2 Approaches
• Scientific Reductionism: Genetic Engineering • The bigger picture: Agroecology

• • • • Climate change Rising costs of energy Pesticide use reduction Biodiversity conservation



• Technological Paradigm:
– Model and a pattern of solution of selected technological problems. Determines the field of enquiry, the problems, the procedures and the tasks

• Technological Trajectories:
– Pattern of problem solving activity on the ground of a technological Paradigm.

• Genetic Engineering:
– Technology: Transgenesis, DNA technique

• Agroecological Engineering:
– Application of ecological science to the study, design and management of sustainable agro- ecosystems.

Genetic engineering and agroecological engineering are two different technological paradigms
Technological Paradigms Basic definition Genetic engineering Deliberate modification of the characters of an organism by the manipulation of its genetic material. Agroecological engineering Application of the ecological science to the study, design and management of sustainable agroecosystems.

Implicit objective

Engineering plants: Modify plants Engineering systems: Improve to our best interests by making the agricultural system structure them productive in any adverse and making every part of the conditions or by designing them to structure work well. Rely on fit new objectives. ecological interactions and synergisms for soil fertility, productivity and crop protection. Reductionism Ecology and holism

Scientific paradigm underlying the technological Paradigm

Examples of sub- trajectories Bt insect resistant plants, herbicide Biological control, cultivar mixtures, progressing along the technological tolerant plants, virus-resistant agro- forestry, habitat management Paradigm plants, etc. techniques, etc.

Agriculture Research Systems (ARS) and System of Innovation (SI) approach
 Analyze the determinants of innovation that influence the choice technological paradigms and development of technological trajectories.

Scientific Journals

Private Sector Research Science and agricultural research policy

Agricultural Policy

Global Markets

Funding Agencies

Public Sector Research Intellectual Property Rights Regimes

Economic & Fiscal Policies

Lobbies (Private, Envi. Groups, etc.)


Environment al Regulations

Agricultural Research System Innovation (SI)


Systems of

Sources of Research
 Interviews with scientists  Participation observation of public forums on agriculture, Science and Innovation  An analysis of key policy documents such as white papers  A wide multidisciplinary literature review


1) Agricultural Science Policy

Sub- categories
Research orientations

Determinants of Innovation
Focus on growth, competitiveness, and biotechnologies

Relationships between Public private partnerships public and private sectors Division of labor Influence of lobbies 2) Private Sector 3) Public Sector Research orientations Organization within research systems Imbalance in the power of lobbies Focus on biotechnologies and importance of patents Vision of complexity and framing of agricultural research Specialization vs. interdisciplinary ‘Publish or Perish’ Technology transfer mission: patents, spin offs, and extension Cultural and cognitive Assumptions on current and future agricultural routines (values and systems world views of scientists) Assumptions on past agricultural systems Assumptions on the ethical value of nature and food Assumptions on nature of innovations (biotech and agroecol) Historical influences Path dependence in agricultural research


Current scenario
 Both paradigms “make sense and make science”  Agroecological engineering is not fully developed  Transition from one paradigm to another incurs a lot of costs  The underdevelopment of agroecological engineering is bad for possible future complementarities  Climate change and rising cost of energy are examples of tensions that create windows of opportunity for agroecological engineering

 W.r.t Socio economic development , agroecologists challenge economic globalization, agricultural trade liberalization.  They promote agro- food chains, consumer farmer relationships, product networks  Agroecological engineering needs institutional innovation: Farmer Entrepreneurs

TRIPLE HELIX of developing MODEL (From the perspective

Emerged from the needs of the universities to work closely together with the industry (i.e. Double Helix) to improve knowledge spillovers and to maintain sustainable development. Moreover it is important for the government to support this synergy as it plays the role of the policy maker

• The model has 3 actors:
– Institutions: centre of excellence with its academic based research and developmental activities – Industry: provider of customer demand based on its commercial activities as well as R & D – Government : Policy maker

A cluster is a geographically proximate group of interconnected companies and association institution in particular field, linked by communalities and complementarities Cluster encompass an array of linked industries and other entities important to competition which include suppliers of specialized inputs such as components, machinery, and services as well as providers of specialized infrastructure. Additionally, many clusters include governmental and other institutions (e.g., universities, think tanks, vocational training providers, standardssetting agencies, trade association) to facilitate specialized training, education, information, research, and technical support.

• • • • • 05/P10Summary.pdf s/TIP_Innovation_Metrics_E.pdf

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