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RESEARCH DESIGNS

INTRODUCTION

Research design

is a plan of collecting and analyzing data

in an economic, efficient and relevant

manner.

It is a plan of organizing framework for

doing the study and collecting the

necessary data.

is the conceptual structure with in which

research is conducted.

It constitutes the blue print for

collection, measuring and analysis of data.

experiments,

interviews,

observation, and

the analysis of

records,

simulation,

or some combination of these?

questions.

The plan is the overall scheme or program

of the research.

includes an outline of what the Investigator

will do from writing hypotheses and their

operational implications to the

final

analysis of data.

research

problem

investigation

used

and

to

the

obtain

plan

of

empirical

These definitions differ in detail, but together

design.

of information relevant to the

research question.

Second, it is a framework for

specifying

the

relationships

among the study's variables.

Third, it is a blueprint for

outlining all of the procedures

from the hypotheses to the

analysis of data.

What techniques will be used to

gather data?

What kind of sampling will be used?

How will time and cost constraints

be dealt with?

Research design is necessary because:

It facilitates the smooth sailing/navigating of the

research operation

It makes research project as efficient as possible

and

help to yield maximum information with

minimum expenditure, time and effort.

him to look for flaws and inadequacies

Design will be given to others for their

comment and critical evaluation.

In absence of such course of action, it will

be difficult for the critics to provide

comprehensive review of the proposed

study.

Important features of a good research design can

be summarized as follow:

It is a plan that contain a clear statement of the

research problem and specifies the source and

types of information relevant to the research

problem

It is a strategy specifying which approach will

be used for gathering the data or the relevant

information

analyzing the data

It also tentatively includes the time and

cost budgets, since most studies are done

under these two constraints.

STRATEGIES AND TACTICS:

opportunities.

The key to decision making is

alternative

to identify how much information is available, and

to recognize what information is needed.

ranging from complete certainty to absolute

ambiguity.

Certainty:

the decision maker has all the information that he or she

needs.

The decision maker knows the exact nature of the business

problem or opportunity.

Uncertainty:

managers grasp/understand the general nature of the

objectives they wish to achieve, but the information about

alternatives is incomplete.

Predictions about the forces that will shape future events

are educated guesses.

Under conditions of uncertainty, effective managers

recognize potential value in spending additional time

gathering information to clarify the nature of the decision.

Ambiguity:

Ambiguity means that the nature of the

problem to be solved is unclear.

The objectives are vague and the alternatives

are difficult to define.

This is by far the most difficult decision

situation.

making situations.

Under conditions of complete certainty when

future outcomes are predictable, business

research may be a waste of time.

However, under conditions of uncertainty or

ambiguity, business research becomes more

attractive to the decision maker.

TO RESEARCH DESIGN:

i.

depends upon or a consequence of the

other variable is called a dependent

variable.

Is a variable that is to be predicted or

explained?

variable.

related to the purpose of a study, but may affect the

dependent variable are termed as extraneous variable.

E.g., if some one wants to test the relation ship between intensity

of light on the level of productivity, other variables like age

of workers, heat in the working place or personal problem

of worker may as well affect the level of productivity. Since

they are not related to the purpose of a study, they are

called extraneous variable.

iv. Control: One important characteristic of a good research

design is to minimize the influence or effect of extraneous

variables(s).

The technical term control is used when we design the study

minimizing the effects of extraneous independent variables.

In experimental researches, the term control is used to refer

to restrain experimental conditions.

variable is not free from the influence of extraneous

variable(s), the relationship between the dependent

and independent variables is said to be confounded

by an extraneous variable(s).

hypothesis-testing research:

When the purpose of research is to test a

research hypothesis, it is termed as

hypothesis-testing research.

It can be of the experimental design or of

the non-experimental design.

hypothesis-testing research and

a research in which an independent variable

is not manipulated is called nonexperimental hypothesis-testing research.

In an experimental hypothesis-testing research when

a group is exposed to usual conditions, it is termed a

control group.

But when the group is exposed to some novel/un

usual or special condition, it is termed an

experimental group.

It is possible to design studies which include only

experimental groups or studies which include both

experimental and control groups

Causation refers to the relationship between

two or more variables.

The variables are different and they are

dependent and independent.

The dependent variable is the outcome, the

variable being affected by the independent

variable.

The independent variable is the cause that

brings about a change in dependent

variable.

Causation

magnitude of change that the independent variable

causes on the dependent variable.

variables.

Correlation, however, does not necessarily show

cause and effect relationship between two sets of

variables or occurrences.

Two or more variables may be correlated directly or

indirectly.

However, the correlation does not show any causal

relationship.

using controls, which means holding some

variables constant in order to look at the

effect of one independent variable on the

others.

When we use experimentation in social

science, including business, there are two

groups; control group and experimental

groups.

on which the

intervening variables are applied.

The control groups are held, as they are with out

applying the intervening variable.

The degree of change or effect that may be

observed on the experimental group is likely to

be caused by the independent variable.

The control group is held as it is; free from

intervention, and the other group is the

experimental group, on which the application of

the intervening variable is made.

Experimental

groups

are

those

independent variable(s).

If the measurement result before application is

assumed to be similar, the difference in the second

measurement after the application of the

variable(s) is likely to be attributed to the

independent variable(s).

Therefore, the net difference is the change

manipulated by the independent variables and the

common difference in measurement is likely to be

caused by other variables.

ix. Validity:

refers to the problem of whether the data

being studied.

It is an evidence of what claims to be evidence.

