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Metal Forming & Machining

(MF F313)
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

K S SANGWAN|L5|August 20

Outline
Forging analysis

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Types of forgings

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Strip Forging

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Assumption
forging forcef attains its maximum value at the end of the
operation
is constant
variation of stress field along y-axis is negligible
plane strain case
entire w/p is plastic in state during the process

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Let at any instant the thickness of the element is h and


width is 2l
Consider an element of width dx at a distance x from
origin.
Consider the equilibrium of the element in xdirection.

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h d x 2 dx 0..........
......(1)
[ now letx and p are principal stresses
it being a case of plane area
2 ( 1 p ) / 2
applyVON MISES criteria,
p x 2k ]
dp d x ..........
....(2)
puting in (1)
h dp 2 dr 0
dp ( 2 / h ) dx..........
........(3)
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Now as we move along the x- axis from origin,


the friction stress are increasing and when
(say) it reaches a value equal to shear yield
stress and it remains constant then after. In
other words from
x 0 to x xs , we have a sliding / non sticking zone
x xs to x l , we have a sticking zone

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FOR SLIDING ZONE ( x 0 to x x s )

FOR STICKING ZONE


again u sin g equ(3)
dp 2 / hdx
[ we havex x s , p s k ]

equ(3)becomes
dp (2 p / h )dx
dp / p 2 x / h c1

puting k in aboveequ.andintegrating, we have


p (2k / h ) x c2. ...............(5)

to find c1

to find cons tan tc 2

from equ(2) at x 0( 0), p 2k


c1 ln 2k

p ps

p s ( 2k / h) x s c 2
c 2 p s ( 2k / h) x s

ln( p / 2k ) 2 x / h

nowu sin g equ(4), p s 2ke 2 / hxs

or p / 2k e 2 x / h
p1 2ke 2 x / h ..........(4)

x xs ,

0 xl

c2 2k[e 2 xs / h x s / h]
p 2k[e 2 xs / h ( x xs ) / h].........(6)
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TO FIND

dx xs ,

ps k ps k /
puting this in equ(4), weget
ps k / 2ke[ 2 xs / h ]
1 / 2 e 2 xs / h
or 2 xs / h ln(1 / 2 )
xs h / 2 ln(1 / 2 )
puting xs in equ(6), we get
p 2k[e ( 2 / h )(h / 2 ) ln(1/ 2 ) 1 / h{x h / 2 ln(1 / 2 )}]
2k[1 / 2 1 / h{x h / 2 ln(1 / 2 )}]
p2 2k[1 / 2 {1 ln(1 / 2 ) x / h}]............(7)

xs x l
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total forging force / unit length


f 2[ p1dx p 2dx]
xs

xs

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DISC FORGING

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Let in a typical open die forging of a disc as shown in


figure, thickness and force at the end of the operation
are h and F respectively:
Consider an elemental disc subtending an angle d at the
centre, between radii r and r + dr.
Considering the radial equilibrium of strip,
( r d r )(r dr)d .h r rd .h 2 dr.h sin d / 2 2 .rddr 0

For the cylindrical symmetry (Assumption)


Now neglecting the higher order term

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r rd .h d r rd .h r rd .h 2rddr 0
d r .h 2dr 0 ______________________________________(1)
Let , r , and p are Pr incipal Stresses
Therefore , Putting these values in eq n
( 1 2 ) 2 ( 2 3 ) 2 ( 3 1 ) 2 6k 2
We get

r p 3k ________________________________________(2)

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or
d r dp
Put in eq n (1)
hdp 2dr 0 ________________________________________(3)

Let rs is theradius beyond which sliding takesplace


i.e.
rs r R _______sliding zone
0 r rs _______sticking zone
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For Sliding Zone :

p
n

Put in eq (3)
hdp 2pdr 0
dp / p (2 / h)dr
Integrating ,
ln p (2 / h)r C1
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To f ind C1
r R, r 0,
Theref ore f rom eq n ( 2)
p

