25 views

Uploaded by talhawasim

rheology

rheology

© All Rights Reserved

- Rheology of Tapioca Starch
- cal Dairy Chemistry.manual
- Rheology Measurements in Fundamental Units
- Fann 04-0158-00.pdf
- Comprehensive Material Characterization
- Mew Is
- AkzoNobel Paint Eng Tcm54-18194
- rheometry
- Extrusion instabilities and wall slip
- Mortar composition defined according to rheometer and flow table tests using factorial designed experiments
- D4603.1207332-1
- 01 Vogelsanger Stanag 4178 Ed 2 the New Nato Standard for Nitrocellulose Testing
- Lab Manual for Drilling Fluid
- Cement Viscosity Test
- A New Tool for Measuring Elongational Viscosity P. Hodder and a. Franck
- Intro to Drilling Fluids New
- A364_P6_6thP_250810
- Viscosity
- Introduction logy
- Thermoplastic Vulcanizates Based on Epoxidized Natural

You are on page 1of 63

Part 2

Introduction to the Rheology of

Complex Fluids

Rheometry

functions

be designed to produce the kinematics pescribed in

th edefinition of the material function, then measure

the stress components needed and calculate the

material function.

Viscometer vs Rheometer

Viscometer measures viscosity

Rheometer measures rheological properties

A rheometer is a viscometer, but a viscometer is not a

rheometer.

Capillary viscometers

Rotational rheometers

Cup

Glass

Extrusion rheometers

Parallel plates (disks)

Cone-and-plate

Couette

Brookfield viscometers

Extensional rheometers

Rotational Rheometry

Rotational instruments makes it possible:

1.

2.

regime of deformation with strictly controlled

kinematic and dynamic characteristics

Maintain assigned regime of flow for unlimited

period of time

1.

2.

shear rate)

Constant torque (constant stress)

Rotational Rheometry

Advantages:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Smaller instrument sizes

Preferred for samples which are sensitive to contractions and

expansions

Longer residence times /testing times

Multiple testing or complex testing protocols

Disadvantages:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Lower shear rates (~10-3 s-1) limited by power drive and speed

control (reducing gears)

High shear rates heating of the sample (bad energy

dissipation), Weissenberg effect, flow instabilities

Wall slip and ruptures (detachment from wall)

Typical experimental results:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Low speed monotonic dependence of T(t) until steady state flow is reached

Increasing speed, during the transient stage, the shear stress maximum

(stress overshoot) appears.

The stress overshoot becomes more pronounced, and although the steady

flwo is observed it is followed by a drop in torque (approach to unstable

regime of deformation)

High speeds, steady flow is generally impossible.

A drop in torque is an indication of rupture in the sample or its detachment from the solid

rotating or stationary surface.

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

7

Constant torque

Typical experimental results:

1.

2.

3.

Higher stresses - speed passes through a minimum and only then is steady

flow reached.

At very high stresses a steady flow is generally impossible due to a gradual

adhesive detachment of sample from the measuring surface or a cohesive

rupture of sample.

The upper plate is rotated at a

constant angular velocity , the

velocity is:

0

v v

0

rz

With this velocity field, and assuming incompressible flow, the continuity

equation gives:

1 (rvr ) 1 v vz

0

r r

r z

v

0

Assuming simple shear flow in -direction with gradient in z-direction

(i.e. the velocity profile is linear in z)

v A(r ) z B (r )

The boundary conditions:

v 0 @ z 0

v r @ z H

Solving:

rz

v

H

The rate-of-deformation tensor is then:

v (v)T

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

10

The rate-of-deformation tensor is then:

v (v)T

v v

r

r

v v

r

r

0

v

z

0

v

0

0

0

rz

0

0

v

z

0

v

z

0

rz

r

H

r

R

R

R

R

H

11

The strain also depends on radial position:

r

rt

(0, t ) (t )dt dt

H

H

0

0

t

viscosity can be calculated from:

21 z

r R

R

0

R

H

21 21 r R

0

R

12

The strain also depends on radial position:

rr 0

0

0

z

z

zz rz

does not vary with , then:

z (r , z )

0

z

z C (r )

Unknown function

evaluate viscosity at each position.