The problem arises particularly when the data

method used rather than of what is being

studied.

x. Representativeness:

refers to the question of whether the

characteristics of a sample drawn properly

represents the characteristics of the population

from which the sample is selected and about

which a conclusion is to be made.

This implies careful planning of the sampling

design so that parameter and statistic are similar.

xi. Reliability:

refers to the dependability of the research

findings that they can be repeated either by the

researcher or by other researchers using similar

research methods or procedures.

xii. Treatments:

The different condition under which experimental

and controlled groups are put are referred to as

treatment.

The usual study program and the special study

program are an example of two treatments in

studying the effects new or special study program

on performance of students.

xiii. Experiment:

The process of examining the truth of a statistical

hypothesis, relating to some problem

E.g., examining the usefulness of a newly

developed drug is an example of an experiment.

experiment.

If we want to determine the impact of

newly developed drug against the existing

drug is an example of comparative

experiment.

But the previous example is an example of

absolute experiment.

xiv. Experimental unit: the pre-determined

plots (or blocks or group) where different

treatments are used are known experimental

units.

Problem

Discovery

Problem

and

Definition

discovery

Selection of

exploratory research

technique

Sampling

Selection of

exploratory research

technique

Secondary

(historical)

data

Experience

survey

Probability

Pilot

study

Case

study

Data

Gathering

Data

Processing

and

Analysis

Problem definition

(statement of

research objectives)

Experiment

Laboratory

Field

Conclusions

and Report

Survey

Interview

Collection of

data

(fieldwork)

Editing and

coding

data

Data

processing

Selection of

basic research

method

Research Design

Nonprobability

Questionnaire

Observation

Secondary

Data Study

Interpretation

of

findings

Report

Decision Alternatives in the Research Process

different ways of classifying research.

really difficult to propose a single

disciplines and acceptable by all

For example, some classify research as:

theoretical and applied research,

descriptive and explanatory research,

quantitative and qualitative research,

conceptual and empirical research, and other types

of research.

It should also be noted that there is no clear

other.

There are always overlaps in a sense that

goal of research,

specific objectives of research,

approaches of research,

designs,

the type of data used in research, and

fields of study.

1. Classification of Research

based on the Goal of Research

A. Basic Research and

B. Applied Research

its primary objective is advancement of

of the relations among variables.

basically concerned with the formulation of a

theory or a contribution to the existing body

of knowledge

does not necessarily produce results of

Obtaining and using empirical data to

and

sake of knowledge.

following forms:

Discovery:

emerges

from

empirical

research

which

may

Invention

created.

Reflection

organizational or social context.

is designed to solve practical problems than to

acquire knowledge

the goal is to improve the human condition

undertaken to solve immediate practical

scientific knowledge is secondary.

science, and

applying them to real situations, addressing

more than just abstract principles.

Applied scientific research can be about

finding out the answer to a specific

problem, such as:

Is global warming avoidable? or

Does a new type of medicine really help the

patients?

the Specific Objectives of Research

A. DESCRIPTIVE,

B. EXPLANATORY AND

C. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH

A. Descriptive

sets out to describe and to interpret what is.

It aims to describe the state of affairs as it

exists at present

The methods that come under descriptive research

are:

Surveys

Correlation studies

Observation studies

Case studies

i. SURVEY RESEARCH

The most common method of generating

A survey is a research technique in which

people by use of a questionnaire.

writing a questionnaire,

designing the exact format of the printed or

written questionnaire

is an essential aspect of the development of

verbal or written questioning.

Respondents are a representative sample of

people

Gathering Information via Surveys has following

Advantages

Quick

Inexpensive

Problems:

Efficient

Poor Design

Accurate

Improper Execution

Flexible

Random sampling error

Total error

A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of

change variation in the elements selected for the

sample

Systematic Error:

Systematic error results from some imperfect aspect

of the research design or from a mistake in the

execution of the research.

Administrative

error

Systematic error

(bias)

Respondent

error

Sample Bias

Sample bias - when the results of a sample show a

persistent tendency to deviate in one direction from

the true value of the population parameter.

Diagram of Total Survey Error

Respondent

error

Non-response

error

Response

bias

Respondent Error:

A classification of sample bias resulting from some

respondent action or inaction

Non-response bias

Response bias

Non-response Error:

Non-respondents - people who refuse to cooperate

Not-at-homes

Self-selection bias

Over-represents extreme positions

Under-represents indifference

Deliberate

falsification

Response

bias

Unconscious

misrepresentation

Response Bias

A bias that occurs when respondents tend to answer

questions with a certain slant/angle that consciously

or unconsciously misrepresents the truth.

Acquiescence bias

Extremity bias

Interviewer bias

Auspices bias

Social desirability bias

A. Acquiescence Bias:

A category of response bias that results because

some individuals tend to agree with all questions or

to concur with a particular position.

B. Extremity Bias:

A category of response bias that results because

response styles vary from person to person; some

individuals tend to use extremes when responding to

questions.

C. Interviewer Bias:

A response bias that occurs because the presence of

the interviewer influences answers.

Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the

respondents being influenced by the organization

conducting the study.

E. Social Desirability Bias:

Bias in responses caused by respondents desire,

either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or

appear in a different social role.

Administrative Error:

Improper administration of the research task

Blunders

Confusion

Neglect

Omission

Sample selection error

Interviewer error

Interviewer cheating

A. Interviewer cheating

filling in fake

interviewers

answers

or

falsifying

incorrect data entry, computer programming,

or other procedural errors during the analysis

stage.

improper sample design

procedure execution.