3k

ln( 3k ) ( 2 / h) R C1
or C1 /( 3k ) e ( 2 / h ) R
or C1

3k e ( 2 / h ) R

Hence, ln p ( 2 / h) r ln
or

p sl

3k e ( 2 / h ) R

3k e ( 2 / h ) R . e ( 2 / h ) r

psl 3k e ( 2 / h )(R r ) ___________________________(4)

rs r R
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For Sticking Zone :


At r rs , k ,

also p s

Putting, k in eq n (3)
hdp 2kdr 0
or dp (2k / h)dr
Integrating ,

p (2k / h)r C 2 ________________________(5)

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To Find C2 :
At r rs ,

p ps

Putting in eq n (5),
p s (2k / h)rs C2
or C2 p s (2k / h)rs
From eq n (4), by putting r rs and put the value in aboveeq n
C 2 3k e ( 2 / h )(R rs ) (2k / h)rs
Putting C 2 in eq n (5), we get
p (2k / h)r (2k / h)rs 3k e ( 2 / h )(R rs )
p (2k / h)(rs r ) 3k e ( 2 / h )(R rs ) _______________________(6)
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To Find rs :
At r rs , k p s
or

ps k /

Putting this in eq n (4)


k/

3k e ( 2 / h )(R rs )

e ( 2 / h )(R rs ) 1 / 3
(2 / h)( R rs ) ln(1 / 3 )
R rs ( h / 2 ) ln(1 / 3 )
rs R (h / 2 ) ln(1 / 3 )
Putting , rs value in eq n (6)
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(2k / h)R (h / 2 ) ln(1 /

3 ) r

p 2 (2k / h) R (h / 2 ) ln(1 / 3 ) r 3k e ( 2 / h )R R ( h / 2 ) ln(1 /


3k e ln(1 /

3 )

3 )

(2k / h)(R r ) (2k / h)(h / 2 ) ln(1 / 3 ) 3k .(1 / 3 )


(2k / h)(R r ) (k / ) ln(1 / 3 ) k /

(2k / h)(R r ) (k / )1 ln(

(2k / h)(R r ) (k / ) 1 ln(1 / 3 )

p2

3 ) ______________(7) , (0 r rs )

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Total Forging Force :


rs

rs

F p 2 .2r.dr p1 .2r.dr
R
rs

2 p 2 .r.dr p1 .r.dr
0

rs

rs

rs

( 2 / h )( R r )
2 (2k / h)( R r )r.dr 2 (k / ) 1 ln( 3 ) r.dr 2 3ke
.r.dr
rs

2 (2k / h) ( Rr 2 / 2) (r 3 / 3)

rs
0

2 (k / (r 2 / 2) ln( 3 )(r 2 / 2) 2 3ke ( 2 / h )(R r ) .r.dr

2 (2k / h)r 2 R / 2 r / 3 (kr 2 / 2 ) 1 ln( 3 )

rs
0

2 3ke ( 2 / h )(R r ) .(h 2 / 4 2 )1 (2r / h)

R
rs

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Grain Flow Comparison

(a) casting, (b) machining, (c) forging

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Types of Forging
Smith forging
Drop forging
Press forging
Upset forging
Swaging
Roll forging

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Roll Forging

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Die Features
Fillet radius
Draft
Flash gutter
Shrinkage allowance (hot forging)

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Forging Defects
Unfilled sections less metal, improper heating,
misplacement of metal
Scale pits scale in die
Mismatched forging misalignment of two halves of die
Barreling low lubrication
Laps thin web
Internal cracks thick web

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Forging Defects

(a) Laps formed by web buckling during forging; web thickness should be increased
to avoid this problem.
(b) (b) Internal defects caused by oversized billet; die cavities are filled prematurely,
and the material at the center flows past the filled regions as the dies close.
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Thanks

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