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SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING FOR LINE

OF SIGHT LINKS AND GUIDELINES FOR SURVEY

CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

Transmission Concepts.
Parameters for path loss calculations
Survey of LOS links:
Preliminary survey
Map studies
Detailed survey
Feasibility study and report generation
Guidelines for LOS Survey
Transmission Planning Guidelines-Nokia for Bharti
Cellular Limited

LINE OF SIGHT LINKS (LOS)


AIMS OF THE COURSE
TO ENABLE YOU TO PLAN LINE OF SIGHT POINT TO POINT
MICROWAVE LINKS AND PERDICT THE PERFORMANCEOF
THE LINK YOU HAVE PLANNED.
STUDY OF SURVEY OF INDIA MAPS, MARKING OF SITES,
ESTABLISHING OF HOP AND LOCATION OF CRITICAL POINTS.
CARRY OUT SURVEY, WHICH IS MOST IMPORTANT PART OF
LINK DESIGNING TO FIND OUT WHAT IS GOING TO BE THE
TOWER HEIGHTS BETWEEN ANY TWO POINTS OF A HOP.

LINE OF SIGHT LINKS (LOS)


(PURPOSE AND REQUIREMENT)
1.

2.

Purpose
For the establishment of short / long haul LOS links
Feasibility studies
Submission of tenders
Up gradation of existing links
Requirements of LOS links
Signals follow straight lines
Signals are affected by free space attenuation and
precipitation
Use of frequencies greater than 150 MHz
Use of spread spectrum and time sharing techniques
3

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
A simplified transmission system:

Transmission Media

Receiver

Transmitter

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Types of Media:
1. Open wire copper cable system
2. Coaxial cable systems
3. High frequency radio communication systems
4. Line of sight communication systems
5. Troposphere scatter systems
6. Satellite communication systems
7. Optical fiber cable systems

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Transmission Concepts:
1.
Decibel (dB):- The decibel is a unit that describes a ratio.
Number of decibels (dB)=10 log10 P2/P1, P1 is lower and P2 is higher
power.
P1
If P1=1W
P2=2W
Gain dB=10 log 2/1
=3 dB

2.

P2
Network

P1=1000W
P2=1W
Loss dB=10 log 1000/1
=30 dB

dBm:- Is a power level related to 1 m W power (0 dBm=1 mW)


Power (dBm) = 10 log power (mW)/1 mW
If power of an amplifier is 20 W, Whats it output in dBm?
Power dBm = 10 log 20x103 mW/1 mW = + 43 dBm
(Plus sign indicates that the quantity is above reference of 0 dBm)
If input to a network is 0.0004 W, Whats the input in dBm?
Power dBm = 10 log 4 x 10-1 mW/1 mW
= - 4 dBm
(minus sign indicates that the quantity is below reference of 0 dBm)
6

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
3.

4.

dBW:- is extensively used in


microwave applications. It is an
absolute decibel unit referred to
1W.
Power level (dBW) = 10 log power
(W) /1 W (+30 dBm=0 dBW)
dBmV:- is extensively used in video
transmission. It is voltage level in
decibels above and below 1 mV
across 75 .
Voltage level dBmV
=20 log mV/1 mV
10 V = + 80 dBmV
1V = + 60 dBmV
1mV = 0
1V = -60 dBmV

dBm

dBW

Watts

+66

+36

4000

+60

+30

1000

+33

+13

20

+33

+3

+30

1
mill watts

+30

1000

+27

-3

500

+20

-10

100

+10

-20

10

+7

-23

-30

-10

-40

0.1

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: The signal-to-noise ratio expressed in decibels (dB) is
the amount by which a signal level exceeds its corresponding noise.
60

Signal

30
2
0
0

Noise
Frequency

S/N dB = Signal Level dBm Noise Level dBm


Noise Figure: All networks active or passive contribute noise to a
transmission system. The noise figure is a measure produced by a practical
network compared to an ideal network i.e. one that is noise less. For a
linear system noise figure is expressed by:NF (dB) = 10 log 10 Signal-to-Noise in / Signal-to Noise out
8

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Effective Isotropic ally Radiated Power (EIRP): This is an antenna
performance expressed in dBm or dBW over an isotropic antenna,
which radiates energy uniformly in all directions and has a gain of 1
or 0 dB and is an imaginary antenna used as a reference.
High Frequency Radio (HF): Radio frequency transmission between 3
and 30 MHz is called HF. HF propagation is characterized by
ground waves and sky wave component.
Ground waves follow surface of the earth and can provide useful
communication up to about 650 Km.
Sky waves permits reliable communication (up to 90 % path
reliability) for distances of 6500 Km and even more. The ionosphere
is the key to HF sky wave communication*.

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Terminal, Repeater (R/R), Drop Insert, Hop and Link concept for LOS
links:
Terminal-B
Microwave Vs OFC Route
Hop-10
65 Km

R/R-9
139 Km

Hop-9
R/R-7

Drop Insert-4

R/R-5

Hop-8

Drop Insert-8

Hop-5

Hop-4

Hop-7
Hop-6
R/R-3

130 Km
Hop-3
R/R-2

R/R-1
Hop-1

R/R-6

Hop-2
Terminal-A

10

LINE OF SIGHT LINKS (LOS)


(LINK ENGINEERING)
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Selection of sites which are in line-of-sight of each other


Selection of an operational frequency
Development of path profiles to determine economic tower
heights
Path calculations so as to achieve
Desired reliability for given fade margin and threshold level
Making path survey to ensure correctness of steps 1-4
Equipment configuration to achieve fade margins
Establishment of frequency plan
Finalization of bill of quantities
Placement of orders for equipments & towers
Installation testing and commissioning of links

11

LINE OF SIGHT LINKS (LOS)


(LINK ENGINEERING)
GENERAL FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENTS (BANDS)
FREQUENCY
WAVE LENGTH (CM)
1. LF : 30 kHz-300 kHz
2. MF : 300 kHz-3 MHz
3. HF : 3 MHZ-30 MHz
4. VHF : 30 MHZ-300 MHz
5. UHF : 300 MHz-3GHz
6. SHF : 3 GHz-30 GHz
100mm-10mm
7. EHF : 30 GHz-300 GHZ
THESE BANDS ARE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO SUBBANDS
12

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(Limitations of Line of Sight Systems)
How far we can go: The range of LOS microwave systems is limited by: Curvature of earth-Actual
Technical radio characteristics (K-factor)-Modified Earth Curvature
Actual Obstructions en-route in each hop
RF effect of fresnel zone
Path loss
Transmitter power
Antenna gains
Transmission line looses
Frequency of operation
Received power
Receiver threshold
Signal to noise ratio
Fade margin required
Desired reliability of link

13

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(Design of Line of Sight Microwave Links)
Link Design: The design of microwave links, involves three sets of
calculations.
1.
Working out antenna heights for the link.

K-factor is major dominant variable.

Earth bulge.

Fresnel zone radius.

Actual obstructions on the route

Path Loss

Operating frequency.

Path profile: it indicates the distance from one of the transmitter


site where obstructions to the line of sight radio link may occur.
The object of this calculation is to arrange tower heights along the
entire route of the link, so that an obstruction in the path does not
enter into the fresnel zone by a specified amount for a specified
K-factor used.
14

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(Design of Line of Sight Microwave Links)
2.
To determine equipment and other parameters for each hop.

Transmit power.

Antenna type and gain.

Transmission type.

Other losses. (Absorption, Diffraction, Reflection or Scattering etc.)

Maximum received power.

Receiver threshold.
This will decide the thermal fade margin, which we will be able to get for each hop.
3.
To determine the reliability of each hop and overall reliability of the link.

Climatic factor.

Terrain roughness.

Average annual temperature

Annual rain.
This will decide, what is total expected outage time per annum for each hop as well as for
the entire link.

15

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(Free Space Loss)

PROPAGATION:
1.

Free space loss: consider a signal is traveling between transmitter at


A to a receiver at B. There is for a given frequency and distance, a
characteristic loss. This loss increases with both distance and
frequency. It is known as free space loss.
Free space loss LdB=92.44+20 log10 F+20 log
( 10 D
Where F is in GHz and D is in km's.
If D is 40 Km and F is 6 GHz, then free space in dB
LdB=92.44+20 log 40+20 log 6
=92.44+20*1.6021+20*0.7782
=92.44+32.042+15.564=140.046 dB
16

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(Free Space Loss)
Free space loss:
Example:- Free space loss if F=2.5 GHz and D=30 Km
FSL (dB)
= 92.44 + 20 log 2.5 + 20 log 30
=92.44 + 20*0.398 + 20*1.478
=92.44 + 7.96 + 29.56 = 129.96 dB
Now, if F=7.5 GHz (changed) and D=30 Km (unchanged)
FSL (dB)
= 92.44 + 20 log 7.5 + 20 log 30
=92.44 + 20*0.875 + 20*1.478
=92.44 + 17.5 + 29.56 = 139.5 dB
Now, if F=2.5 GHz (unchanged) and D=40 Km (changed)
FSL (dB)
= 92.44 + 20 log 2.5 + 20 log 40
=92.44 + 20*0.398 + 20*1.602
=92.44 + 7.96 + 32.04 = 132.44 dB
It can be seen, that, free space loss increases both with distance and
frequency

17

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(Fictitious Earth Curvature)
2.

