Italy, NATO and the Riga Summit

Giovanni Brauzzi

University of Edinburgh Transatlantic Seminar 29 September 2006

In brief...
 Italian Foreign Policy in a nutshell  The role of NATO in a changed world  Expectations for the Riga Summit

GB Edinburgh 29.9.2006

Italy - Facts and Figures
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Area: 301,336 sq km Land boundaries: 1,932 km Coastline: 7,600 km Population (2005): 58.462.375 Population Growth Rate : 1,1%
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birth rate: -18,396 immigration rate: +181,080

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Life Expectancy at Birth: 79,25 years GDP – Composition by Sector:  agriculture 2%  industry 30%  services 68%

The compass of Italian foreign policy
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North, towards Europe; South, towards the Mediterranean, the Middle East and Africa; East, towards the Balkans and Russia; West, towards America and globalisation.

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THE NATIONAL INTEREST
Few commodities and energy sources  Aging and shrinking population  We cannot keep our gates closed  Cultural and institutional pluralism  Universal vision  Lessons learnt from the past Thus:  Neither able, nor willing to act alone  The only way is to pursue the national interest through multilateral fora

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THE CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
Art. 11 of Italian Constitution: Italy rejects war as an instrument of aggression against the liberties of other people and as a means for settling international controversies; it agrees, on conditions of equality with other States, to such limitations of sovereignty as may be necessary for an international order aimed at ensuring peace and justice among Nations; it promotes and encourages international organizations having such ends in view.
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The limitation of sovereignty which is, for every country, the price of the participation in an integrated international system, becomes less onerous the more a country is able to contribute genuinely to the definition of the policies of international fora
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 We the peoples of the United Nations,

determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war…. ….determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisations of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual freedom and the rule of law….  …an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe……
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National Interest in International Fora

Italian priorities
 Being part of the

leading group in the European integration process

 Strengthening transatlantic relations  Avoiding marginalisation at the UN
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Defining moments in the participation of Italy to NATO
1956 Three Wise Men Report 1979 Double Track Decision 1988 Redeployment of 401st 1990 AMF (A) to Turkey 1991 Rome Summit 1994 NATO Med Dialogue

Air Wing

1999 Kossovo  2002 NATO-Russia Council  2005 Afghanistan

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The role of NATO in a changing world

A Russian ship under NATO flag in the Mediterranean Sea

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The role of NATO in a changing world
From static defence to pro-active security Keep the threats as distant as possible from national borders

A new, more interactive version of the two track approach

'The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing'
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NATO and 9/11
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Immediate reaction Art. 5 AWACS in the USA Maritime surveillance in the Mediterranean Awaiting US requests

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Afghanistan 2001
 “Enduring Freedom”.  Each Ally on its own.  “Don’t call us, we will call you”.  Tampa instead of

Shape.

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Reykjavik, May 2002

“To carry out the full range of its missions, NATO must be able to …to field forces, wherever they field forces that can move quickly to are needed wherever they are needed, sustain operations over distance and time, and achieve their objectives”.  Non c’è più “out of area” !!!

The “out of area” debate is over
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Prague Summit, November 2002
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New members. New capabilities. New partners. Deep transformation of the military tools. And Iraq ?

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Iraq
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Role and limits of prehemption Worst than with De Gaulle Old and New Europe The unsuccessful attempts of George Robertson

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Istanbul Summit, June 2004
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Improvement of the transatlantic climate Priority to Afghanistan Training in Iraq Opening towards the Greater Middle East Handover in Bosnia from NATO to EU

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Complex challenges of international security Illegal immigration WMD’s Proliferation

Terrorism Failed, rogue states

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THE ARC OF CRISIS
Middle East Black Sea Mediterranean Western Balkans Caucasus Central Asia AFGHANISTAN

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Strengthening the transatlantic link
From Cold War to new threats

New approach Enduring commitment

Coalitions of the willing are not enough Global NATO ?

From the Balkans to Afghanistan: the arc of crisis
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It is better to relaunch NATO’s Political Dimension

A LITMUS TEST FOR NATO

Italian expectations for Riga and beyond
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Further transformation to cope with new security challenges NATO enlargement within an Euro-Atlantic perspective Western Balkans and Mediterranean remain key areas An expanded network of partnerships NATO should not become a “global cop” NATO operations for “effective multilateralism” Enduring centrality of the transatlantic link.

Beyond Riga: 5 Scenarios
 Old Boys’ Lounge;  Strong Toolbox;  Dispersed Toolbox;  Return to

ESDI;

 Shared Partnership.

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ADDRESS BY GENERAL DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, SUPREME ALLIED COMMANDER, EUROPE, AT THE ENGLISH SPEAKING UNION DINNER, LONDON, 3 JULY 1951

We the people of the British Commonwealth and of the United States have profited by unity at home. If, with our moral and material assistance, the free European nations could attain a similar integration, our friends could be strengthened, our own economies improved and the laborious NATO machinery of mutual defense vastly simplified. A solid, healthy, confident Europe would be the greatest possible boon to the functioning of the Atlantic Pact.
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President John F. Kennedy, Philadelphia, July 4, 1962

We do not regard a strong and united Europe as a rival but as a partner…. I will say here and now, on this Day of Independence, that the United States will be ready for a Declaration of Interdependence, that we will be prepared to discuss with a united Europe the ways and means of forming a concrete Atlantic partnership, a mutually beneficial partnership.
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To sum it up ...

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NATO is successful when its political strategy combines in an effective way the diplomatic actions and the military tools. NATO is successful when Americans and Europeans acknowledge that they have common values and interests. We do not need less America, we need more Europe. The transatlantic link should be strenghtened, increasing European responsibilities.
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