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Communication

Management and Processes

Communication and
Management
Topics Covered

The Importance of Good Communication


The Communication Process
The Role of Perception in Communication
The Dangers of Ineffective Communication
Information Richness and Communication Media
Face-to-Face Communication
Spoken Communication Electronically Communicated
Personally Addressed Written Communication

Communication and
Management
Topics Covered (contd)
Impersonal Written Communication

Communication Networks
Communication Networks in Groups and Teams
Organizational Communication Networks
External Networks

Technological Advances in Communication


The Internet
Intranets
Groupware

Communication and
Management
Topics Covered
Communication Skills for Managers
Communication Skills for Managers as Senders
Communication Skills for Managers as
Receivers
Understanding Linguistic Styles

Communication
Communication - the evoking of a shared or common
meaning in another person
Interpersonal Communication - communication
between two or more people in an organization
Communicator - the person originating the message
Receiver - the person receiving a message
Perceptual Screen - a window through which we
interact with people that influences the quality,
accuracy, and clarity of the communication

Communication
Message - the thoughts and feelings that the
communicator is attempting to elicit in the
receiver
Feedback Loop - the pathway that
completes two-way communication
Language - the words, their pronunciation,
and the methods of combining them used &
understood by a group of people

Communication
Data - uninterpreted and unanalyzed facts
Information - data that have been interpreted,
analyzed, & and have meaning to some user
Richness - the ability of a medium or channel
to elicit or evoke meaning in the receiver

Communication and
Management
Communication - Definition
The sharing of information between two or
more individuals or groups to reach a common
understanding.

Importance of Good Communication


Increased efficiency in new technologies and
skills
Learning, Implementing, Training
Expands workers skills

Communication and
Management
Importance of Good Communication
Improved quality of products and services
Meaning and importance of quality
How to attain quality
Subordinates communicate problems and
solutions for increasing quality to superiors

Communication and
Management
Importance of Good Communication
Increased responsiveness to customers
Empowered workers lower response time to satisfy
customer wants and needs

Communication and
Management
Importance of Good Communication
More innovation through communication
Cross-functional teams communicating effectively
produce higher quality products more efficiently

The Communication Process


Phases of the Communication Process:
Transmission phase in which information is
shared by two or more people.
Feedback phase in which a common
understanding is assured.

The Communication Process


Phases of the Communication Process:
Transmission phase in which information is shared by
two or more people.

The process starts with a sender (an individual or


group) who wants to share information.
Senders must decide what information to share and puts
the message into symbols or language (encoding).
Noise: anything harming the communication process

Once encoded the message is sent through a medium to


a receiver

The Communication Process


Phases of the Communication Process:
The receiver interprets or decodes the
message

The Communication Process


Phases of the Communication Process:
Feedback phase in which a common
understanding is assured.
The receiver decides what the message means
and communicates it back to the sender.
The original sender decodes the message and
makes sure that a common understanding has
been reached.

The Communication Process

The Communication Process


(contd)
Messages are transmitted over a medium to a
receiver.
Medium: the pathway over which the message is
transmitted (e.g., telephone, written note, email).
Receiver: the person getting the message.
The receiver decodes (interprets) the message, allowing the
receiver to understand the message.
This is a critical point: failure to properly decode the message
can lead to a misunderstanding.

Feedback by receiver informs the sender that the


message is understood or that it must be re-sent.

Communication Issues
Verbal Communication
The encoding of messages into words, either
written or spoken

Nonverbal
The encoding of messages by means of facial
expressions, body language, and styles of dress.

The Role of Perception in


Communication
Senders and receivers communicate based
on their subjective perceptions.
Subjective perception can lead to biases and
stereotypes that can interfere with effective
communication.
Effective managers avoid communications
based on biases and stereotypes.

The Role of Perception in


Communication
Communication relates to senders and receivers
personality, perceptions, and motivations.
Example: A recently promoted manager communicates
with a rival for the same promotion. The rival feels that
the assignment is beneath them and was given as a
power play by the newly promoted manager.
The newly promoted manager feels that the rival is the
only one capable of carrying out the project.

The Role of Perception in


Communication
What is sent
Motivation

Perception

What is sent
Communication
method/media

Motivation

Perception

The Dangers of Ineffective


Communication
Managers and their subordinates can become
effective communicators by:
Selecting an appropriate medium for each message
there is no one best medium.
Considering information richness (the amount of
information a medium can carry).
A medium with high richness can carry much more
information to aid understanding.

Is there a need for a paper path or electronic trail to


provide documentation of the communication?

Information Richness of Communication


Media

Communication Media
Face-to-Face
Has highest information richness.
Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals.
Provides for instant feedback.
Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with
informal talks to workers.
Video conferences provide
much of this richness and
reduce travel costs and
meeting times.