Earth bulge and K-factor:


The propagation of radio beam is affected by atmospheric conditions and the
obstructions on the way. It can be subjected to:
Diffraction
Reflection
Refraction
Most important is refraction, which is caused by changes in the density of
atmospheric layers confronted by the radio beam front.
The curvature of earth and slight bending of waves as it is refracted downwards by
the earths atmosphere are two factors, that, must be considered while making
path profiles.
The earths curvature and microwave beam refraction are combined to form
fictitious earth curvature or earth bulge.
EARTH CURVATURE (M)
=
0.078 x d1 x d2 / K
WHERE K = EFFECTIVE EARTH RADIUS/TRUE EARTH RADIUS
EARTH BULGE
=
d1 x d2 / 12.75 x K
EARTH BULGE FOR K=4/3
=
d1 x d2 / 17
EARTH BULGE FOR K=2/3
=
d1 x d2 / 8.5

18

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


( TOWER HEIGHT FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF K)
ACTIVITY

UNIT F=6.5
GHz

F=6.5
GHz

F=2.4
GHz

F=2.4
GHz

d1 distance from higher station

Km

15

16

21

22.5

d2 distance from lower station

Km

15

16

21

22.5

D hop distance

Km

30

32

42

45.0

Ea higher HASL

400

400

400

400

Eb lower HASL

300

300

300

300

Ep height of obstruction

330

330

330

330

Earth bulge for K=4/3 (d1 x d2 /17)

13.23

15.06

25.94

29.78

Earth bulge for K=2\3 (d1 x d2/8.5)

26.46

30.12

51.88

59.56

F first fresnel zone radius

19.76

20.44

40.60

42.18

0.3 F

5.93

6.13

12.18

12.66

Clearance CL-1=K 4/3 + F

32.99

35.50.

66.54

71.96

Clearance CL-2=K2/3 + 0.3 F

32.39

36.25

64.06

72.22
19

DISTANCE FROM CENTER OF PATH d

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(EARTH BULGE FOR VARIOUS K- FACTORS)

h=2d2/3K
h is in feet and d is in miles
h
d
15

10.58

112

225

DEPARTURE FROM A LEVEL TANGENT, h

20

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS

(Fresnel Zone)
3.

Fresnel zone:
The radio beam energy travels in an ellipsoidal wave front, the
different components of which maintains different path lengths.
The distance from microwave beams center is commonly
measured in fresnel zones to take into account both frequency
and distance.
The first fresnel zone (FFZ) is the surface of the point along which
the distance to the ends of the path is exactly wave length
larger than the direct end to end path.
FFZ radius in meters=17.32d1*d2/fD
Where d1 & d2 are in kms, f is the frequency in GHz and D is the
hop distance in Kms.
In order to achieve a free space propagation condition for a radio
beam at least 60 % of FFZ should be cleared under the standard
atmospheric condition of K=4/3.

21

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS

(Fresnel Zone)
FFZ radius in meters=17.32d1*d2/fD,
1.
If f=2.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=32.99 M
2.
If f=4.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=24.03 M
3.
If f=6.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=19.75 M
4.
If f=7.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=17.32 M
5.
If f=18.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=11.43 M
FFZ radius decreases with increase in frequency.
1.
If f=2.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=32.99 M
2.
If f=2.5 GHz and D=34 Km, then FFZ=35.33 M
3.
If f=2.5 GHz and D=36 Km, then FFZ=36.46 M
4.
If f=2.5 GHz and D=40 Km, then FFZ=38.64 M
5.
If f=2.5 GHz and D=50 Km, then FFZ=43.73 M
FFZ radius increases with increase in distance.
22

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(KNIFE-EDGE LOSS CALCULATIONS)
FRESNEL ZONE NUMBERS

+10
OBSTRUCTION ZONE

INTERFERENCE ZONE
R=1.0

0
R=0

dB

-10

-20

R= REFLECTION COEFFICIENT
-30

-40
-1

-0.5

0.5

CLEARANCE / FIRST FRESNEL ZONE

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

23

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(FIRST FRESNEL ZONE AND EARTH BULGE)

f
BUILDING

EARTH BULGE

NATURAL EARTH FEATURES

d1

d2

24

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(PROPAGATION CONDITIONS)
PERFECT

IDEAL

AVERAGE

DIFFICULT

BAD

STANDARD
ATMOSPHERE

NO SURFACE
LAYER OR FOG

SUBSTANDARD,
LIGHT FOG

SURFACE
LAYERS,
GROUND FOG

FOG, MOISTURE
OVER WATER

TEMPERATE
ZONE, NO FOG,
NO DUCTING,
GOOD
ATMOSPHERE,
MIX DAY &
NIGHT

DRY,
MOUNTAINOUS,
NO FOG.

FLAT,
TEMPERATE,
SOME FOG

COASTAL

COASTAL,
WATER,
TROPICAL

K=1.33

K=1.00-1.33

K=0.66-1.00

K=0.66-0.50

K=0.50-0.40

25

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(REFLECTION POINT)
The reflection point area lies between a k-factor of grazing (k=1) and
a k-factor of infinity.
From the profiles, possible reflection points can be obtained.
The object is to adjust tower heights, such that, the reflection point is
adjusted to fall on land area, where the reflected energy is broken
up and scattered (forest/wooded area).
Water bodies and other smooth surfaces cause reflection, which is
undesirable.
Figure will assist in adjusting the reflection point.
It uses a ratio of tower heights h1/h2, where shorter tower is always
h1 and distance expressed is always from h1.
By adjusting the ratio h1/h2 the reflection point can be moved.
For a highly reflective path, we may go in for space diversity.

26

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS

0.5
0.4

d1 / D

Distance to Reflection Point/Total Distance

(REFLECTION POINT)

0.3
0.2
0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Ratio of Tower Heights h1 / h2

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
1.0
.
0

27

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(DIVERSITY OPERATION)
Diversity Operations is based on the fact, that, radio signals received over different paths
will have different levels i.e. if one is faded, other may not. The separation may be in:
Frequency
Space (Including angle of arrival and polarization)
Polarization Diversity (Fade may not be same on both polarizations)
Angle Diversity ( Split energy at feed horn and signals arrive on separate paths)
Most common are Frequency (separated by 2-3 %) and Space (separated by 100200 , so that the reflected wave travels wave length further than the normal path).
The space diversity improvement can be calculated by Vagrant's formula applied to
fading margins. The improvement factor on fading margin is:
Le=10 log (1.2 x10-3 x S2 x V2 x fm/d), where:
S= Separation between the antennas
V= Power ratio between the two receivers
f = Frequency in GHz
m= Selective margin (Number)
d= Hop distance in Kms
Improvement is limited to 200.
Greater improvement can be obtained by combining frequency and space diversity.

28

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(RECEIVER SENSITIVITY, FADE MARGIN AND SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO)
Receiver Sensitivity: Sensitivity or Threshold Power of receiver is the level of signal
which would produce a 30 dB signal to noise ratio out of the base band of an
analogue receiver, or a bit error ratio (BER)=10-4 out of the base band of a digital
receiver. Typically it is -70 to -90 dB.
Fading: Received Signal vary with time due to multipath fading and rain etc. Refractive
index of atmosphere varies with Temp. humidity and pressure which in turn cause the
electromagnetic waves to change direction. Another cause for Multipath fading is
ground reflection. So a fade margin is built in Link Designing.
Fade Margin: The fade margin is the power level, that, the unfaded received signal can
fall to until it reaches the receiver threshold. This margin will vary depending on
geographic and climatic conditions of different geographic areas and desired
reliability of the system. Typically it is 20-40 dB.
Fade Margin dB=Prx-Pthresh
Signal to Noise Ratio: Its the minimum power difference between the wanted received
signal and received noise.
Signal/Noise Ratio (dB)=10 log10 (Signal Power/Noise Power)
Typically it is > 50 dB, logically it should be more than the Fade Margin, so that it is
always below the threshold level.

29

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(System and Link Reliability)
Reliability of the link: Outage time for each hop and for the complete link is to be
worked out, which in turn will give the over all reliability of the link in terms of
percentage. Rayleigh fading chart is given below.
Single hop reliability (%) Fade Margin
99.9
28 dB
99.99
38 dB
99.999
48 dB
CCIR defines its availability objective for radio relay systems over a hypothetical
reference circuit as 99.7 %. Resulting unavailability 0.3 % is of three components.
Outage due to power failure
Outage due to equipment failure
Outage due to propagation
It is reasonable to allot 50 % of the outage time to power and equipment failures and
50 % for propagation. Considering propagation alone, system should have an
availability (reliability) of 99.85 % apportioned across the 2500 Km route. This provide
guide to establish a per hop propagation reliability for a particular system.
Planner rather first set the limit for the reliability and for wide band links it is better
than 99.99 %.

30

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(LOS LINK GAINS AND LOSSES SIMPLIFIED)

ANTENNA GAIN

Misc. Loss=2dB
EIRP= + 60.5 dBm
LINE LOSS EACH=1.5 dB

27dBm

ANTENNA GAIN EACH END=35 dB


LINE LOSSES
FREE SPACE LOSS=139.2 dB

dB

11 GHz

LINE LOSSES
RECEIVER
ANTENNA GAIN
INPUT
-47.2 dBm
-68dBm

20 Km

31

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(LOS LINK GAINS AND LOSSES SIMPLIFIED)
TRANSMIT

Transmit Power

27

dBm

Antenna Gain

35

dBi

Feeder Loss

1.5

dB

EIRP
PATH LOSS

60.5

Path Length

20

Km

Frequency

11

GHz

Free Space Loss


RECEIVE

MISC.
RECEIVE POWER

dBm

139.2

dB

Antenna Gain

35

dBi

Feeder Loss

1.5

dB

Net Gain

33.5

dB

Combiner Loss

dB

-47.2

dBm
32

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(DETAILED PATH LOSS CALCULATION SHEET)
Site
from:
to:
Link name:
Equipment type:
Frequency:
Transmit power:
Nominal received power:
Receiver threshold:
Desired fade margin:
Desired reliability:
Hot standby / frequency diversity and / or space diversity:
Azimuth A B:
Azimuth B A:
Path length:
Path length:
33

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(DETAILED PATH LOSS CALCULATION SHEET)
SL.
NO.