13

Although it is possible to measure stress, it is easier to measure the total

torque required to turn the upper disk

T (stress)(lever_arm)dA

A

R

T ( z

0

zH

)(r )(2rdr )

21 z (r )

(r )

0

(r )

Rewritting in terms of viscosity, then:

R

T 2 r 2 dr

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

14

Now we need an expression of viscosity in terms of torque:

First, lets change variable from r to shear rate

2R 3 R 3

T

d

R 0

Now to eliminate the integral, we differentiate both sides by the shear

rate at the rim and using Leibnitz rule:

d

dR

3

3

2R 3 R ( )d (R )R

0 R

15

Rearranging:

(R )

2R 3 d ln(T / 2R )

R

d ln R

data at a variety of rim shear rates (rotational speeds) must be taken

torque must be differentiated

A correction must be applied to each data pair

Warning Since the strain varies with radius, not all material elements

experience the same strain. The torque however, is a quantity measured from

contributions at all r. For materials that are strain sensitive this gives results

that represent a blurring of the material properties exhibited at each radius.

16

17

It is also popular for SAOS where the results are:

for parallel disk apparatus

2 HT0 sin

( )

R 4 0

2 HT0 cos

( )

R 4 0

18

Eliminates the radial dependence of shear rate (and strain).

Homogeneous flows produced only in the limit of small angles.

The velocity is:

0

v 0

v

r

Assuming that single shearflow takes place in the

-direction with gradient in the (-r)-direction):

Thus,

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

v C1 (r ) C2

19

The boundary conditions:

/2

v r / 2 0

v 0

Applying BCs:

v

0 2

v

r

r r

0

0

sin v

sin

v

r r

0 0

sin v

0 0

r sin

0

0

r

r

0 rz

20

Since is close to /2, sin ~1 and:

Thus,

sin v

r sin

1 v

r

0

0

The strain is then:

t

dt

0

0

0

(0, t ) (t )dt

0

21

The viscosity is thus:

1 v

r ( ) 0

21

21

T (stress)(lever_arm)dA

A

2 R

(

0 0

)(r )(rdd r )

the flow domain, the viscosity and

shear stress are constant, too.

22

2 3

T R

3

3T0

21

0

2R 3

In the limit of small angle, the cone-and-plate geometry produces

constant shear rate, constant shear stress and homogeneous strain

throughout the sample.

The uniformity of the flow is also an advantage with structure forming

materials, such as liquid crystals, incompatible blends, and suspensions

that are strain or rate sensitive.

Also, the first normal stress difference can be calculated from

measurement of the axial thrust on the cone.

23

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

The total thrust on the upper plate:

2

F 2

0

First Normal-stress

coefficient in cone-and-plate

2

rdr R Patm

2 F 0

1 2 2

R

2

0Re it

SAOS for cone-and-plate

3 0T0 sin

2R 3 0

3 0T0 cos

2R 3 0

24

Couette (Cup-and-Bob)

The velocity field is:

0

v v

0

rz

The velocity:

k(r R)

v

k 1

Shear rate:

k

k 1

21 r

v

k

r

k 1

21 r

0

25

Couette (Cup-and-Bob)

Torque:

T (stress)(lever_arm)(area)

T ( r

r kR

)(kR)(2kRL)

(bob turning):

T (k 1)

2R 2 Lk 3

Advantages:

Large contact area boosts the torque signal.

Disadvantages:

Limited to modest rotational speeds due to instabilities due to inertia or

elasticity.

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

26

Scientific)

Bohlin

Paar Physica

Haake (now part of Thermo Fisher)

Reologica

27

The toppings

rotational rheometers. These provide additional

tests or independent measurements of data on the

structure of fluids.