D. Interviewer error

field mistakes.

or

sampling

trace relationships among two or more

situational insight.

with the aim of studying the

Variables being studied may have positive

In many situations the objective of the research

for example, the number of automobiles that pass

a site for a proposed gasoline station.

This can be mechanically recorded or observed by

any person.

and-motion study.

Research personnel, known as "mystery

the actions of sales personnel or do

"comparative shopping" to learn the prices

charged at competitive outlets.

The

technique is that it records behavior without

relying on reports from respondents.

Observational methods are often non reactive

because data, are collected indirectly and

passively without a respondent's direct

participation.

Observation is more complex than mere "nose

counting," and the task is more difficult to

administer than the inexperienced researcher

would imagine.

observed.

Attitudes, opinions, motivations, and other

intangible states of mind cannot be recorded

by using the observation method.

YOU SEE, BUT YOU DO NOT

OBSERVE.

Sherlock Holmes

Scientific Observation Is Systematic.

Phenomena

Example

physical action

store

Verbal behavior

who wait in line

other form of body language

Spatial relations and How close visitors at an art museum

locations

stand to paintings

Temporal patterns

How

long

fast-food

customers wait for their

order to be served

Physical objects

stored in consumers pantries

packages

Categories of Observation:

Human versus mechanical

Visible versus hidden

Direct

Contrived

Communication with respondent is not

necessary

Data without distortions due to self-report

No need to rely on respondents memory

Environmental conditions may be recorded

supplemental evidence.

Limitations:

Cognitive phenomena cannot be observed

Interpretation of data may be a problem

Not all activity can be recorded

Only short periods can be observed

Observer bias possible

Possible invasion of privacy

Physical-trace evidence

Wear and tear of a book indicates how often it has

been read.

Scientifically Contrived Observation:

The creation of an artificial environment to test a

hypothesis.

Response Latency:

Recording the decision time necessary to make a

choice between two alternatives

It is presumed

to indicate the strength of

preference between alternatives.

Content Analysis:

content of advertisements, letters, articles, etc.

Deals with the study of the message itself

Mechanical Observation:

Traffic Counters

Web Traffic

Scanners

is a very popular form of qualitative

analysis

involves

a careful and complete

observation of a social unit, be that unit a

person, a family, an institution, a cultural

group or even the entire community.

It is a method of study in depth rather

than breadth.

It places more emphasis on the full

analysis of a limited number of events or

conditions and their interrelations.

their interrelationship.

Thus,

is

essentially

an

intensive

consideration.

The object of the case study method is to

behavior patterns of the given unit as an

integrated totality.

individual or a situation or an institution is

done;

efforts are made to study each and every

details

and

then

from

case

data

based on several assumptions.

(i) The assumption of uniformity in

the basic human nature in spite of the

fact that human behavior may vary

according to situations.

(ii) The assumption of studying the

natural history of the unit concerned.

(iii) The assumption of comprehensive

study of the unit concerned.

involved in case study are as follows:

(i) Recognition and determination of the status

of the phenomenon to be investigated or the

unit of attention.

(ii) Collection of data, examination and history

of the given phenomenon.

(iii) Diagnosis and identification of causal

factors as a basis for remedial or

developmental treatment.

(iv) Application of remedial measures i.e.,

treatment and therapy (this phase is often

characterized as case work).

the treatment applied.

Advantages:

1. Being an exhaustive study of a social unit, the case study

method enables us to understand fully the behavior pattern of

the concerned unit.

2. a researcher can obtain a real and progressive record of

personal experiences which would reveal mans inner

along with the forces that direct him to adopt a certain pattern

of behavior.

the social factors and the forces involved in its

surrounding environment.

4. It helps in formulating relevant hypotheses along

with the data which may be helpful in testing

them. Case studies, thus, enable the generalized

knowledge to get richer and richer.

possible if we use either the observation

method or the method of collecting

information through schedules.

This is the reason why case study method is

being frequently used, particularly in social

researches.

appropriate questionnaire or schedule for the said task

requires thorough knowledge of the concerning universe.

7. The researcher can use one or more of the several research

methods

depth interviews,

questionnaires,

documents,

study reports of individuals,

letters, and

the like is possible under case study method.

this in turn increases his analyzing ability and

skill.

unit because of its emphasis of historical analysis.

Limitations:

as such the information gathered in case studies

case study tells history in his own words,

logical

concepts

and

units

of

scientific

by the investigator.

as significant scientific data since they do not

provide

universal,

knowledge

of

non-ethical,

the

impersonal,

non-practical,

Real information is often not collected

does enter in the collection of information

in a case study.

collection of the information and only few units are

studied.

4. It consumes more time and requires lot of

expenditure.

More time is needed under case study method since

and that too minutely.

he thinks

6. Case study method is based on several

realistic at times, and as such the

subject to doubt.

only in a limited sphere., it is not

possible to use it in case of a big

society.

Sampling is also not possible under

limitation of the case study method.

He often thinks that he has full knowledge

of the unit and can himself answer about it.

In case the same is not true, then

consequences follow.

In fact, this is more the fault of the

researcher rather than that of the case

method.

disciplines, particularly in sociology, as a tool of

advantages indicated earlier.

Most of the limitations can be removed if

well trained in the modern methods of collecting

case data and in the scientific techniques of

assembling, classifying and processing the same.

and statistical treatment.

Possibly, this is also the reason why

by day.

2. Explanatory Research

For issues that are already known and have

why things are the way they are

The desire to know "why," to explain, is the

purpose of explanatory research.

It is a continuation of descriptive research

on to identify the reasons for something that

occurs

something is happening.