DESCRIPTION

ADD OR
SUBTRACT

UNIT

COMMENTS

FREE SPACE LOSS

MINUS

dB

CONNECTOR LOSSES (SUM)

MINUS

dB

SUM OF TRANS. AND


RECEIVE

CIRCULATOR LOSSES (SUM)

MINUS

dB

SUM OF TRANS. AND


RECEIVE

POWER SPLIT LOSSES (IF ANY)

MINUS

dB

DIRECTIONAL COUPLER LOSSES (SUM)

MINUS

dB

SUM OF TRANS. AND


RECEIVE

TRANSMISSION LINE LOSSES (SUM)

MINUS

dB

SUM OF TRANS. AND


RECEIVE

OTHER LOSSES (SUM)

MINUS

dB

RECT. TO CIRCULAR
WAVE GUIDE

ANY OTHER LOSSES (RADOM)

MINUS

dB

SUM OF LOSSES

dB

34

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(DETAILED PATH LOSS CALCULATION SHEET)
SL.
NO.

DESCRIPTION

ADD OR
SUBTRACT

UNIT

10

TRANSMIT POWER

PLUS

dbm

11

TRANS ANTENNA GAIN

PLUS

dB

12

TRANSMIT REFLECTOR GAIN OR LOSS

PLUS OR MINUS

dB

13

RECEIVE ANTENNA GAIN

PLUS

dB

14

RECEIVE REFLECTOR GAIN OR LOSS

PLUS OR MINUS

dB

15

SUM OF GAINS

dB

16

INPUT LEVEL TO RECEIVER (9-15)

dbm

17

RECEIVER THRESHOLD

dbm

18

FADE MARGIN

dB

19

DIVERSITY IMPROVEMENT

NO

20

RELIABILITY OF THE HOP

21

OUTAGE BOTH WAYS - SECONDS

SECONDS

COMMENTS

35

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(PRELIMINARY SURVEY)

Topography of an area is to be extensively studied


with the help of detailed survey maps.
Initial study of the given link
Aerial/quick survey of terrain/map study
Selection of media of communication
LOS/OFC/Satellite etc
Formulation of best route & an alternate route
Selection of tentative sites & repeaters
Most techno economical media and route to be
finalized
36

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(PRELIMINARY SURVEY)

1.

Points to ponder for site selection


Near approach roads for accessibility
Near power supply lines to avoid solar power
Small hillocks gives height advantage &
reduced tower heights
Avoid lakes big water reservoirs
Dense forests fine
Study of other routes around the area
37

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES)
It will be found, that, a through map study will narrow down the problem
considerably particularly in case of multi-repeater systems with a wide
range of choices. By checking a number of possible routes from map
data alone, it will be usually possible to reduce the choice down to a few
alternatives
1.
Survey maps are available for every country & now digitized in most of
the countries
2.
Survey of India Topographical maps in different scales of (1:250,000,
1:50,000 and 1:25,000) provides most excusive information
3.
Indias co-ordinates are

Longitude 68 to 96 degrees E

Latitude 8 to 36 degrees N
4.
For preliminary survey i:2,50,000 scale or larger scales to be studied
where as for detailed survey 1:50,000 or 1:25,000 scales are required
5.
Tentative sites to be marked on the maps
6.
Each hop needs detailed study for working out exact tower heights

38

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES-INDEX OF MAPS)
36

43

52

61

39

44

53

62

71

77 82

40

45

54

63

72

78 83

41

46

55

64

73

79 84

47

56

65

74

85

48

57

66

49

58

32

28

Latitude N

24

20

16

86

12

87

8
68

72

76
80
Longitude E of Greenwich

84

88

92

96

39

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES)
Survey of India have divided India
in to blocks and maps
numbered. Each 1:250,000
sheet contains sixteen
1:50,000 sheets, which are
numbered from 1-16 i.e. say
number 84 is divided into 16
segments 84 A to 84 P as
shown opposite. Each such
map is in the scale of 1:
250,000.

1:2,50,000
Scale

P
40

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES)
Each segment is further divided in
to 16 sections say 84 A/1 to 84
A/16, which are 1:50,000
scale. For 1:25,000 scale
maps, each map is further
divided into 4 viz 84 A/2 will
have 84A/2/NW, 84A/2/NE,
84A/2/SW and 84A/2/SE.
Most likely sites will be located on
different maps, which may
have to be joined to study
individual hops

13

10

14

11

15

12

16

1:50,000
Scale
1:25,000
NW

NE
SE

SW

41

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES)
PATH PROFILING
1.
After tentative terminals or repeater sites are selected, draw a straight
line on maps connecting two adjacent sites
2.
Carefully trace from one site to another, marking all obstacles or
obstructions and possible points of reflection
3.
Mark the mid point, which is point of maximum earth bulge and to be
marked as obstacle
4.
Path profiles are plotted on rectangular graph paper or recorded for
feeding in to computer
5.
HASL of all obstacles between two sites marked on the map are to be
taken in to account at 1-2 km interval
6.
Carefully mark water bodies viz lakes, rivers, ponds etc for evaluation of
reflection points.
7.
Contour interval is at 5/10/20 M, bench mark heights can be located in
the maps, heights of most of the hill tops is also given.
8.
Study of maps will give an idea, which of the critical points have to be
visited and how to approach them during actual survey.
42

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES-RELEVANT POINTS TO BE CHECKED FOR PATH PROFILING )

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Contour interval: It may be at intervals of 5,10, 20 M or more.


Bench Marks and other heights: It is required to ascertain the
HASL of site in question.
Roads, cart tracks, foot paths: For approach to site and to look
around for any obstruction on both sides in a hop.
Dams, rivers, lakes and other reflecting bodies: For any reflection
points in a hop.
Hills, sand dunes, rocky slopes, cliffs: For any critical obstruction
points (OB).
Town, villages, towers, chimneys: For calculating OB points.
Communication Towers, Broadcasting stations, TV stations,
Airports: For checking interference from other media.

43

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


TRANSFER OF TERRAIN DATA
IN THE SOFTWARE MODULES TERRAIN PROFILE IS PREREQUISITE.
THIS CONSISTS OF A TABLE OF DISTANCE AND ELEVATION
BETWEEN TWO SITES OF ANY HOP. TERRAIN PROFILE IS
CREATED IN THE SOFTWARE MODULE BY ANY METHOD.
1.
AFTER DETAILED STUDY OF MAPS AND ROUTE SURVEY MANUAL
ENTRY OF CO-ORDINATES, ALTITUDES AND DISTANCES FROM
TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPS. SOFTWARE WILL CREATE A PROFILE.
2.
MANUAL ENTRY OF CO-ORDINATES AFTER SITE VISITS,
SOFTWARE HAVING A MAP SOURCE OF THE REGION WILL READ
FROM TERRAIN DATA BASE AND CREATE A PROFILE.
TERRAIN PROFILE MODIFICATIONS
1.
TERRAIN PROFILES TAKEN FROM MAP SOURCES USUALLY SHOW
LESS ALTITUDES AT STEEP HILL TOPS THERE BY INCREASING
THE TOWER HEIGHTS. THIS TYPE OF ERROR CAN BE
CORRECTED BY ACTUALLY VISITING THE HILL TOP AND
CHECKING THE HEIGHT BY HIGH RESOLUTION ALTIMETER.
44

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY - LIST OF INSTRUMENTS)
1.
2.
3.

Laptop with software tool and map source loaded


Global positioning system (GPS map 76-s or GPS-V)
Digital or analogue THEODOLITE/TELESCOPE with
compass as an attachment
4. Digital altimeter 0.5 m resolution
5. High resolution binoculars (Stinger-German) 25 Km
range
6. Digital Camera - Sony
7. WALKI-talkie 1.2 GHz range
8. WALKI-talkie VHF range
9. Digital or Analogue compass
10. Heliograph/Mirrors/Lamps for Line of Sight Tests
45

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY - LIST OF INSTRUMENTS)
11. Topographical Maps 1:50,000 (Best) For preliminary
work out 1:2,50,000 or large scale maps are helpful. In
hilly areas where contours are too close 1:25,000
maps are useful.
12. Measuring tape 5 and 50 m.
13. ROTRING scale 1:100, 125, 200, 250, 500, 750
14. Reporting Performa : To be completed before leaving
15. Magnifying glass
16. Stationary items
17. Topographical instruments
18. Ladders, Poles, flags, first aid kit, Helmets, safety
belts, shoes, water, Identity cards, letter of authority.
19. Balloons with flags at 1 M interval
46

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN MIRROR TEST)
Mirrors required for mirror tests: A perfect way of cross checking LOS.
1.
Two mirrors are scratched in the shape of a red cross as shown.
2.
Scratched portions are joined back to back, faces are out side.
Size of the mirror should
be such, that, it can be held
In the hand. Mirror is held in
hand and light of Sun is allowed
to fall on the mirror. Sun light will
be seen on the Palm and its
reflection in the mirror. Now,
the mirror is so adjusted, that,
it is directed towards the
direction of other station whose
Azimuth is known and mirror is
tilted such, that, parallax is
Removed Between rays falling
on the palm and its reflection in the
Mirror. The person at other site
Can see reflected signal, if LOS
Is there.