Magnetorheological cells

Electrorheological cells

Optical Attachments

UV- and Photo- Curing accessories

Dielectric Analysis

28

Capillary Flow

The flow is unidirectional in which cylindrical surfaces slide past each other.

Near the walls, except in the -direction, this flow is simple shear flow.

The velocity is:

0 x2

v 0

0

123

Assuming cylindrical coordinates:

21 rz

r R

v z

v z

0

r

r

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

29

Capillary Flow

The rate-of-deformation tensor is then:

v (v)T

0

v z

r

0

0

0

v z

r

0

0

rz

vz

r

Thus,

vz r r R

( R )

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

v z

r

R

rR

30

Capillary Flow

The viscosity for capillary flow is then:

rz r R

rz r R

21

v

0

R

z

r r R

Now expressions for both the shear rate and stress in terms of

experimental variables must be obtained.

thus, the continuity equation gives:

vz

v

0

z

31

Capillary Flow

The equations of motion:

0 P -

P P gz

Assumption:

stresses and pressure are independent of -direction

the flow field does not vary with z (fully developed flow)

capillary is long, such that end effects are diminished

stress tensor is symmetric

Thus, the -component of the equation of motion gives:

1 2

r r 0

2

r r

32

Solving:

C1

2

r

Using the mathematical boundary condition that the stress is finite at the

center (r=0). Thus, it equals zero.

The z-component:

P (r , z ) 1

r rz (r )

z

r r

The r-component:

P 1

(r rr )

r r r

r

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

33

Using the r-component and expressing it in terms of the normal stress

coefficients:

P rr rr

r

r

r

r

P N 2 N 2

r

r

r

r

Less is known about t. Thus, it seems reasonable to assume that this

stress will be small or zero in a flow with assumed -symmetry.

Thus, the condition that both must be zero should be met easily by most

materials.

P

0

r

34

Rearranging the z-component

P ( z ) 1

r rz (r )

z

r r

P0 PL r C1

rz

L 2 r

Solving:

center, the integration constant must be

zero.

Shear stress in

capillary flow

r

P0 PL

rz

r R

R

2L

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

35

For Newtonian fluid, calculate the expression for the velocity directly:

2

2Q

r

vz (r ) 2 1

R R

dvz 4Q r

3

dr R R

4Q

R 3

R

21 R

0

R

( P0 PL ) R R 3

2L

4Q

4Q

1 ( P0 PL ) R

a

3

R

2L

1

a R

36

However, it was observed that Q can be related to pressure drop.

Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch expression:

R

Q 2 v z (r )rdr

0

Integrating by parts:

R

Q r 2 dr

0

r

rz R

R

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

3 R

R

2

Q 3 rz d rz

R 0

37

4Q

4 R

2

a

rz

rz d rz

3

3

R

R 0

Differentiate with respect to tR and apply Leibnitz rule

R

a R 3 4 ( rz ) rz 2 d rz

0

R

d

3

(a R ) 4

( rz ) rz 2 d rz 4 ( R ) R 2

d R

R

0

Rearranging:

1

d ln a

( R ) R a 3

d ln R

4

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch correction

38

4 R

(R )

a

d ln a

3

d ln R

shear rate and measurements of pressure drop to obtain stress, and

the geometric constants R and L.

39

Capillary Flow

Advantages:

1.

Simple experimentally and equipment set-up

2.

Inexpensive

3.

Higher shear rates

Disadvantages:

1.

May need multiple corrections:

End effects

Wall slip

Temperature

2.

No good temperature control

40

41

42

Extensional Rheometers

Usually home-made rheometers

Common for solids, not for fluids

43

viscous non-Newtonian fluids

end-plates. The plates are then moved apart in a prescribed manner

such that the fluid sample is subjected to a strong extensional

deformation.

