm are used. and therefore cheaper. exchangers. as they will give more compact.782 inch (19.  Larger tubes are easier to clean by mechanical methods and would be selected for heavily fouling fluids.  The smaller diameters 16 to 25 mm are preferred for most duties. A tube inner diameter of 0. square. or rotated square pattern  The recommended tube pitch (distance between tube centres) is 1.86mm) is selected  Tube arrangements  The tubes in an exchanger are usually arranged in an equilateral triangular.

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 Tube side passes  The fluid in the tube is usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of “passes” through groups of tubes arranged in parallel. to increase the length of the flow path Single tube side pass is chosen in our case  Tube sheet layout Cross sectional view of the shell .

 Shell side passes  The fluid in the shell is usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of “passes” to increase the length of the flow path Single shell side pass is chosen  Baffles  Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid stream across the tubes. baffle spacing = Shell diameter .3 to 0. to increase the fluid velocity and so improve the rate of transfer  Baffle cut:.Height of the segment removed to form the baffle. expressed as a percentage of the baffle disc diameter  Baffle cuts from 15 to 45 per cent are used  A baffle cut of 20 to 25 per cent will be the optimum  The optimum baffle spacing will usually be between 0.5 times the shell diameter For condensers.

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 Pressure drop:  Tube  Shell .

ΔTlm = 66.Condenser Design:  Assume: Single shell and single tube pass Calculation of LMTD  Condensing region: On substitution.31 0F .

32 0F Heat transfer area:  Condensing region: U1A1 ΔT = mL A1 = 102. Cooling section: On substitution.13 ft2 = 9.476 m2 . ΔTlm = 42.

 Cooling section: U2A2 ΔTlm = mCp (ΔT)benzene A2 = 85.397 m2 Weighted Overall coefficient (Uc): A1U 1  A2U 2 Uc  A1  A2 Uc = 181.14 ft2 = 7.909 m2 Total area required = A1 + A2 = 187.80 Btu/hr/ft2/0F .27 ft2 = 17.

2618 ft2/lin ft  Inside (Ai)= 0.2048 ft2/lin ft Number of tubes (n): Q nAil  Uc T ' where T '  Q  q   q        T  cond  T  cool .Choosing the specifications:  Length of shell (l) = 6 ft = 1.479 inch2  Surface area per linear feet of tube  Outside = 0.83 m  Tube outer diameter = 1 inch  Tube inner diameter (di)= 0.782 inch  Flow area per tube = 0.

n1 = 2.319.142 . = 60.T '  On substitution. n = 152 Bundle and shell diameter  Selecting a triangular pitch for the tubes  K1 = 0.31 0F  Hence.

95 mm Shell side diameter (Ds)  Ds = Db + 56mm = 507. baffle diameter = 506.35 mm Baffle spacing (lB)= Ds = 506.95 mm Baffle diameter  Hence.35 mm Number of baffles = 3 . Bundle diameter (Db) = 451.

Pressure drop calculation:  Tube side .

0305 m/s o Tube side Reynolds number  utdi Re   Re = 1299 m = 0.s ρ (benzene) = 879 kg/m3 o Tube side velocity (ut) m ut  n AtubeCS On substitution.25 .37 mPa.41 mPa.μ = 0.s μw = 0. ut = 0.

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ΔPt = 3.66 kPa  Shell side de = Equivalent diameter Ds = Shell diameter L = Length of shell lB = Baffle spacing ρ(water) = 1000 kg/m3 μw = μ = 1 cP .jf = 9 * 10-3 On substitution.

o Shell side velocity (us) mc us   As Calculation of As (Area of cross flow): On substitution. As = 0.021 m2 .

Re = 2300 .01m o Shell side Reynolds number On substitution. de = 0.o Equivalent diameter (de) On substitution.

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jf = 1. from graph.684 Pa . ΔPshell = 1161.2 * 10-2  Hence.Note: Optimum value of baffle cut is 25% So.

95 mm  Baffle diameter = 506.35 mm  Number of baffles = 3  ΔPt = 3.479 inch2  Number of tubes = 152  Bundle diameter (Db) = 451.35 mm  Baffle spacing (lB)= Ds = 506.684 Pa .83 m  Tube outer diameter = 1 inch  Tube inner diameter (di)= 0.Results:  Length of shell (l) = 6 ft = 1.66 kPa  ΔPshell = 1161.782 inch  Flow area per tube = 0.95 mm  Shell side diameter (Ds) = 507.

Vol 6 .References  Process Heat transfer – Donald Q Kern  Chemical process and equipment (Selection and design) – Stanley M Walas  Coulson and Richardson.

Thank You .