Communication Media (contd)


Spoken Communication Electronically
Transmitted
Has the second highest information richness.
Telephone conversations are information rich with
tone of voice, senders emphasis, and quick
feedback, but provide no visual nonverbal cues.

Communication Media (contd)


Personally Addressed Written Communication
Has a lower richness than the verbal forms of
communication, but still is directed at a given person.
Personal addressing helps ensure receiver actually reads the
messagepersonal letters and e-mail are common forms.
Does not provide instant feedback to the sender although
sender may get feedback later.
Excellent media for complex messages requesting follow-up
actions by receiver.

E-Mail Dos and Donts


E-mail allows telecommuting employees to work
from home and keep in contact.
The use of e-mail is growing rapidly and e-mail
etiquette is expected:
Typing messages in all CAPITALS is seen as
screaming at the receiver.
Punctuate your messages for easy reading and dont
ramble on.
Pay attention to spelling and treat the message like a
written letter.

Communication Media (contd)


Impersonal Written Communication
Has the lowest information richness.
Good for messages to many receivers where little or
feedback is expected (e.g., newsletters, reports)

Ten Commandments of Email


Dont use your inbox as a catcall for everything
you need to work on. Read items once, answer
them immediately, delete them if possible or move
them to another folder.
Set up a five weeks folder that deletes
automatically.
Use common acronyms to identify important items
Send group mail only when it is important to all
recipients

Ten Commandments of Email


Ask to be removed from distribution lists you do
not need to be on.
To cut down on pile up, use out of office
Send messages that use only the subject line using
EOM to signify end of message
Use graphics sparingly
Attachments over 5mb to groups are better put on
company website
Specify important parts of the attachment Pg 17
and 20

Communication Networks
Communication Networks
The pathways along which information flows in
groups and teams and throughout the
organization.
Choice of communication network depends on:
The nature of the groups tasks
The extent to which group members need to
communicate with each other to achieve group
goals.

Communication Networks
Communication Networks

Pathways
Vertical
Manager to upper level managers
Manager to subordinates (direct reports)

Lateral
Manager to other managers

Communication Networks in
Groups and Teams
Type of Network
Wheel Network

Information flows to and from one central


member.

Chain Network

Members communicate only with the people next


to them in the sequence.

Wheel and chain networks provide little interaction.


Circle Network

Members communicate with others close to them


in terms of expertise, experience, and location.

All-Channel
Network

Networks found in teams with high levels of


communications between each member and all
others.

Communic
ation
Networks
in Groups
and Teams

Figure 15.3

Organization Communication
Networks
Organization Chart
A pictorial representation of formal reporting channels
in an organization.
Communication in an organization flows through formal and
informal pathways
Vertical communications flow up and down the corporate
hierarchy.
Horizontal communications flow between employees of the
same level.
Informal communications can span levels and departments
the grapevine is an informal network carrying unofficial
information throughout the firm.

Formal and Informal Communication


Networks in An Organization

Figure 0.4

Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal Communication - all elements of
communication that do not involve words
Four basic types
Proxemics - an individuals perception & use of space
Kinesics - study of body movements, including posture
Facial & Eye Behavior - movements that add cues for the
receiver
Paralanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch,
loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying

Proxemics: Territorial Space


Territorial Space - bands of space extending
outward from the body; territorial space differs
from culture to culture
a = intimate <1.5
b = personal 1.5-4
c = social 4-12
d = public >12

a
b
c

Proxemics: Seating Dynamics


Seating Dynamics - seating people in certain
positions according to the persons purpose in
communication

X O
Cooperation

X
O Communication

O X O

Competition

NonCommunication

Examples of
Decoding Nonverbal Cues
Hes
unapproachable!

Boss fails to acknowledge


employees greeting
I wonder what
hes hiding?
No eye contact
while
communicating

Hes angry! Ill


stay out of
his way!

Boss breathes
heavily &
waves arms
My opinion
doesnt count

Manager sighs deeply

New Technologies
for Communication

Informational databases
Electronic mail systems
Voice mail systems
Fax machine systems
Cellular phone systems

Technological Advances in
Communication
Internet
Global system of computer networks used by many
firms use it to communicate with their suppliers.

World Wide Web (WWW)


Provides multimedia access to the Internet.

Intranets
A company-wide system of computer networks for
information sharing by employees inside the firm.

Technological Advances in
Communication
Groupware
Computer software that enables members of
groups and teams to share information with
each other and improve communication.
Best used to support team-oriented working
environments.