Reflection side of Mirror - 1

This test is very useful


1. For cross checking of LOS.
2. Useful in Metros having high
rise buildings and map study
has no relevance.
3. Between two hill tops, where
detailed maps are not available
and many critical obstructions
are seen.
4. If LOS is there, one can see
mirror up to hundreds of Kms.
Reflection side of Mirror - 2
Scratched side of Mirror 1 & 2

47

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY GPS APPLICATIONS)
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Measurements of exact latitude, longitude and altitude of site or for bench


marking.
Measurements of areas without triangulation.
Oceanic and en route navigation.
Precise airfield and landing aid locations.
Direct routing of aircraft for fuel saving.
Monitoring air craft locations in flight.
Search and rescue.
Tracking and recovering stolen vehicles.
Offshore drilling research.
Location of containers in marine terminals.
Maintaining security of VIPs.
Train control and collision avoidance.
Hydrographic surveying.
Placing and controlling satellites in orbit.
48

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


GPS MAP 76 S
GPSMAP 76 S IS A GPS AND MAPPING TOOL..
THE S STANDS FOR SENSORS BECAUSE IT
INCORPORATES A GPS RECEIVER, BAROMETERIC
ALTIMETER AND AN ELECTRONIC COMPASS THAT DELIVER
PRECISE LOCATION, ELEVATION AND BEARING
INFORMATION.
THE UNIT CAN TAKE A BASE MAP WITH A PLENTY OF
MEMORY (24 MB) FOR DOWNLOADING MAP SOURCE DATA,
IT IS WAAS (WIDE AREAAUGUMENTATION SYSTEM) ENABLED
PRODUCT. COLLECT DATA FROM THE REFERENCE
STATIONS AND CREATE A GPS CORRECTION MESSAGE. THIS
CORRECTION IS APPLIED TO THE WAAS- ENABLED GPS
RECEIVERS.
49

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
Path design: the basic purpose in engineering a radio relay path in
microwave range is to achieve a path which will meet the
requirements for long term medium noise and also ensure, that,
outages due to fading, below the predetermined value is minimized.
Regardless of system size, for proper system operation, it is essential
for each hop to have adequate clearances under all atmospheric
conditions.
To determine clearances, the actual topography of the path and also
the height location of obstacles along the path, such as multistoried
buildings, chimneys, trees, water bodies are taken into account.
In a relatively flat country a practical rule of thumb is, that, repeater
spacing are generally limited to 25-40 Km with tower heights up to
100 M. Actually, it depends on the topography of terrain. Can any
one imagine, that, LOS communication to two terminals which are at
a distance of 28 Km is possible with six hops having 3 active and 3
passive repeaters*.
50

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
Determining precise co-ordinates, ground elevation (HASL), pinpointing
potential obstacles on the point-to-point microwave path is a
critical part of the design process. Path survey consists of five
basic steps.
1.
Step one-site documentation:

Site location maps to be studied thoroughly to obtain best access


route to the site

On the way to site make note of the distances and time taken
from a well known reference point-mettle road- un-mettle roadcart road-foot path right up to the site. Description of accessibility
to site is very important for the visit by future teams.

Re-location of site if required

If it is existing site detailed information may have to be collected


from the concerned agency viz existing tower, equipment room,
power plant lay outs and their details etc

All collected data to be re-confirmed


51

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
2.

Step two-site location verification: if site is new it is to verified from maps,


THEODOLITE, electronic distance/height meter, known bench mark
position.
After proper verification of the site following data is to be collected.
Site co-ordinates: six digit co-ordinates to be marked. Cross checked by
GPS, maps.
HASL: cross checked from near by bench mark, barometric altimeter of
0.5 m resolution, maps and GPS.
Marking of tower center from minimum three reference points with
bearing angle from north and distance- near by hill top, chimneys,
buildings, transmission tower or any permanent structure. This is again
important for the visit by future teams.
Marking of preferably true north/otherwise magnetic north*.
Marking of azimuth (Map) of each antenna and checking of near end
obstructions: use THEODOLITE, prismatic compass and distance height
meter.
Tower height, antenna heights and AZIMUTHAL angles.

52

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)

Types and sizes of antennas.


Type and length of transmission lines.
Transmitter output power.
Receiver input level, receiver threshold level and requirement of
fade margin.
Check on space diversity requirements.
Number of main and stand by transmitters and receivers.
Laptop/small computer can be very handy at site.
Operating frequencies for future equipments.
Take photographs of site, which may be useful for identification in
future.
Take note of the type of soil and soil samples can be taken for
laboratory testing. This will be useful for economical design of the
tower.

53

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
If site is existing, complete lay-out of site is to be made.

Existing tower:
1.
Type and height of towers, guyed, mast. Take photos.
2.
Type, heights, AZIMUTHAL angles of each antenna and availability of
space for the type and at proposed height for new antennas.
3.
Availability of space for proposed transmission lines on the run way and at
wave guide entry point to equipment room.
4.
If there is some problem for items at Para 2 & 3, proposal to be submitted
in report.

Existing equipment, power plant rooms:


1.
Type of existing equipments, their operating frequencies & power etc. Lay
out to be drawn.
2.
Type of power plant, capacity, existing loads and spare capacity also in
case solar power is used.
3.
Take photos for various equipments.

54

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
3.

Step three-identification of critical points along the path.


On the maps two sites are joined by a thin straight line.
Determine the height, width of all obstructions along the path and
HASL at each point for all potential obstructions. Record the man
made obstructions, trees, chimneys etc. all above HASL at 1-2 km
Intervals, specially record center point obstruction.
Allow for future growth of trees and other vegetations for minimum
10 years.
Visit every likely critical point to ascertain its height and check
other parameters.
Determine the width of water bodies, other reflecting points falling
along the route.
Take mirror tests if after calculations, it is found, that, it is
feasible*.
Some clients insist on propagation tests, which is neither a
practical nor viable approach*.
55

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
4.

Step four-path profile: path profiles are drawn based on the detailed
survey report. It can be manually or by computerized software. Hop wise
data required is given below.

Site names.

Co-ordinates of each hop.

HASL of each site

Hop distance (If co-ordinates are fed to computer software, you get hop
distance and azimuthal angles)

HASL of each obstruction and its height including near-end obstructions.

Clearance criteria being adopted.


Say
Cl=k 4/3 + 100% ffz
AND OR
Cl=k 2/3 + 30% FFZ

Frequency band of operation.


With the above parameters antenna heights in each direction of operation can
be worked out and hence the tower height at each sight.

56

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
5.

Step five-detailed survey report: the report apart from antenna and tower
heights already worked out will need reliability calculations for each hop
and for the complete link. Determine following parameters.

Transmitter power

Size and gain of antennas for main and diversity operations (if
applicable)

Type and transmission line losses for main and diversity operations (if
applicable)

Other losses

Receiver threshold

Received power of receiver

Signal to noise ratio


We get Fade Margin and reliability/availability for each hop.
The complete exercise can be worked out manually with the help of a
calculator. But now a days different Software's are available for Path
Loss Calculations, which has made the job simple for the Engineers.

57

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
CASE STUDY: Feasibility study was carried out for
one of the clients for a route length of 2294 Km
and report submitted in 2 months. The detailed
survey was carried out by three teams in a
months time. Because of the limitations of the
client, we had to visit at least two to three times
the number of sites for microwave repeaters
than we would have visited in normal case*.
Client gave repeat order for another 2000 Km
after going through this report and analyzing the
recommendations.
58

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
CONTENTS
CHAPTER

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

DESCRIPTION
LINE DIAGRAM
SURVEY AT A GLANCE
INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION OF THE SURVEY
METHODOLOGY USED IN SURVEY
ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS
RESULTS AND PRESENTATION
RECOMMENDATIONS
SITE DETAILS

59

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
8.
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
9.
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
10.

DESCRIPTION
HOP DETAILS
PATH PROFILES
REFLECTION POINT PROFILES
TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET
RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET
LINK DETAILS
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION
TOWERS AND AERIALS
REFLECTION POINTS
INTERFERENCE CALCULATIONS
FREQUENCY PLAN
OUTAGE TABLE
SYNOPTIC OF THE LINK
TECHNO ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION
60

FEASIBILITY STUDIES
(Line Diagram)
LONG=
LAT

LONG=

LONG=

LONG=

LAT =

LAT =

LAT =
GIVE HOP DISTANCES AS PER DATA RESULTS

Km

Km

Km

A
73M/6

73M/14

79A/2

79A/6

GIVE BEARING ANGLES A-B & B-A


AS PER ACTUAL DATA RESULTS

+
73M/7

73M/11

+
73M/15

NOT TO SCALE

79A/11

79A/15

TYPICAL EXAMPLE
61

FEASIBILITY STUDIES
(SURVEY AT A GLANCE)
FOLLOWING INFORMATION CAN BE GIVEN IN A TABULAR FORM:
SL.NO.
1.
STATION NAME
BELMURI
OWNER
CLIENT NAME
HASL (M)
11
LONGITUDE
88 08 53 E

LATITUDE
22 56 12 N
ANTENNA HEIGHT (M) TOWARDS
80.2 AND 70.2 HOWRAH
83.4 AND 73.4 BURDWAN
AZIMUTH (DEGREES)
159.32 AND 323.24
HOP DISTANCE (Km)
43.75 AND 46.61
TOWER HEIGHT (M)
90
MAP NOS
79B/1
REMARKS
IF ANY, SAY AIR STRIP NEAR BY

62

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
1.

Introduction: Brief is given about the clients floating of an enquiry,


submission of the bid by the consultant and subsequent letter of award to
carry out feasibility study etc.
Details of officers involved in technical discussions and feasibility survey
works.
From clients side
a) Corporate Office
b) Regional Office
c) Field coordinators
d) Survey coordinators
From Consultants side
Feasibility study was carried out for 2294 Km route length in the states of
Orissa, West Bengal and Assam.
Details of links are given say,
A-B=169 Km
B-C=176 Km and so on

63

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
Clients Requirements:
Technical specifications and B.O.Q given by the client specified, that, wide
band communication systems needs to be established between various
control centers/substations of eastern region.
Media of communication to be through Microwave System, wherever
feasible.
End terminals to be located at the stations given in the BOQ and Repeaters
to be located in any of the manned 33/66/132/220 KV sub-stations on the
route.
In case the Microwave either becomes non-feasible or becomes much
costlier due to large number of repeaters, fiber optics is to be considered.
Optical Fiber Cable to run over 400/220 KV transmission lines between end
terminals. Repeater if any has to be considered in any of the manned
33/66/132/220 KV sub-stations to the extent possible, failing which
repeaters have to be located on the 400/220 KV transmission lines with
Solar Power.