44

homogeneous uniaxial elongation.

the molecular conformation (measured optically) can be followed

as functions of the rate of stretching and the total strain imposed.

unraveling flexible macromolecules or orienting rigid molecules.

eventually be fully extended and aligned.

Fluid Mechanics, 34 375-415 (2002)

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

45

Instrument Design

plates, and the electronic control system

imposes a predetermined velocity profile

on one or both of the end plates.

The principal time-resolved

measurements required are the force F(t)

on one of the end plates and the filament

diameter at the mid-plane.

The geometric dimensions and motor

capacity of the motion-control system

determine the range of experimental

parameters accessible in a given device.

46

Operating Space

the maximum velocity, Vmax,

bound the operating space.

An ideal uniaxial extensional flow

is represented as a straight line on

this diagram, with the slope equal

to the imposed strain rate.

by either the total travel available

to the motor plates or by the

maximum velocity the motors can

sustain.

A characteristic value is the critical

strain rate E* = Vmax/Lmax, where

both limits are simultaneously

achieved.

Operating Space

The operation space accessible for a given fluid may be constrained by

instabilities associated with gravitational sagging, capillarity or elasticity.

The instabilities can arise from either the interfacial tension of the fluid or

the intrinsic elasticity of the fluid column.

48

Flow

The diameter of the filament is axially uniform as desired for homogeneous

elongation.

However, the no-slip condition at the endplates does cause a deviation from

uniformity.

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

Thus,

the diameter is usually measured at the middle of the filament.

49

Flow

uniform as desired for homogeneous

elongation.

endplates does cause a deviation

from uniformity.

Thus, the diameter is usually

measured at the middle of the

filament.

50

The time-dependent total force needed to deform the sample can be

measured by a load cell and related to the total stress as:

f (t )

zz Patm

A(t )

where, f(t) is the magnitude of the tensile force

A(t) is the changing cross-sectional area

f (t )

zz rr zz rr

A(t )

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

51

If the flow is homogeneous from start-up of steady elongation:

A(t ) A0 e

0t

from a measurement of f(t) alone.

0t

f

(

t

)

e

A0 0

f e 0t

A00

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

52

It is usually difficult to measure the length, thus the diameter at mid

section is measure. However, these are not directly

proportionally.

l (t ) D0

l0

D(t )

p (t )

Lubrication theory (at short times) -> p(t) = 4/3

Experimentally a two-step procedure:

and the mid filament diameter is measured.

A calibration curve of Hencky strain based on length vs Hencky strain

based on mid-filament diameter is produced.

The curve is then used in a second experiment to program the plate

separation that will result in exponentially decreasing diameter.

53

L ln(l / l0 )

D 2 ln( Dmid / D0 )

Dr. Aldo

Acevedo

ERC SOPS

Anna,

etal

An- interlaboratory

comparison of measurements from filament-stretching

rheometers using common test fluids, Journal of Rheology 45(1) 83-114 (2001)

54

55

Elongational Viscosity

The unsteady extensional viscosity is obtained from:

(0 )

( 33 11 ) ( zz rr )

0

0

Where the strain rate is obtained by fitting to the raw diameter data.

The Trouton ratio (or dimensionless extensional viscosity) is:

(0 )

Tr

0

The Trouton viscosity is defined

as 3 times the z-s ss viscosity

Dr. Aldo Acevedo - ERC SOPS

56

Elongational Viscosity

Representative result

57

Advantages:

The sample starts from a well defined initial rest state.

Except near the ends, the strain of each material element

is the same.

Disadvantages

The deformation near the ends is not homogeneous

uniaxial extension.

At short times there is an induction period during which

a secondary flow occurs near the plates due to

gravitational and surface tension forces.

Elongational rates calculated based on length differ from

those calculated on radius.

58

Filament Evolution

The general evolution in the experiment typically exhibit three characteristic

regimes:

A. Filament elongation

the radius decreases exponentially

At short times (early strains) there is a solvent-dominated peak

in the force followed by a steady decline due to the exponential

decrease in the cross-sectional area.