How Do New Technologies


Affect Behavior?
Fast, immediate access to information
Immediate access to people in power
Instant information exchange across
distance
Makes schedules & office hours irrelevant
May equalize group power
May equalize group participation

How Do New Technologies


Affect Behavior?
Communication can become more impersonal-interaction with a machine
Interpersonal skills may diminish--less tact, less
graciousness
Non-verbal cues lacking
Alters social context
Easy to become overwhelmed with information
Encourages polyphasic activity

Communication Skills for


Managers
Barriers to Effective Communication
Perceptual and attribution biases
Conflicting assumptions
Inadequate information
Semantics
Emotional Blocks
Nonverbal communication barriers
Cultural barriers
Inadequate communication media
Technological barriers

Communication Skills for


Managers
Barriers to Effective Communication
Perceptual and attribution biases
Experience is different and causes wrong interpretation
Common experiences gives common meaning
Conflicting assumptions
Sender assumes receiver will use the same code to decode
as intended
Receiver decodes based on wrong assumptions due to
inadequate background information and creates a
misunderstanding

Communication Skills for


Managers
Barriers to Effective Communication
Codes of past experience

Facts
Knowledge
Beliefs
Attitudes
Social Roles
Values
Language
Memories

All blended with


feelings and emotions

How many of these


should overlap to
decode the message

Communication Skills for


Managers
Barriers to Effective Communication
Inadequate information
Managers do not provide enough info to decode

Communication Skills for


Managers
Barriers to Effective Communication
Semantics Word usage

You charge someone a fee for service.


You charge something you purchase to pay later.
You charge a battery.
You charge an official with duties to perform.
You charge a horse into battle.
You get a charge out of something funny.
You charge a criminal for crimes committed.
The navy uses a depth charge.

Communication Skills for


Managers
Barriers to Effective Communication

Emotional Blocks
Experiences have an emotional / feeling
component.
A concert
Wedding Day
Movie

Barriers to Communication

Communication
Barriers factors that block
or significantly
distort successful
communication

Physical separation
Status differences
Gender differences
Cultural diversity
Language

Communication Skills for Managers


Barriers to Effective Communication
Nonverbal communication barriers
Body motion gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior,
touching, and so forth
Physical characteristics body shape, physique, posture,
height,weight,hair, and skin color
Paralanguage voice quality, volume, speech rate, pitch,
nonfluencies such as yaa, ah or um, laughing.
Proxemics ways people use and perceive space
Environment building and room design, furniture,
decorations
Time being late or early, keeping others waiting, time v.
status

Communication Skills for


Managers
Barriers to Effective Communication
Cultural barriers
Language, native customs, religious customs

Inadequate communication media


Use of wrong media to convey message completely

Technological barriers
Receiver does not have the ability or technological
capability to decode message

Communication Skills for


Managers
Barriers to Effective Communication
Messages that are unclear, incomplete, difficult to
understand
Messages sent over the an inappropriate medium
Messages with no provision for feedback
Messages that are received but ignored
Messages that are misunderstood
Messages delivered through automated systems
that lack the human element

Communication Skills for Managers


Managers as Senders
Send clear and complete messages.
Encode messages in symbols the receiver
understands.
Select a medium appropriate for the message and,
importantly, one that is monitored by the receiver.
Avoid filtering (holding back information) and
distortion as the message passes through other
workers.
Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the
message.
Provide accurate information to avoid rumors.

Communication Skills For


Managers
Managers as Receivers

Pay attention to what is sent as a message.


Be a good listener: dont interrupt.
Ask questions to clarify your understanding.
Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels.
Understand linguistic styles: different people speak
differently.
Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication.
This is particularly true across cultures and managers should
expect and plan for this.

Basic Interpersonal
Communication Model
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Communicator

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Perceptual screens

Message
Context
Affect

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Receiver

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Perceptual screens

Influence message quality, accuracy, clarity


Include age, gender, values, beliefs, culture,
experiences, needs

Event
X

Reflective Listening
Reflective Listening - the skill of listening
carefully to another person and repeating back
to the speaker the heard message to correct
any inaccuracies or misunderstandings
This complex
process needs
to be divided to
be understood

What I heard you


say was we will
understand the
process better if we
break it into steps

Reflective Listening
Emphasizes receivers role
Helps the receiver & communicator
clearly & fully understand the message
sent
Useful in problem solving

Reflective Listening
Reflective listening emphasizes
the personal elements of the communication
process
the feelings communicated in the message
responding to the communicator, not leading the
communicator
the role or receiver or audience
understanding people by reducing perceptual
distortions and interpersonal barriers

Reflective Listening:
4 Levels of Verbal Response
Affirm contact
Paraphrase the expressed
Clarify the implicit