64

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
Constraints:
Since repeater (R/R) sites became non-negotiable, it became necessary to
carry out the field survey first by making a visit to terminal stations and
proposed R/Rs on any 33/66/132/220 KV sub-stations.
In the process no of R/R sites to be visited became much more (2-3 times),
than, if R/Rs could be negotiable.
2. Organization of the Survey: The survey for this feasibility study was
carried out for one month by three different teams simultaneously to meet
time schedule of the client.
Each site (terminals and proposed R/Rs) was visited and map study carried
out on the Survey of India Maps of scale 1:50,000. Six digit coordinates
were marked by Global Positioning System (GPS) and cross checked on
maps.
Survey related data was collected for the sites and capacity of system data
collected from representatives of the client.
After elimination of non-feasible/extra sites, the selected sites were marked
on the site plans and brought forward in the feasibility report.

65

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
The survey of sites was carried out bearing in mind, that, existing
towers shall be shared wherever available and feasible for the best
usage of available national resources. However, if permission to
share the tower is not agreed upon, nearest sites may be chosen for
the erection of tower as per minimum height given in the report.
An integrated communication system of 8 Mbps in the frequency
band of 2.3 2.5 GHz was considered for Microwave Systems to
cater for Voice and Data Communication for the entire network,
whereas 34 Mbps OPGW/ADSS cable was considered, where
Microwave was either non-feasible or it becomes costly due to more
repeaters were coming in the section or tower height was more than
100 M.

66

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
3.

METHODOLOGY USED IN SURVEY: Each team used


following instruments.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Theodolite
Prismatic Compass
Altimeters
Binoculars
Camera
Topographical Instruments
Rodometer
Set of maps 1:2,50,000 and 1:50,000 scale
ROTRING scale and necessary stationary items
Apart from clients representative, It was necessary to take a local
person to act as a guide to show us different sites.
67

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
Following information was collected and points kept in mind during survey.
Determination of sites
Six digit coordinates by GPS and cross checking on maps
HASL i.e. Altitude was checked by Altimeter, GPS and cross
checked on maps
Exact location of plot, lay out of the station, orientation and collection of site data
Accessibility to site, by taking references from known points
Location, altitude and height of obstacles in each hop.
Antenna heights and in turn Tower heights. Towers were kept as low as possible but
up to a limit of 100 M.
For this clearance criteria given by the client was kept in mind
0.3 FFZ for K=2/3
1.0 FFZ for K=4/3, whichever was more stringent (Up to 44 Km)
Space Diversity was proposed on some of the hops either due to reflection point
falling on surface of water or length of hop (not meeting desired reliability)
Space diversity antenna's proposed at a spacing of 150 , which comes to 20 M.

68

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
4.

ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS:


Clients requirement of varied telecommunication facilities amongst various
dedicated service stations located on existing sites operating in 2.3 to 2.5 GHz
band.
The scheme falls under the category of light capacity routes, still its engineering
and design demands careful consideration to ensure high quality, stability and
reliability of the entire route.
Objective is to achieve a path, which will meet requirements for long term noise
and ensure, that, outage due to fading is below predetermined values.
Radio Engineer has to work with many different factors, some of which interact
with each other, but he has to come up with solutions which are feasible both
technically and economically.
It is essential for each hop to have adequate clearance under all atmospheric
conditions. For this, the actual topography of the path and also obstacles along the
path such as multistoried buildings, chimneys, trees, water bodies and other tall
structures will have to be taken into account. In relatively flat country R/R spacing
is 25-30 Km and Tower height up to 100 M, economy plays a major role for this
height limitation. (In HBJ gas pipe line project this limit was crossed with the result
weight of 100 M tower was around 85 MT, where as that of 127 M tower was
around 185 MT, increasing enormously cost of foundation and tower material)

69

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
Map engineering and site selection:
Usually topography of an area is extensively studied before going to the
field.
In this case, since R/R sites were non-negotiable, there was no choice but
to visit the sites first and mark them on the maps.
All the sites visited were marked on the maps, traveling along each path,
collecting information about the type, size, location and characteristics of
obstacles, such as, buildings, trees, chimneys, water bodies, low lying
areas, river beds, lakes, hills and anticipated critical points. Preliminary
profiles were made.
Map engineering was carried out on Survey of India maps 1:50,000 scale
with contour intervals at 10-20 M.
Work out all the alternatives in the night, eliminate non-feasible and extra
sites, take decisions before proceeding further.
Terminals were fixed by the client, repeaters were to be selected from a
number sub-station choices.
Engineer had to exercise a great deal in selection of repeater sites for the
proposed study to meet the path design requirements with regard to:
70

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
Clearance criteria: Following criteria was adopted for this scheme.
1.0 F at K=4/3 ( more stringent up to 44 Km)
0.3 F at K=2/3 (more stringent beyond 44 Km)
Free Space Loss=92.44 + 20 log10 F + 20 log10 D
where F is in GHz and D is in Km.
Space Diversity: Vertical antenna space diversity was proposed in few
links, wherever it was found necessary for improving the link
reliability. Clearance criteria adopted for space diversity antenna
was K4/3+0.6F.
Reflection point: Due care was taken to avoid reflection, but in one
case link was across a dam, in which case space diversity was
proposed. This was the only case where, space diversity was
proposed due to reflection and not because hop was long.

71

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATIONS)
COMPARISON FOR CLEARANCE CRITERIA BETWEEN (K4/3+1.0F) AND (K2/3+0.3F) WHICHEVER IS CRITICAL

ACTIVITY

UNIT

F=6.5 GHz

F=6.5 GHz

F=2.4 GHz

F=2.4 GHz

d1 distance from higher station

Km

15

16

21

22.5

d2 distance from lower station

Km

15

16

21

22.5

D hop distance

Km

30

32

42

45.0

Ea higher HASL

400

400

400

400

Eb lower HASL

300

300

300

300

Ep height of obstruction

330

330

330

330

Earth bulge for K=4/3 (d1 x d2 /17)

13.23

15.06

25.94

29.78

Earth bulge for K=2\3 (d1 x d2/8.5)

26.46

30.12

51.88

59.56

F first fresnel zone radius

19.76

20.44

40.60

42.18

0.3 F

5.93

6.13

12.18

12.66

Clearance CL-1=K 4/3 + F

32.99

35.50.

66.54

71.96

Clearance CL-2=K2/3 + 0.3 F

32.47

36.25

64.06

72.22

Slope=(Ea-Eb) d1/D

50.0

50.0

50.0

50.0

OH (over head clearance)

15

15

15

15

Tc=(Ep-Ea)+ clearance Max + Slope + OH

27.99

31.25

61.54

67.22

72

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
5.

RESULTS AND PRESENTATION: Results of survey were


displayed in three parts.
I)
Site Details:
a) A data sheet giving:Geographic coordinates and altitude
Station to be served
Reference of map on which station is located
Access sketch with reference to surrounding cities and villages
Details if site is existing
Information about energy
Information about vegetation and soil
Information about towers, aerials, azimuth and more precisely type
of tower and its height
Diameter and height of antenna
73

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
b) Orient Sheet Giving: A part of the map with indication on site location and direction to
last, next and other sites (if any)
Orientation of the site with reference to some permanent marking
i.e. hill tops, buildings, chimneys, transmission lines or any
permanent structure, with approximate distances and azimuthal
angle from north. Since all the sites were existing, orientation was
not given in the report.
c) Site lay out:Site lay-out at different scales, giving by drawing all the information
about the site as found from either, site lay out or information
collected from clients representatives. Proposed location of Tower
with respect to control Room was given.

74

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION

II) Hop Details:


Path profiles:- Path profiles have been drawn on flat earth by
computer for clearance criteria already specified. In case of space
diversity links lower antenna height is mentioned. Clearance criteria
adopted for space diversity antenna was 4/3+0.6 F.
Reflection point profiles:- Due care was taken to ensure, that, the
reflection points do not fall on water surface/reflecting surfaces by
adjusting antenna heights by using PATH LOSS software program
Version 3.0.
Tower height calculation sheet:- The desired information already
collected from the field during survey was fed to the computer
software to arrive at the tower heights for each hop.
Reliability calculation sheet:- Going through the clients
specifications, equipment is selected which are fed to the computer
along with antenna gains and transmission line losses figures.
Reliability figures were checked and in case, desired results were
not achieved, changes were made to meet the targets.
75

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
I)
II)
III)
IV)
V)
VI)
VII)

III)
Link Details:
Geographical information
Towers and aerials
Reflection points
Interference calculations
Frequency plan
Outage table
Synoptic of the link
The above information in the tabular forms was given for the
entire route length.
Wherever, microwave links were not feasible, Fiber Optics was
suggested.

76

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
6.

Recommendations:
Selection Criteria:- Considering the present and future requirements of client for
voice and data, feasibility study was carried out for 8 Mbps Microwave System in
2.3 to 2.5 GHz frequency band on all feasible links.
Optical Fiber System was recommended where Microwave was not either feasible
or it was becoming more costly due to more repeaters.
Considering the overall requirements of the client, as specified in the tender and
discussion with their representatives from time to time, following parameters were
kept in mind for preparing this report.
MICROWAVE:
Overall reliability was kept better than CCIR limits.
Network to provide 120 digital channels of 64 Kbps.
Fade margin has been kept 30- 40 dB.
Reliability has been worked out for 8 Mbps at 2.4 GHz.
OPTICAL FIBER:
Optical Fiber repeater spacing was limited to 100 Km.
Optical Fiber Repeaters to be located at 33/66/132/220 KV sub-stations as for
as possible, in the absence of which it was to be kept on tower near road
crossings with provision of solar power.
77

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
MICROWAVE SYSTEMS:
Merits: Optimum use of the capacity by the user. 2.3 to 2.5 GHz are low capacity systems.
Project can be completed quickly on available sub-stations. Delay in acquiring land is
avoidable.
Microwave is slightly cheaper as long as repeater spacing is between 25-40 Km.
Demerits: Site clearance from SACFA takes time.
WPC is conserving frequencies and sparing minimum slots.
There is tendency of Microwave becoming costlier than Fiber Optics.
In spite of best design of Microwave System, there could be chances of interference
from other users.
Land acquisition, Tower foundation and erection are time consuming and could cause
delay if sub-soil is rocky or have high water table.
In close proximity of EHT lines, tower erection could hazard and need extra care.
Since repeater stations shall be erected in the campus of other agencies, there could
be coordination problems during execution. Operation and maintenance of the
system.