Thus, explanatory or analytical research aims to

understand

phenomena

by

discovering

and

That is, explanatory research looks for causes and

reasons

to compare the rates in different countries.

It is quite a different thing to develop explanations

about :

why some types of crime are increasing or

in others.

Determining the accuracy of the theory; test a theory's

predictions or principle.

explanation or prediction.

explanations.

Causal explanations argue that phenomenon Y is affected

by factor X.

In this example, the cause or the reason is X which is

or the behaviour is Y which is also known as dependent

variable.

Some causal explanations will be simple while others will

be more complex.

A. Experimental research

B. Ex post facto research

A. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

Experimental

the independent variable and test the hypothesis of

causal relationship between variables.

experimental research involves comparing two

to rule out alternative explanations.

It is also called as Empirical Research or

Cause and Effect Method,

it is a data-based research, coming up with

conclusions which are capable of being

verified with observation or experiment.

some way. e.g.

Tenderizers ( independent variable) affect cooking time

and texture of meat( dependent variable) .

- -Develop recipes to use products.

Such

study and the deliberate manipulation of one of

them to study its effects.

In such a research, it is necessary to get at

about doing certain things to stimulate the

production of desired information.

probable results.

Then work to get enough facts (data) to

He then sets up experimental designs which

materials concerned so as to bring forth the

desired information.

the most powerful support possible for a

given hypothesis.

Basic experimental designs

a single independent variable is manipulated to

Factorial experimental designs

More

sophisticated

than

basic

experimental

designs.

allow for investigation of the interaction of two or

Ex post facto research is a method of teasing

happened and cannot, therefore, be caused or

Ex post facto in research means after the fact

or retrospectively and

observing an existing condition or state of

affairs and searching back in time for

plausible causal factors.

If a researcher is interested in investigating

the reasons why fatal traffic accident is

increasing in Ethiopia, he/she cannot do it

by randomly assigning research participants

into experimental and control group.

happened.

What a researcher can do, however, is to

attempt to reconstruct the causal link by

studying the statistics, examining the

accident spots, and taking note of the

statements given by victims and witnesses.

retrospect/survey

for

their

possible

relationship to, and effects on, the

dependent variable or variables.

Researchers argue that there is no one best research

design for all situations.

There are no hard-and-fast rules for good business

research.

This does not mean that the researcher when faced

with a problem is also faced with chaos and

confusion.

It means that the researcher has many alternative

methods for solving the problem.

There is never a single, standard, correct

method of carrying out a piece of research.

Do not wait to start your research until you find

out the proper approach, because there are

many ways to tackle a problem-some good,

some bad, but probably several good ways.

There is no single perfect design.

Inexperienced researchers often jump to the

conclusion that the survey method is the best

design, because they are most familiar with this

method.

Sometimes instead of using an expensive survey, a

creative researcher, familiar with other research

designs may suggest a far less expensive

alternative-an unobtrusive observation technique.

New

combining the different types of research designs

under the principle of triangulation.

For instance, exploratory research design could be

formed as a combination of observation method of

data collection, ex post design, cross-sectional

time dimension, field research design and

qualitative analysis.

Likewise, varieties of research designs can be

identified by combining the different research

designs.

Once an appropriate design has been determined,

the researcher moves on to the next stage-planning

the sample to be used.

Introduction:

The statistical investigation can take two forms.

The researcher studies every unit of the field of

of all units.

This type of survey is called census survey.

survey.

whole

field

of

domain

and

the

the whole population.

Population: Is the theoretically specified aggregation

of survey elements from which the survey

sample is actually selected.

Sampling Frame: Is the list of elements from which

the sample is drawn

Sample: A subset or some part of a larger population

sample frame

part of a larger population to make conclusion about

the whole population.

Element: Is unit from which information is collected

and which provides the basis of analysis

Statistic: Is a characteristic of a sample

Parameter: Is a characteristic of a population.

E.g., when we work out certain measurement like,

mean from a sample they are called statistic. But

when such measure describe the characteristic of

the population, they are called parameter(s)

Population mean () is a parameter

Where as the sample mean (x) is a statistic

Accuracy refers to the amount of deviations of the

estimate from the true value

Precision refers to the size of the deviation by

Precision is usually expressed in terms of the

Less precision is reflected by a larger standard

error.

affected by the manner in which the sample has

been chosen.

Strict attention must be paid to the planning of

the sample.

Regardless of the type of project to be

conducted, the process of selecting a sample

follows well-defined activities.

Steps involved in Sampling procedure:

Defining Population

Census Vs Sample

Sampling Design

Sample Size

The first thing the sample plan must include

is a definition of the population to be

investigated.

It implies specifying the subject of the study.

Specification of a population involves:

identifying

included,

where and

when.

which

elements

(items)

are

making a new type of loan plan available, might

acquire information from any one or all of the

following groupsWhich element

All depositors

Where

When

Bank A

For the

months

last

12

borrowed money

For the

months

last

12

For the

borrowed money

geographic area months

last

12

All people

last

12

Specified

For the

geographic area months

Thus, the researcher must begin with careful

specification of his population.

II. CENSUS VS. SAMPLE

Decision about whether the survey is to be

conducted among all members of the

population(census) or only a subset of the

population(sample).

That is, a choice must be made between

census and sample

Advantages of census :

Reliability: Data derived through census

The only possible errors can be due to

Detailed information: Census data yield

Limitation of census:

Expensiveness: Investigating each elements

individual researcher

Excessive time and energy: Beside cost

time and consumes too much energy.