Reflect core feelings

One-way vs. Two-way Communications


One-Way
Communication - a
person sends a message
to another person and no
questions, feedback, or
interaction follow
Good for giving
simple directions
Fast but often less
accurate than 2-way
communication

Two-Way
Communication - the
communicator & receiver
interact
Good for problem
solving

Five Keys to Effective


Supervisory Communication
Expressive speaking
Empathetic listening

Persuasive leadership
Sensitivity to feelings
Informative management

Defensive Communication
Defensive Communication - communication that
can be aggressive, attacking & angry, or passive
& withdrawing
Leads to

injured feelings
communication breakdowns
alienation
retaliatory behaviors
nonproductive efforts
problem solving failures

Non-defensive Communication
Non-defensive Communication communication that is assertive, direct,
& powerful
Provides
basis for defense when attacked
restores order, balance, and effectiveness

Two Defensiveness Patterns


Subordinate Defensiveness characterized by passive,
submissive, withdrawing
behavior

Dominant Defensiveness characterized by active,


aggressive, attacking behavior

Defensive Tactics
Defensive Tactic

Speaker

Example

Power Play

Boss

Finish this report by months end or


lose your promotion.

Put-Down

Boss

A capable manager would already be


done with this report.

Labeling

Boss

You must be a slow learner. Your report


is still not done?

Raising Doubts

Boss

How can I trust you, Chris, if you cant


finish an easy report?

Defensive Tactics
Defensive Tactic

Speaker

Example

Misleading
Information

Employee

Morgan has not gone over with me


the information I need for the report.
[Morgan left Chris with a copy of the
report.]

Scapegoating

Employee

Morgan did not give me input until


just today.

Hostile Jokes

Employee

You cant be serious! The report isnt


that important.

Deception

Employee

I gave it to the secretary. Did she lose


it?

Non-defensive Communication:
A Powerful Tool
Speaker seen as centered, assertive, controlled,
informative, realistic, and honest
Speaker exhibits self-control & self possession
Listener feels accepted rather than rejected
Catherine Criers rules to nondefensive
communication
1.
2.
3.
4.

Define the situation


Clarify the persons position
Acknowledge the persons feelings
Bring the focus back to the facts

Tips for Effective Communication


Provide
social
interaction
opportunities
Is the
message
really
necessary?

Regularly
disconnect
from the
technology

Strive for
Build in
message
feedback
completeness opportunities

Provide
Dont
assume
social
immediate
interaction
opportunities
response

Communication Techniques
Effective Communication Techniques
Do this more and develop trust:

Ineffective Communication Techniques


Do this less to avoid conflict and fear:

Active listening, focus on their issues and


how you can better understand them

Interrupting them, focus on your own issues and


prerogatives

Clarifying mutual goals, objectives and


outcomes, allowing different approaches

Being vague about desired outcomes; prescribing what


others should do

Making agreements for mutual advantage;


keeping the agreements or changing them
when necessary; not breaking agreements

Demanding compliance from others; using excuses for


own failures

Releasing energy of people to perform at


Controlling energy of people to get them to do exactly
their best using all of their talents and skills in what you want them to do the way you want them to do it
the ways they think best

Communication Techniques
Effective Communication Techniques
Do this more and develop trust:

Ineffective Communication Techniques


Do this less to avoid conflict and fear:

Describing desired outcomes and


developing agreement and support

Telling people what to do and demanding compliance

Sharing as much information as possible


with everyone and let them decide if they
need it or not (except for confidential
information)

Withholding information from everyone unless there is a


need to know; determining for others whether or not
they need information

Accepting and valuing people as they are,


with all the differences they bring to the
organization

Judging people for how they should be and expecting


them to all be the same (e.g. more like you)

Person-centered, sharing of self so that


people see the humanity of all

Authority-centered, impersonal so that people only see


rank and status

Communication Techniques
Effective Communication Techniques
Do this more and develop trust:

Ineffective Communication Techniques


Do this less to avoid conflict and fear:

Attitude of problem-avoidance through


Attitude of letting things go until something goes wrong
planning; fixing problems as soon as they
then focusing on fixing the blame rather than the problem
occur and learning from them without regard
to blame
Shared planning and decision-making

Unilateral planning and decision-making

Problem-centered, focusing on what will


work best

Control-centered, focus on showing who is in charge

Communication Techniques

Effective Communication Techniques


Do this more and develop trust:

Ineffective Communication Techniques


Do this less to avoid conflict and fear:

Rewarding, recognizing, and actively


appreciating excellence

Punishing and blaming for errors, ignoring even


exemplary performance

Emphasis on responsibility and developing


individual initiative

Emphasis on accountability and assigning blame for


errors or failures

End