78

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
OPTICAL FIBER SYSTEM:
Merits: Can be installed on existing or future power lines easily.
In case no dropping of channels is required it can be installed end to end
between two terminals.
Optical fiber is safe, since it is over the EHT lines.
Number of repeaters are far and few, lesser the equipment lesser the
maintenance problems.
Optical fiber cable maintenance can be done along with the EHT lines.
The system provides unlimited capacity and is easily expandable. Extra
capacity can be leased out and generate extra revenue.
Demerits: Optical fiber repeaters are to be located in any of the sub-stations failing
which they were to be located on 220/440 KV transmission lines with solar
power, which could be a vulnerable point in remote areas.
Failure of transmission towers is likely to disrupt the communication for a
longer period.
79

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND


REPORT GENERATION
RECOMMENDATIONS:
Feasibility study was carried out for 2294 Km route length to see, if Microwave
Systems were feasible on these routes. Though microwave links were feasible on
1334 km as indicated in the report. It was recommended, that, optical fiber cable
could be the best communication media for the entire region for the following
reasons.
Single media of communication is the best from execution, operating and
maintainability point of view. Microwave cannot be single media, since it is nonfeasible on many routes.
Separate clearances for Frequency and SACFA not be taken.
Co-ordination, operational and maintenance problems with other agencies, where
microwave repeaters shall be falling could be avoided.
Interface problems amongst different media can be avoided.
Microwave system will be used only by nodal agency, whereas if optical fiber is used,
spare fiber can be leased out to other agencies, thereby generating extra revenue.
For microwave systems Royalty and License fee to be paid to DOT is a recurring
expenditure.
OFC system has unlimited channel bandwidth. Future expansion is easy and
relatively less expensive, unlike Microwave Systems.

80

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(SITE DETAILS)
(SITE PARTICULARS CALCUTTA)
Site Particulars: The information for each site to be noted in tabular form.
1.
Site Name: Calcutta
2.
Link Name: Calcutta-Durgapur
3.
Longitude: 88 21 03 E
4.
Latitude: 22 29 49 N
5.
Altitude: 6 M
6.
Operating Frequency: 2400 MHz
7.
Map Number: 79/B-6 Scale: 1:50,000
8.
Access to sit: Existing otherwise details to be given.
9.
Room for Equipment: Available in existing building.
10.
Type of soil: Normal soil with sand at top.
11.
Vegetation: Grassy
12.
Energy: AC and -48 V available
13.
Tower:
Type SS
Height 100 M (Existing)
14.
Antenna:
Type
Diameter Height
Azimuth Towards
DAX-6
1.8 M
50 M
325.33 Howrah
15.
Remarks: Permission for using existing 100 M tower of DOT to be taken by client.

81

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(SITE DETAILS)
(SITE MAP AND SITE ORIENTATION)

Map No: 79/ B


Azimuth Angle
A= 55
B= 120
C= 300

HOWRAH

Distance
750 M
1.2 Km
7.9 Km

325.33

CALCUTTA

North
Hill

1:50,000 SCALE MAP

A
Building

C
B
Proposed Tower center

Road crossing

82

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(SITE DETAILS)
(SITE PARTICULARS BELMURI)
Site Particulars: The information for each site to be noted in tabular form.
1.
Site Name: BELMURI
2.
Link Name: Calcutta-Durgapur
3.
Longitude: 88 08 53 E
4.
Latitude: 22 56 12 N
5.
Altitude: 11 M
6.
Operating Frequency: 2400 MHz
7.
Map Number: 79/B-1
Scale: 1:50,000
8.
Access to sit: Existing otherwise details to be given.
9.
Room for Equipment: Available in existing building.
10.
Type of soil: Normal.
11.
Vegetation: Grassy
12.
Energy: AC available, DC not available
13.
Tower:
Type SS
Height 90 M
14.
Antenna:
Type
Diameter Height
Azimuth
Towards
DAX-10
3M
80.2 M
159.32
HOWRAH
DAX-10
3M
70.2 M
159.32
HOWRAH
DAX-12
4M
83.4 M
323.24
BURDWAN
DAX-8
2.4 M
73.4 M
323.24
BURDWAN

83

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(SITE DETAILS)
(SITE LAYOUT PLAN BELMURI)
BELMURI SITE: (NOT TO SCALE)

SWITCH YARD
20 M
SHED

20 M

PROPOSED LOCATION FOR 90 M TOWER

RAILWAY TRACK

ROAD

CONTROL ROOM

RAMP

50 M

84

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(SITE DETAILS)
(SITE PARTICULARS BURDWAN)
Site Particulars: The information for each site to be noted in tabular form.
1.
Site Name: BURDWAN
2.
Link Name: Calcutta-Durgapur
3.
Longitude: 87 52 32 E
4.
Latitude: 23 16 25 N
5.
Altitude: 28 M
6.
Operating Frequency: 2400 MHz
7.
Map Number: 73/M-15
Scale: 1:50,000
8.
Access to sit: Existing otherwise details to be given.
9.
Room for Equipment: New.
10.
Type of soil: Normal.
11.
Vegetation: Grassy
12.
Energy: AC available, DC not available
13.
Tower:
Type SS
Height 100 M
14.
Antenna:
Type
Diameter Height
Azimuth
Towards
DAX-12
4M
96.5 M
143.13
BELMURI
DAX-8
2.4 M
86.5 M
143.13
BELMURI
DAX-12
4M
97.0 M
299.00
MANKAR
DAX-10
3M
44.2 M
291.41
Galsi (alternative to MANKAR)
15.
Remarks: 100 M cable required from new equipment room to control room.

85

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(SITE DETAILS)
(SITE LAYOUT PLAN BURDWAN)
BURDWAN SITE: (NOT TO SCALE)

KATWA

BURDWAN

ROAD

OH
CABLE

PROPOSED
100 M TOWER
(OPTION-I)

CONTROL
ROOM
(SINGLE
STORY)

70 M

SWITCH YARD
PROPOSED
100 M TOWER
(OPTION-II)

86

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(SITE DETAILS)
(SITE PARTICULARS MANKAR)
Site Particulars: The information for each site to be noted in tabular form.
1.
Site Name: MANKAR
2.
Link Name: Calcutta-Durgapur
3.
Longitude: 87 32 07 E
4.
Latitude: 23 25 49 N
5.
Altitude: 60 M
6.
Operating Frequency: 2400 MHz
7.
Map Number: 73/M-11 Scale: 1:50,000
8.
Access to sit: Kacha road (Motor able).
9.
Room for Equipment: New.
10.
Type of soil: Normal.
11.
Vegetation: Grassy
12.
Energy: Not available
13.
Tower:
Type SS
Height 50 M
14.
Antenna:
Type
Diameter Height
Azimuth Towards
DAX-12 4 M
48 M
116.42 BURDWAN
DAX-10 3 M
42 M
313.76 PARULIA
15.
Remarks: Since this is new site, suitable space be kept for Eqpt. room and Tower.
87

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(SITE DETAILS)
(SITE LAYOUT PLAN MANKAR)
MANKAR SITE: (NOT TO SCALE)

PROPOSED LAND FOR 132 KV SUB STATION

PROPOSED 50 M TOWER

DVC WATER SUPPLY


FOR IRRIGATION

PROPOSED TELECOM BUILDING

MANKAR RURAL HOSPITAL

MOTOR ABLE ROAD

88

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(PATH PROFILE BELMURI - BURDWAN)

160
140
120

96.5

83.4 100
80
60
40
20
11 M 0

28 M

10

BELMURI
LATITUDE 22 56 12 N
LONGITUDE 88 08 53 E
AZIMUTH 323.24 DEG.
ELEVATION 11 M AMSL
ANTENNA CL 83.4, 73.4 M AGL

15

20

25

PATH LENGTH 46.61 Km


FREQUENCY=2400 MHz
K=0.66, 0.66
% F=30.00, 20.00

30

35

40

45

BURDWAN
LATITUDE 23 16 25 N
LONGITUDE 87 52 32 E
AZIMUTH 143.13 DEG.
ELEVATION 28 M AMSL
ANTENNA CL 96.5, 86.5 M AGL

89

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(REFLECTION POINT PROFILE BELMURI - BURDWAN)
BELMURI BURDWAN HOP:

160
140
120
100
80
60

40
20
0
0

5
10
15
20
25
30
REFLECTION PLANE DEFINED BETWEEN 0.00 AND 46.61 Km
REFLECTION POINT LOCATION AT 22.3 Km

35
40
45
FREQUENCY 2400 MHz
FRESNEL ZONE 30.0 %F1

90

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI-BURDWAN)
BELMURI

BURDWAN

LATITUDE

22 56 12 N

23 16 25 N

LONGITUDE

88 08 53 E

87 52 32 E

AZIMUTH

323.24

143.13

DISTANCE (Km)

46.61
NAD27 CLARKE 1866

DATUM
UTM ZONE

45

46.61
NAD27 CLARKE 1866
45

EASTING (Km)

617.716

589.538

NORTHING (Km)

2536.830

2573.936

ELEVATION (M)

11.0

28

MAIN ANTENNA HEIGHT (M)

83.4

96.5

DIVERSITY ANTENNA HEIGHT (M)