The use of sample in research project

estimating;

testing and

making inference about a population on the

basis of information taken from the sample.

Sampling can save time and money (it is

generally conducted by trained and

experienced investigator.

Sampling remains the only way when

members.

some characteristics of the population.

If the choice of sample units is made with due care

the conclusion of the sample survey can have

almost the same reliability as those of census

survey.

units is fairly small these can be studied intensively

and elaborately.

Limitations of sampling technique:

Less accuracy: In comparison to census technique

to error.

Therefore, sampling technique is less accurate than

Misleading

carefully selected or if samples are arbitrarily

selected, the conclusion derived from them will

become misleading if extended to all population.

In assessing the monthly expenditure of

university students if the selected sample

contains more rich students, our result

(conclusion) will be erroneous if it extended to

all students

Need for specialized knowledge: The sample

technique can be successful only if a competent and

able scientist makes the selection.

If it is done by average researcher the selection is

liable to error.

study.

Sampling technique is used under the following

conditions.

Vast data:

sampling technique must be used. Because it economize

money, time and effort

sampling technique is very suitable in those

situations where 100% accuracy is not required,

otherwise census technique is unavoidable.

have to use the sampling technique.

Homogeneity: If all units of the population are alike

Infinite population: If the population is

An ideal sample should fulfill the following

four basic characteristics.

Representativeness: An ideal sample must

represent adequately the whole population.

It should not lack a quality found in the

whole population.

Independence: Each unit should be free to

be included in the sample.

of conclusion applicable for the whole

population. A sample having 10% of the whole

population can be considered.

Homogeneity: The element included in the

sample must bear likeness with other element.

III. SAMPLE DESIGN

sample design is the heart of sample planning.

Specification of sample design includes the

method of selecting individual sample unit

involves both theoretical and practical

considerations.

What type of sample to use? Different types of

4 What is the appropriate sample unit? Is a single

population are subjected to selection in the

sample? Sampling unit can be

Primary sampling unit: Units selected in the

first stage of sampling

Secondary sampling unit: A unit selected in the

second stage of sampling

available for the population?

In actual practice the sample will be drawn

from a list of population elements, which

can be different from target population that

has been defined.

Sample frame is the list of elements from

which the sample is drawn.

It is a physical list of the population

elements.

Ideally the sample frame should identify

each population element once only once.

It should not include elements not in the

defined population.

telephone directory.

Using such a frame, however, may lead to error

arising from exclusion of:

Groups with no telephone

Voluntary unlisted

Involuntary unlisted

How are refusals and non-response to be handled?

The sample plan must include provision for how

refusals and non-response are to be handled.

Whether additional sampling units are to be chosen

as replacement and if so, how these are to be

selected.

A researcher is worried about sample size because of the

precision of the study are directly related.

The larger the sample size the higher is the accuracy.

The sample size determination is purely statistical

activity, which needs statistical knowledge.

There are a number of sample size determination

methods.

Personal judgments: The personal judgment and

subjective decision of the researcher in some cases can

be used as a base to determine the size of the sample.

Budgetary approach is another way to determine the

sample size. Under this approach the sample size is

determined by the available fund for the proposed study.

1800 birr , the sample size then will be determined as,

survey, accordingly, the sample size will be 60 units

(1800 / 30 = 60 units).

Traditional inferences: This is based on precision rate

and confidence level.

To estimate sample size using this approach we need to

have information about the estimated variance of the

population, the magnitude of acceptable error and the

confidence interval.

need to be specified to determine the

appropriate sample size:

the level of precision,

the level of confidence or risk, and

the degree of variability in the attributes being

measured.

The level of precision, sometimes called

sampling error,

is the range in which the true value of the

population is estimated to be.

This range is often expressed in percentage

points, (e.g., 5 percent), in the same way

that results for political campaign polls are

reported by the media.

Thus, if a researcher finds that 60% of farmers

practice with a precision rate of 5%, then he or

she can conclude that between 55% and 65% of

farmers in the population have adopted the

practice.

The confidence or risk level is based on

ideas encompassed under the Central Limit

Theorem.

The key idea encompassed in the Central

Limit Theorem is that when a population is

repeatedly sampled, the average value of

the attribute obtained by those samples is

equal to the true population value.

some samples having a higher value and some

obtaining a lower score than the true population

value.

In a normal distribution, approximately 95% of the

sample values are within two standard deviations of

the true population value (e.g., mean).

In other words, this means that, if a 95% confidence

level is selected, 95 out of 100 samples will have the

true population value within the range of precision

specified earlier.

the true population value.

This

risk

is

reduced

for

99%

90% (or lower) confidence levels.

3. DEGREE OF VARIABILITY

degree of variability in the attributes being

measured refers to the distribution of

attributes in the population.

The more heterogeneous a population, the

larger the sample size required to obtain a

given level of precision.

The less variable (more homogeneous) a

population, the smaller the sample size.

or 80%.

This is because 20% and 80% indicate that

a large majority do not or do, respectively,

have the attribute of interest.

Because a proportion of .5 indicates the

maximum variability in a population, it is

often used in determining a more

conservative sample size, that is, the sample

size may be larger than if the true variability

of the population attribute were used.

There are several approaches to determining

These include using a census for small

studies, using published tables, and applying

formulas to calculate a sample size.

Each strategy is discussed below.

Populations

One approach is to use the entire population as the

sample.

Although cost considerations make this impossible for

large populations, a census is attractive for small

populations (e.g., 200 or less).

A census eliminates sampling error and provides data

on all the individuals in the population.