Intermediate times (or strains) the force begins to increase

again owing to the strain hardening in the tensile stress. Since

the area decreases, an increase in the force indicates that the

stress is increasing faster that the exponential of the strain.

At very large strains, a second maximm in the force may be

observved after th eextensional stresses saturate and the

extensional viscosity of the fluid recahes steady-state.

59

Filament Evolution

The general evolution in the experiment typically exhibit three characteristic

regimes:

B. Stress relaxation

The radius remains almost constant.

This region is typically short, lasting only one or two fluid

relaxation times.

As elastic stresses decay, pressure and gravity stresses

dominate and filament breakup ensues

C. Filament break-up

The force decays and the radius decreases in similar manner

60

Haake CaBER I

Uses a high precision laser micrometer to accurately track the filament

diameter as it thins. Aside from its resolution (around 10m) the

micrometer is also immune to large ambient light fluctuations and can

resolve small filaments easily (a different issue from the resolution).

The plate motion is controlled by a linear drive motor. The fastest stretch

time is of the order of 20 ms (depending on stretch distance) and the

motor has a positional resolution of 20 m.

61

62

References

University Press (2001)

Malkin, A.Y. & A.I. Isayev, Rheology: Concepts,

Methods & Applications, ChemTec Publishing, Toronto

(2006)

63

- Rheology of Tapioca StarchUploaded byVeronaEreza
- cal Dairy Chemistry.manualUploaded bykrish_any
- Rheology Measurements in Fundamental UnitsUploaded byhddhermit
- Fann 04-0158-00.pdfUploaded byDaniel
- Comprehensive Material CharacterizationUploaded byNETZSCH - Leading Thermal Analysis
- Mew IsUploaded bysiamak1438
- AkzoNobel Paint Eng Tcm54-18194Uploaded bya2009s
- rheometryUploaded byVeeru Hiremath
- Extrusion instabilities and wall slipUploaded byac.diogo487
- Mortar composition defined according to rheometer and flow table tests using factorial designed experimentsUploaded byWaqas Mehmood Baig
- D4603.1207332-1Uploaded byDiana
- 01 Vogelsanger Stanag 4178 Ed 2 the New Nato Standard for Nitrocellulose TestingUploaded bysomta2
- Lab Manual for Drilling FluidUploaded byLemony Snickit
- Cement Viscosity TestUploaded byjuli_rad
- A New Tool for Measuring Elongational Viscosity P. Hodder and a. FranckUploaded byJatinder Dhaliwal
- Intro to Drilling Fluids NewUploaded bySaul Pimentel
- A364_P6_6thP_250810Uploaded byJoeli Halim
- ViscosityUploaded byaliosarus
- Introduction logyUploaded byShahidur Rahman
- Thermoplastic Vulcanizates Based on Epoxidized NaturalUploaded byChanin Ngudsuntear
- bsen 3310 lab reportUploaded byapi-271759053
- DV1™ ViscometerUploaded bynano
- Viscosity Exp updated.docx1111.docxUploaded byIbrahim
- Viscosidade em suspensões aquaosasUploaded byRicardo Mendes
- liu00b_3Uploaded bysss200
- 20_44582Uploaded byDaniel Montalvo
- Engineering_Chemistry_Lab_Manual.pdfUploaded bymayukriju
- Description of the process.docxUploaded byAshley Abbey Torres
- K1500x950Uploaded bychannajayamangala
- Piped servicesUploaded bynishanthaindika