73.4

86.5

FREQUENCY (MHz)
POLARIZATION

2400
VERTICAL

2400
VERTICAL

91

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI-BURDWAN)
DISTANCE (Km)

ELEVATION (M)

OBSTRUCTION HEIGHT (M) AG

0.00

11.2

5.00

10.0

15 T

10.00

12.0

15 T

15.00

12.0

15 T

20.00

15.0

15 T

25.00

20.0

15 T

30.00

24.0

15 T

35.00

25.0

15 T

40.00

26.0

15 T

45.00

20.0

15 T

46.61

28.0

92

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI - BURDWAN)
bel-bur.p13 - 1

BELMURI

BURDWAN

11.00

28.00

LATITUDE

22 56 12 N

23 16 25 N

LONGITUDE

88 08 53 E

87 52 32 E

AZIMUTH

323.24

143.13

ANTENNA TYPE (MAIN)

DAX-12

DAX-12

ANTENNA HEIGHT (M)

83.38

96.46

ANTENNA GAIN (dBi)

38

38

RANDOM LOSS (dB)

0.25

0.25

TX LINE TYPE (MAIN)

FOAM 1-1/4

FOAM 1-1/4

TX LINE LENGTH (M)

105

116

TX LINE UNIT LOSS (dB/100 M)

5.2

5.2

TX LINE LOSS (dB)

5.46

6.03

CONNECTOR LOSS (dB)

1.00

1.00

ELEVATION (M)

93

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI - BURDWAN)
bel-bur.p13 - 2

BELMURI

BURDWAN

ANTENNA TYPE (DIVERSITY)

DAX-8

DAX-8

ANTENNA HEIGHT (M)

73.38

86.48

ANTENNA GAIN (dBi)

33.5

33.5

RANDOM LOSS (dB)

0.25

0.25

FOAM 1-1/4

FOAM 1-1/4

TX LINE LENGTH (M)

94

107

TX LINE UNIT LOSS (dB/100 M)

5.2

5.2

TX LINE LOSS (dB)

4.89

5.56

CONNECTOR LOSS (dB)

1.0

1.0

CIRCULATOR BRANCHING LOSS (dB)

0.5

0.5

TX SWITCH LOSS (dB)

1.20

1.20

TX FILTER LOSS (dB)

2.0

2.0

RX HYBRID LOSS (dB)

2.5

2.5

DIV. RX CIRCULATOR LOSS (dB)

2.5

2.5

OTHER RX LOSS (dB)

3.0

3.0

TX LINE TYPE (DIVERSITY)

94

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI - BURDWAN)
bel-bur.p13 - 3

BELMURI

FREQUENCY (MHz)

BURDWAN

2400

POLARIZATION

VERTICAL

PATH LENGTH (Km)


FREE SPACE LOSS (Db)
ATMOS. ABSORPTION LOSS (dB)

2400
VERTICAL

46.61

46.61

133.44

133.44

0.29

0.29

MAIN NET PATH LOSS (dB)

83.42

83.42

DIVERSITY NET PATH LOSS (dB)

81.85

81.96

TX FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT (MHz)

2400

2400

TX POWER (WATTS)

0.89

0.89

TX POWER (dBm)

29.49

29.49

EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (dBm)

57.08

56.5

10-3

10-3

-91.00

-91.00

-30

-30

RX THRESHOLD CRITERIA
RX THRESHOLD LEVEL (dBm)
MAXIMUM RECEIVED SIGNAL (dBm)

95

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI - BURDWAN)
bel-bur.p13 - 4

BELMURI

BURDWAN

MAIN RX SIGNAL (dBm)

-53.93

-53.93

DIVERSITY RX SIGNAL (dBm)

-52.36

-52.47

THERMAL FADE MARGIN (dB)

38.64

38.53

CLIMATIC FACTOR

0.5

0.5

TERRAIN ROUGHNESS (M)

6.10

6.10

C FACTOR

1.65

1.65

AVERAGE ANNUAL TEMP. (DEG. C)


DIVERSITY TYPE

28
SPACE DIVERSITY BB

28
SPACE DIVERSITY BB

SD IMPROVEMENT FACTOR

31.79

31.66

WORST MONTH MULTIPATH 1 WAY (SEC)

2.72

2.80

WORST MONTH MULTIPATH 1 WAY (%)

99.999896

99.999894

ANNUAL MULTIPATH 1 WAY (SEC)

12.24

12.59

ANNUAL MULTIPATH 1 WAY (%)

99.999961

99.999960

ANNUAL MULTIPATH 2 WAY (%-SEC)

99.999921-24.83

99.999921-24.83
96

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(PATH PROFILE BURDWAN - MANKAR)

93.2 AGL
120
48 AGL

100
80

M
60

60 ASL

40
28 ASL
20

5
10
BURDWAN
LATITUDE 23 16 25 N
LONGITUDE 87 52 32 E
AZIMUTH 296.56 DEG.
ELEVATION 28 M HASL
ANTENNA CL 93.2 M AGL

15
20
PATH LENGTH 38.87 Km
FREQUENCY 2400 MHz
K = 1.33
% F = 100.00

25

30
35
MANKAR
LATITUDE 23 25 49 N
LONGITUDE 87 32 07 E
AZIMUTH 116.42 DEG.
ELEVATION 60 M HASL
ANTENNA CL 48 M AGL

97

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(REFLECTION POINT PROFILE BURDWAN - MANKAR)

120

100
80

60

40

20
0

10

15

20

25

REFLECTION PLANE DEFINED BETWEEN 0.00 AND 38.87 Km


REFLECTION POINT LOCATION AT 24.2 Km

30

35

38.87

FREQUENCY 2400 MHz


FRESNEL ZONE 100 %F1

98

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
BURDWAN

MANKAR

LATITUDE

23 16 25 N

23 25 49 N

LONGITUDE

87 52 32 E

87 32 07 E

296.56

116.42

AZIMUTH
DISTANCE (Km)

DATUM

38.87

NAD27 CLARKE 1866

UTM ZONE

45

38.87

NAD27 CLARKE 1866


45

EASTING (Km)

589.550

554.688

NORTHING (Km)

2573.930

2591.092

ELEVATION (M)

28.0

60.0

ANTENNA HEIGHT (M)

93.2

48.0

FREQUENCY (MHz)
POLARIZATION

2400
HORIZONTAL

2400
HORIZONTAL

99

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
DISTANCE (Km)

ELEVATION (M)

OBSTRUCTION HEIGHT (M) AG

0.00

28.0

11.00

35.0

15 T

13.50

37.0

15 T

20.00

40.0

15 T

21.75

42.3

15 T

37.50

60.0

15 T

38.87

60.0

100

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
bur-man 1 .pl3-page 1

BURDWAN

MANKAR

28.00

60.00

LATITUDE

23 16 25 N

23 25 49 N

LONGITUDE

87 52 32 E

87 32 07 E

AZIMUTH

296.56

116.42

ANTENNA TYPE (MAIN)

DAX-12

DAX-12

ANTENNA HEIGHT (M)

93.19

48.02

ANTENNA GAIN (dBi)

38.00

38.00

RANDOM LOSS (dB)

0.25

0.25

TX LINE TYPE (MAIN)

FOAM 1-1/4

FOAM 1-1/4

TX LINE LENGTH (M)

116.00

68.00

TX LINE UNIT LOSS (dB/100 M)

5.20

5.20

TX LINE LOSS (dB)

6.03

3.54

CONNECTOR LOSS (dB)

1.00

1.00

ELEVATION (M)

101

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
bur-man 1 .pl3-page 2

BURDWAN

MANKAR

CIRCULATOR BRANCHING LOSS (dB)

0.50

0.50

TX SWITCH LOSS (dB)

1.20

1.20

TX FILTER LOSS (dB)

2.00

2.00

RX HYBRID LOSS (dB)

2.50

2.50

RX FILTER LOSS (dB)

2.00

2.00

OTHER RX LOSS (dB)

3.00

3.00

2400

FREQUENCY (MHz)
POLARIZATION

HORIZONTAL

PATH LENGTH (Km)


FREE SPACE LOSS (Db)

HORIZONTAL

38.87

38.87

131.86

131.86

0.24

ATMOS. ABSORPTION LOSS (dB)

2400

0.24

NET PATH LOSS (dB)

79.88

79.88

TX FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT (MHz)

2400

2400

TX POWER (WATTS)

0.89

0.89

102

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
bur-man 1 .pl3-page 3

BURDWAN

MANKAR

TX POWER (dBm)

29.49

29.49

EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (dBm)

56.51

59.00

RX THRESHOLD CRITERIA

10 E -3

10 E -3

RX THRESHOLD LEVEL (dBm)

-91

-91

MAXIMUM RECEIVED SIGNAL (dBm)

-30

-30

RX SIGNAL (dBm)

-50.39

-50.39

THERMAL FADE MARGIN (dB)

40.61

40.61

CLIMATIC FACTOR

0.50

0.50

TERRAIN ROUGHNESS (M)

6.10

6.10

C FACTOR

1.65

1.65

28.00

28.00

AVERAGE ANNUAL TEMP. (DEG. C)


DIVERSITY TYPE

NON DIVERSITY

NON DIVERSITY

103

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(HOP DETAILS)
(RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
bur-man 1 .pl3-page 4

WORST MONTH MULTIPATH 1 WAY (SEC)


WORST MONTH MULTIPATH 1 WAY (%)
ANNUAL MULTIPATH 1 WAY (SEC)
ANNUAL MULTIPATH 1 WAY (%)
ANNUAL MULTIPATH 2 WAY (%-SEC)

BURDWAN

MANKAR

31.83

31.83

99.998789

99.998789

143.22

143.22

99.999546

99.999546

99.999092 286.44

99.999092 286.44

104

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(LINK DETAILS)
(GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION)
FOLLOWING INFORMATION CAN BE GIVEN IN A TABULAR
FORM:
SL.NO.
1.
STATION NAME
BELMURI
OWNER
CLIENT NAME
HASL (M)
11
LONGITUDE
88 08 53 E
LATITUDE
22 56 12 N
AZIMUTH (DEGREES)
159.32 TOWARDS HOWRAH
323.24 TOWARDS BURDWAN
TOWER HEIGHT (M)
90
HOP DISTANCE (Km)
43.75 TOWARDS HOWRAH
46.61 TOWARDS BURDWAN
REMARKS
IF ANY SAY AIR STRIP NEAR BY
105

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(LINK DETAILS)
(TOWERS AND AERIALS)
FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS GIVEN IN A TABULAR FORM:
S.N.