In addition, some costs such as questionnaire design

and developing the sampling frame are fixed, that is,

they will be the same for samples of 50 or 200.

Finally, virtually the entire population would have to

be sampled in small populations to achieve a

desirable level of precision.

Similar Study

Another approach is to use the same sample size as

Without reviewing the procedures employed in these

were made in determining the sample size for

another study. However, a review of the literature in

your discipline can provide guidance about typical

sample sizes that are used.

4 A third way to determine sample size is to rely on published

4 tables, which provide the sample size for a given set of criteria.

4 Table 1 and Table 2 present sample sizes that would be

4 necessary for given combinations of precision, confidence

4 levels, and variability. Please note two things. First, these

4 sample sizes reflect the number of obtained responses and

4 not necessarily the number of surveys mailed or interviews

4 planned (this number is often increased to compensate for

4 nonresponse). Second, the sample sizes in Table 2 presume

4 that the attributes being measured are distributed normally

4 or nearly so. If this assumption cannot be met, then the

4 entire population may need to be surveyed.

a Sample Size

4 Although tables can provide a useful guide for

4

4

4

4

4

determining

the sample size, you may need to calculate the

necessary

sample size for a different combination of levels of

precision,

confidence, and variability. The fourth approach to

determining sample size is the application of one of

several

formulas (Equation 5 was used to calculate the

sample sizes

in Table 1 and Table 2 ).

determination formula.

4 n= NZ + (Se) 2 x (1-P)

N Se + Z2 x P (1-p)

4 Where;

n = sample size

N = total number of population

Z= the standard value (2.58) of 1% level of

probability with 0.99 reliability,

Se= Sampling error 1% (0.01)

p = the population proportion

For populations that are large, Cochran developed the

For proportion no = Z2 p.q /e2

Which is valid where

no is the sample size,

Z2 is the abscissa of the normal curve that cuts off an

area at the tails (1 - equals the desired confidence level,

e.g., 95%)1,

e is the desired level of precision,

p is the estimated proportion of an attribute that is present

in the population, and

q is 1- p.

The value for Z is found in statistical tables which

contain the area under the normal curve.

encouraged to adopt a new practice. Assume there

is a large population but that we do not know the

variability in the proportion that will adopt the

practice; therefore, assume p=.5 (maximum

variability). Furthermore, suppose we desire a

95% confidence level and 5% precision. The

resulting sample size is demonstrated in Equation

as:

no = Z2 p.q /e2 = (1.96) 2 (.5) (.5) = 385 farmers

(.05) 2

If the population is small then the sample size can be

reduced slightly.

proportionately more information for a small

population than for a large population.

The sample size (n0) can be adjusted using

Equation:

n0 =

n0___

1+ ( no - 1)

N

=

385

1 + (385-1) = 323 Farmers

2000

Where

N is the population size.

Suppose our evaluation of farmers'

affected 2,000 farmers.

The sample size that would now be

necessary is shown in the above

calculation.

Where as,

Z = confident level

E= range of error

S=standard deviation / (Variance square 2 )

For Example:

Suppose a survey researcher, studying

expenditures on lipstick, wishes to have a 95

percent confident level (Z) and a range of

error (E) of less than $2.00. The estimate of

the standard deviation is $29.00.

zs

n

E

1.9629.00

2.00

56.84

2

28

.

42

2.00

808

at $4.00, sample size is reduced.

zs

1.9629.00

n

4.00

E

56.84

2

14

.

21

4.00

202

99% Confidence

(2.57)(29)

n

74.53

[37.265]

1389

(2.57)(29)

n

74.53

[18.6325]

347

variance is necessary.

Often, an estimate is not available.

Furthermore, the sample size can vary widely from

have a different variance.

Because of these problems, the sample size for

difference between the Expected Value of

Information (EVI) and Cost of Sampling.

That is, Marginal Cost of Information (MCI)

Information (MVI).

Optimum sample size implies MVI = MCI

V. COST OF SAMPLING

The sample plan must take into account the

Such costs are of two types, overhead costs

In reality however, it may be difficult and

separate sampling cost from over all study

cost.

VI.

EXECUTION OF

SAMPLING

PROCESS

Is the last step

In short the sample is actually chosen.

The actual requirement for sampling

procedure will be Sample must be

representative and Sample must be

adequate.

Sampling techniques are basically of two types

namely,

probability sampling and

non-probability sampling.

I. PROBABILITY SAMPLING

All probability samples are based on chance

selection procedures.

Chance selection eliminates the bias inherent

in the non-probability sampling procedure,

because this process is random.

unscientific.

It is rather the basis of all probability

sampling technique.

characteristics:

The sample units are not selected based on the

desecration of the researcher

Each unit of the population has some known

probability of entering the sample

The processes of sampling is automatic in one or

more steps of selection of units in the sample.

There

are

number

of

probability

bellow :

Simple Random Sampling

Systematic Sampling

Stratified Sampling

Cluster Sampling

Multi-Stage Sampling

is

statistical computation.

Each element in the population has an equal

chance of being included in the sample.

is drawn by a random procedure from a sample

frame.

Drawing names from a hat is a typical simple

random sampling technique.

The sampling process is simple because it

requires only one

stage of sample

selection.

assigned a number.

Then each number is written on separate

pieces of paper, properly mixed and one is

selected.

If say the sample size is 45, then the selection

procedure is repeated 45 times.

When the population is consists of a large

number of elements table of random digits or

computer generated random numbers are

utilized.

2. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING:

involves only a slight difference from simple random

sampling.