- 22KeyPointsAboutThe22ndEdition.pdfUploaded bytalhawasim
- Cooling Tower RamUploaded byramyasu
- Vegetable Oil_IP.pdfUploaded bySoeAung
- Plate and Frame Heat ExchangersUploaded byAndrés Ramón Linares
- for-deodorization-and-physical-refining-of-fats-and-oils.pdfUploaded bytalhawasim
- WEB Soybean OilUploaded bytalhawasim
- Oil and Vegetable Fats Industry in Pakistan Islam KhanUploaded bytalhawasim
- General_Tyre_Annual_Report_2014.pdfUploaded bytalhawasim
- Deodorization SolutionsUploaded byWahani
- lec5Uploaded bySourav Maan
- Natural Oils and FatsUploaded bytalhawasim
- Cooling Tower Efficiency CalculationsUploaded byGenta Arias
- American Heart Association Backs Current BP TreatmentsUploaded bytalhawasim
- Target and Kaizen CostingUploaded bytalhawasim
- Implications of New Government for Energy Sector UKUploaded bytalhawasim
- Energy Audit assignment final.docxUploaded byHarneet Tyal
- Sustainable Manufacturing DavimUploaded bytalhawasim
- Andrew LoganUploaded byHimanshu Sharma
- Installing and Managing Primavera P6 DataBasesUploaded byhilal.itani8993
- Dynamic Simulation of Compressor Control SystemsUploaded byMauricio Huerta Jara
- Canola Oil Physical Chemical Properties 1Uploaded byelpancasero
- VEGOIL USE OF STEAM.pdfUploaded byRichard Obinna
- Pakistan Affairs Solved MCQS - A Complete PackageUploaded byAzhar Ali
- Silver Conductive Ink 45661Uploaded bytalhawasim
- Coatings_TechnicalSheetUploaded bytalhawasim
- PreQulNote_TC.pdfUploaded bytalhawasim
- Polymer GuideUploaded bytalhawasim

- 00057959.pdfUploaded byMohammadreza Malaieri
- Relationship Between the Glass Transition Temperature and the Melt Flow Behavior for Gluten, Casein and SoyaUploaded byMuhammad Subchi Wira Putratama
- AP Instruments RheolabQCUploaded byAndrés Márquez
- Rheocalc ManualUploaded byjeremias
- AP-T166-10Uploaded byLa Ode M Nurrakhmad
- Indian HighwaysUploaded byharnishtanna21285
- PlasticsBrochure WB1280 lUploaded byMohamed Lansari
- The rheology of dilute solutions of flexible polymersUploaded byGiorgos Papadopoulos
- Anton paar manualUploaded byAli Ayoub
- PouliquenUploaded byglhunter
- Artículo 4.pdfUploaded byLucho Romero
- Drilling Fluids Testing 2016-17Uploaded byTyo Deka
- (Huang & Huhe, 2009) A Laboratory Study of Rheological Properties of Mudflows in Hangzhou Bay, ChinaUploaded byNeemias Almeida
- Chapter 8Uploaded bySultan_Mehmood_7287
- v4i605 Agricultural Engineering(1).pdfUploaded byghost2011
- RheologyUploaded byb4rf
- Bbr Asphalt Binder Test MethodsUploaded byJessica Noemi Solana
- Influence of Some Bulk Sweeteners on Rheological Properties of ChocolateUploaded byAhmet Sökmen
- Improving Polymer Blend Dispersions in Mini-MixersUploaded byesteban_jaramillo_12
- AASHTO M320-16.pdfUploaded byJose Lizarraga
- iaurt_1.pdfUploaded bydumitrucorina95
- An Introduction to SuperPaveUploaded byalfaza3
- THE EFFECT OF WATER CONTENT ON DOUGH RHEOLOGY.pdfUploaded byMădălina Ștefan
- Trans JourUploaded byKhushal Bhanderi
- ViscosityUploaded byRohit Rauniyar
- 16 Marsh FunnelUploaded bychandan Guria
- Amir Golalipour-Master ThesisUploaded byagolalipour
- Rheological Requirements for Printable ConcretesUploaded byyinglv
- Super PaveUploaded byIrfan Si
- Rheo HPC LarrardUploaded byRamesh Babu