The mechanics of taking a systematic sample are rather

simple.

If the population contains N ordered elements, and

sample size of n is required or desired to select, then we

find the ratio of these two numbers, i.e., N/n to obtain

the sampling interval.

E.g., Say the population size N= 600 and the desired

sample size is 60 (n = 60), then the sample interval will

be 600/60 = 10

Random number at the 10 interval will be selected, i.e.,

if the researcher starts from the fourth element then

4th, 14th, 24th etc, elements will be selected.

the telephone directory).

Some

alphabetic

listing,

will

usually

be

characteristics

under

study,

systematic

those provided by simple random sampling.

We say close for the reason that, in

population do not have the same or equal

chance of being included.

Systematic

sampling

may

increase

with regard to the characteristics of interest.

E.g., if the population of customer group

volume, a systematic sample will be sure to

contain some high-volume and some lowvolume customers.

the list is not random in character (like

cyclical or seasonal pattern).

E.g., consider collecting retail store- sale

sampling interval of seven days, his choice

of day can result in sampling that would

not reflect day-off- the week variation in

sale.

3. STRATIFIED SAMPLING:

This method of sampling is a mixture of deliberate

If population from which the sample to be drawn

does not constitute a homogeneous group, stratified

sampling technique is used in order to obtain a

representative sample.

Under this technique, the population is divided into

various classes or sub-population, which is

individually more homogeneous than the total

population.

The different sub-populations are called strata.

Then certain items (elements) are selected from the

classes by the random sampling technique.

estimate for each stratum.

By estimating more accurately each of the

component parts of population (sub population),

we get a better estimate of the whole population.

In other words the population will be broken into

different strata based on one or more

characteristics say, frequency of purchase of a

product or types of customers (credit card versus

non-credit card), or the industry.

Thus, we will have strata of customers, strata of

industry etc.

Suppose

information regarding income expenditure of the

male population of, say Desire Town.

First we shall split the whole male population in

the town into various strata on the basis of, say

special professions like:

Class of service giving people

Business men

Shop keepers

From these different groups the researcher will

select elements using random sample technique.

We can say that strata can be formed on the basis

to be put in each stratum.

Various strata are formed in such away as to ensure

stratum.

Thus, strata are purposively formed and are usually

the researcher.

stratum?

The usual method for selection of items for the sample

Systematic sampling can also be used if it is considered

C. How many items to be selected from each stratum

(sample size)?

Stratified sample size can be made proportionate to its size

made proportionate to the relative size of that stratum.

size of stratum i will then be pi*n

That is, the sample size from each stratum is

Here we take large sample size from more

Where

of the k strata,

ni denote the sample size of the k strata and

n the total sample size.

summarized as follow:

The entire population is first divided into a set of

strata (sub-population groups), using some external

sources, such as census data

Within each stratum a separate random sample is

selected

From each separate sample, some statistics (mean)

is computed and properly weighted to form an over

all estimated mean for the whole population

Sample variances are also computed within each

separate stratum and appropriately weighted to

yield a combined estimate for the whole population.

4. Cluster sampling:

This technique will sample economically while

sampling.

In cluster sampling the primary sampling unit is no

more the individual elements in the population rather

it is say manufacturing unit, city or block of city, etc.

After randomly selecting the primary sample unit

(city, part of city), we survey or interview all

families or elements in that selected primary sample

unit.

The area sample is the commonly used type of

cluster sampling.

defective.

Assume that there are about 20000 machine

parts in the inventory.

They are stored in 400 cases of each containing

50 parts each.

Now using a cluster sampling, we would consider

the 400 cases as clusters.

From this cluster we randomly select say n cases

and examine all the machine-parts in each

randomly selected case.

But

sampling.

Cluster sampling is used only because of

5. Multi-stage sampling:

Items are selected in different stage at random.

of a given crop say coffee in Dessie zone. We

the first instance.

In final stage we will select again randomly 5

farms from every village.

Thus, we shall examine per hectare yield in a total

of 250 farms all over that region.

Zone or region

District (5)

first stage

Village (10 /district)

second stage

third stage

technique.

It is easier to administer than most

sampling technique.

A large number of units can be sampled

clustering, whereas this is not possible

Multi-stage

sampling

is

relatively

expensive method of sampling.

However, an element of sampling bias gets

of the selected sub-sample.

This method is recommended only when it

It does not give equal chance that each

the sample.

Units are selected at the discretion of the

researcher.

Such samples derive their control from the

Some

No confidence can be placed in the data

obtained from such samples; they don't

represent the large population.

Therefore, the result obtained may not be

generalized for the entire population.

Non-probability

sampling

depends

exclusively on uncontrolled factors and

researcher's insight, and there is no

statistical method to determine the margin

of the sampling errors.

population.

The advantages of non-probability sampling on the

it is much less complicated,

less expensive, and

a researcher may take the advantage of the available

respondents with out the statistical complexity of the

probability sampling.

and the researcher wants to get some idea of the

population characteristics

Non-probability sampling can be adequate if the

beyond the sample, or if the study is merely a trial

run for larger study (in preliminary research).

Quota Sampling

Judgment sampling

Snowball sampling

Convenience sampling

1. QUOTA SAMPLING:

Under this sampling approach, the interviewers are simply

(groups).

E.g., an interviewer in a particular city may be assigned

say 100 interviews. He will assign this to different

subgroups (say 50 far male respondents and 50 for female

respondents).

biasing selection and makes sure that the sample is

as representative and generalize-able as possible.

2. JUDGMENT (PURPOSIVE OR

DELIBERATE) SAMPLING :

In this approach the investigator has complete

wishes and desire.

The experienced individual (researcher) select the

sample based upon his judgment about some

appropriate characteristics required from the sample

members

The intent is to select elements that are believed to

be typical or representative of the population in such

a way that error of judgment in the selection will

cancel each other out.

sample less than fully representative.

The Consumers Price Index (CPI) is based

on a judgment sampling. That is, based on

prices of basket of goods and services

purchased by average households.

and an appropriate strategy, one can carefully and

consciously choose the element to be included in the

sample.

advantage

low cost,

convenient to use,

less time-consuming, and

as good as probability sampling.

Weakness

making the judgment or without an

external check, there is no way to

know whether the so-called typical

cases are, in-fact, typical and its

value is entirely depends on the

judgment of the researcher.

3. SNOWBALL SAMPLING:

also known as Multiplicity sampling.

The term snowball comes from the analogy of the

snowball,

beginning small but becomes bigger and bigger as

it rolls downhill.

Snowball sampling is popular among scholars

conducting

observational

community study.

research

and

in

total population.

First

initial

respondents

are

selected

obtained

from

information

respondent.

referrals

provided

by

or

by

the

other

initial

obtain referral.

Random telephone calls are made; the

respondents (answering the call) are asked

if they know someone else who meets the

studies respondent qualification.

Like whether they know the some one who

survived the September eleven terrorist

attack in New York SAY,

A researcher wants to study the impact of

the

September Eleven Terrorist attack

on the social life and life style of the

survivals.

that:

it substantially increases the

probability of finding the desired

characteristic in the population and

lower sampling variance and cost.

4. CONVENIENCE SAMPLING :

This is a "hit or miss" procedure of study.

No planned effort is made to collect

information.

The researcher comes across certain people

and things and has transaction with them then

he tries to make generalization about the

whole population.

This sampling technique is not scientific and

has no value as a research technique.

In general, the availability and willingness to

respondents.

Commonly such a sample is taken to test

interest.

SX

figuratively represents the distribution of a statistic

(some number youve obtained from your sample)

across an infinite number of samples.

If we take certain number of samples and for

measures such as mean, standard deviation,

etc., then we can find that each sample may

give its own value for the statistic under

consideration.

frequencies will constitute the sampling

distribution of the particular statistic, say

mean.

Accordingly, we can have sampling

distribution of mean, or the sampling

distribution of standard deviation or the

sampling distribution of any other statistical

measure.

The sampling distribution tends quite closer to the

normal distribution if the number of samples is

large.

The significance of sampling distribution follows

from the fact that the mean of a sampling

distribution is the same as the mean of the

universe.

Thus, the mean of the sampling distribution can be

taken as the mean of the universe.

could have been drawn.

While its very likely that any statistics you

generate from your sample would be near the center

of the sampling distribution, just by luck of the

draw, the researcher normally wants to find out

exactly where the center of this sampling

distribution is.

Thats because the center of the sampling

distribution represents the best estimate of the

population average, and the population is what you

want to make inferences to.

(sample) to parameters (population).

You can use some of the information youve

distribution, or more accurately, the sampling

error.

In statistics,

standard error (to keep it separate in our

minds from standard deviation).

In sampling, the standard error is referred to

as sampling error.

:

1. SAMPLING ERROR

is the difference between the result of a sample and

is the difference between the sample estimation and

the actual value of the population.

These are errors that are created because of the

chance only.

Although the sample is properly selected, there will

be some difference between the sample statistics

and the actual value (population parameter).

The standard deviation of the sample might

also be different from the population

standard deviation.

Therefore, we can expect some difference

between the sample statistics and the

population parameter.

This difference is known as sampling error.

Example,

Suppose an individual student has scored the

these subjects as population); 55, 60, 65, 90,

55, 75, 88, 45, 85, 82.

Say, a sample of four grades 55, 65, 82, and

population to estimate the average grade of

this student.

But the population mean is 70.

The sampling error is therefore, 73 - 70 = 3.

However, the variation due to random

sample size increases though it is not

possible to completely avoid sampling error.

is also called sampling bias.

Such error can be created from errors in the sampling

procedure, and

it cannot be reduced or eliminate by increasing the

sample size.

Such error occurs because of human mistakes and not

chance variation.

The possible factors that contribute to the creation of

such error include:

accessibility bias,

defective measuring device, and

non-response bias or defects in data

collection.

1. INAPPROPRIATE SAMPLING:

If the sample units are a misrepresentation of the

This could happen when a researcher gathers data

locations.

It occurs when there is a failure of all units in the

selected for the sample.

2. ACCESSIBILITY BIAS:

In many research studies, researchers tend to

to them.

When all members of the population are not

equally accessible, the researcher must provide

some mechanism of controlling in order to

ensure the absence of over and underrepresentation of some respondents.

3. NON-RESPONSE BIAS:

This is an incomplete coverage of sample or

individuals initially included in the sample.

This is due to the failure in locating some of the

individuals of the sample element or due to their

refusal to respond.

In some cases, respondents may intentionally give

false information in response to some sensitive

question.

For instance, people may not tell the truth of their

bad habit and income.

be minimized.

Total error = Sampling error + Non-sampling

Error

Total error is usually measured as total error

variance, also known as mean square (MSE)

(TE) 2 = (SE) 2 + (NE) 2

Generally, non-sampling errors occur in a sample

survey as well as in census survey where as the

sampling error occurs only in a sample survey.

Preparing the survey questionnaire and handling the

data properly can minimize non-sampling error.

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