STATION
FROM

STATION
TO

ANT.
DIA.(M)

ANT.
HT. (M)

AZIMUTH
DEGREE

TX LINE
(M)

CALCUTTA

HOWRAH

1.8

50

325.33

70

HOWRAH

CALCUTTA
BELMURI

1.8
3.3

52.6
84.2,74.2

145.31
339.38

73
105, 95

BELMURI

HOWRAH
BURDWAN

3.3
4.0,2.4

80.2,74.2
83.4,73.4

159.32
323.24

101, 91
104, 94

BURDWAN

BELMURI
MANKAR

4.0, 2.4
4.0

96.5, 86.5
93.2

143.13
296.56

117, 107
116

MANKAR

BURDWAN
PARULIA

4.0
3.0

48.0
41.9

116.42
313.76

68
62

PARULIA

MANKAR

3.0

55.0

133.69

75

106

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(LINK DETAILS)
(REFLECTION POINTS)
S. NO.

HOP

FREQUENC
Y
(MHz)

HOP
DISTANCE
(Km)

REFLECTION
POINT LOCATION
(Km)

REMARKS

CALCUTTA-HOWRAH

2400

9.75

4.6

NO REF.
ANTICIPATED

HOWRAH-BELMURI

2400

43.75

22.3

NO REF.
ANTICIPATED

BELMURI-BURDWAN

2400

46.61

22.3

NO REF.
ANTICIPATED

BURDWAN-MANKAR

2400

35.33

24.2

NO REF.
ANTICIPATED

MANKAR-PARULIA

2400

29.96

12.0

NO REF.
ANTICIPATED

107

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(LINK DETAILS)
(FREQUENCY PLAN)

F
E
V

f1

H
f1

C
f1 f1

V
f1

26.96 Km

PARULIA
55

35.33 Km
MANKUR
50

f1
f1

f1

f1 f1

46.61 Km
BURDWAN
100

43.75 Km
BELMURI
85

9.75 Km
HOWRAH
85

CALCUTTA
50

108

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(LINK DETAILS)
(INTERFERENCE CALCULATIONS)
RE
C.
ST.

W.
S.
F.

W.
S.
F.

XP
D

FB
D

DD

AD

OL

TO
TA
L

20

25

20

65

XP
D

FB
D

DD

AD

OL

TO
TA
L

XP
D

FB
D

DD

AD

OL

TO
TA
L

25

45

70

25

45

70

8.8
2

40

20

69

25

45

70

25

45

70

7.4
5

30

20

57

25

45

70

6.5
3

28

20

54

25

45

70

25

45

70

10.
86

20

20

50.
86

25

45

70

11.
3

20

20

51

109

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(LINK DETAILS)
(OUTAGE TABLE)
S.NO.

HOP

ANNUAL-2
WAY (%)
RELIABILITY

OUTAGE-2
WAY (SEC)

REMARKS

CALCUTTA-HOWRAH

99.999987

4.20

NON DIVERSITY

HOWRAH-BELMURI

99.999878

38.52

DIVERSITY

BELMURI-BURDWAN

99.999921

24.83

DIVERSITY

BURDWAN-MANKAR

99.999092

286.44

NON DIVERSITY

MANKAR-PARULIA

99.999745

80.40

NON DIVERSITY

110

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(LINK DETAILS)
(SYNOPTIC OF THE LINK)

96.5M
83.4M
93.2M

84.2M

80.2M
8

86.5M

73.4M
0
.
70.2M 2

55M
48M
55 M

50 M

50.0M

52.6M
41.9M

29.96 Km
PARULIA

74.2M

MANKAR

100 M

35.33 Km
BURDWAN

85 M

46.61 Km
BELMURI

85 M

50 M

43.75 Km
9.75 Km
HOWRAH CALCUTTA

111

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


(TECHNO - ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION)
{(CALCUTTA PARULIA (DURGAPUR)}
FIBER OPTICS
SL.
NO.

DESCRIPTION

MICROWAVE
QTY.

UNIT
PRICE
(US$)

TOTAL
(US$)

SL.
NO.

DESCRIPTION

QTY.

UNIT
PRICE
(US$)

TOTAL
(US$)

OFC (12 F)

200

2500

500000

RADIO EQPT. S/D

24539

98156

LAYING OF OFC

200

1250

250000

RADIO R/R EQPT.

49078

294468

LINE TML. (FO) EQ.

7500

30000

MULTIPLEXERS

2500

10000

FIBER OPTIC R/R

15000

15000

SERVICE CH. UNIT

10

1035

10350

SERVICE CH. UNIT

1035

4140

ALARM CON. UNIT

10

2528

25280

ALARM CON. UNIT

2500

10000

NMS

26500

26500

NMS

26500

26500

ANT.& TX. LINE SYS.

14

6669

93366

MULTIPLEXERS

2500

10000

TOWERS (80m)

70000

210000

POWER PLANT

8750

35000

POWER PLANT

10

8000

80000

10

INST. & COMM.

LS

176128

176128

10

INST. & COMM.

LS

124836

124836

1056768

972956

112

GUILDLINES
(SURVEY FOR LINE OF SIGHT LINKS)
1.
2.

Formation of team for survey


Collection of:
Relevant survey instruments/tools etc.
Topographical maps 1:25,000/50,000 scale with contour at 10 M.
Site Profiles/Drawings
Data on existing towers and availability of space
Antennas/Equipment.
Customers specifications and requirements.
Information about location of Radar Sites and Airports.
Information about existing Terrestrial systems in the area.

113

GUILDLINES
(SURVEY FOR LINE OF SIGHT LINKS)
3.

4.

6.

Map Study as per tender requirements for Co-ordinates, altitude,


terrain conditions and LOS conditions.
Site survey:- Is carried out for each site to determine:
Access road and approach to site
Longitude, latitude, altitude and availability & stability of power
supply.
Soil bearing capacity, weather conditions, availability of
Infrastructure etc.
Hop Survey: Map study and terrain between two site of each hop
is thoroughly trekked to determine:
Altitude and heights of Near end obstructions, 1-2 Km points
along the LOS route for each hop.
Water logging and other reflecting areas.
Likely interference from nearby Radar and Airport sites.

114

GUIDELINES
(SURVEY FOR LINE OF SIGHT LINKS)
7.

Preparation of Drawings:
Site lay out plan
Path profiles: Clearance criteria (as per clients
requirements) , heights of critical points (as per survey)
to be taken into account.
8. Finalization of:

Tower Heights:-are calculated for each hop. K-factor,


first fresnel zone clearance, critical points, reflection
points and diversity option are main factors.

Received level and reliability calculations as specified.


9. Finalization of System Design: Transmitter Power,
location of Terminals, Repeaters, Antenna
Size/Type/Gain, TX line-Type/Loss.
115

TRANSMISSION PLANNING GUIDELINES


BHARTI CELLULAR LIMITED-EASTERN REGION
1.TRANSMISSION DESIGN CRITERIA (ACCESS PLANNING):
POWER TRANSMIT: 18 dBm FOR FLEXIHOPPER 18 GHz RADIOS.
POWER TRANSMIT: 20 dBm FOR FLEXIHOPPER 15 GHz RADIOS.
TRAFFIC CAPACITY: CAN BE 4E1, 8E1 OR 16E1.
RADIO OPERATING MODES: SINGLE (1+0) FOR SITES IN LOOP/RING.
HSB (1+1) FOR REMOTE LOOP SITES. FOR SPUR LINKS WILL BE
(1+0) BUT WILL BE (1+1) IF TWO MORE SITES DEPENDENT ON IT.
1E1 TO BE COSIDERED FOR CITY SITES.
RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER: -81 dBm FOR 15GHz 16X2.
RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER: -83 dBm FOR 15GHz 8X2.
RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER: -86 dBm FOR 15GHz 4X2.
INTERFERENCE MARGIN: 3 TO 4 Db.
RELIABILITY OF LINKS: 99.995 FOR ACCESS LINKS AND 99.999 FOR
BACKBONE.
116

TRANSMISSION PLANNING GUIDELINES


BHARTI CELLULAR LIMITED-EASTERN REGION

FADE MARGIN: 35-40 dB.


RAIN REGION: N (120 mm/h)
ANTENNA SIZES: 0.6 M AND IF REQUIRED 1.2 M.
ANTENNA HEIGHT: MAX. 40 M.
ANTENNA SIZES FOR BB LINKS: 1.8 M/ 2.0 M.
ANTENNA HEIGHT FOR BB LINKS: 80 M.
PREFERENCE IS TO ESTABLISH AS MANY AS LOOPS AS POSSIBLE, SINCE
IT PRODUCES 10-100 FOLDS IMPROVEMENT IN THE LINK AVAILABILITY
COMPARED TO SINGLE NON-PROTECTED LINK.
Microwave Radio Type
Maximum Hop Distance (Km)
Antenna Sizes for both Sites
FlexiHopper 15G,
H Pol. 120 mm/hr. V Pol. 120 mm/hr.
16E1 (1+0)
0.6 m
1.2 m
0.6 m
1.2 m
5.0 Km 7.5 Km
6.5 Km 10.5 Km
FOR LOS STUDY 100 % F.F.Z. CLEARANCE AT K=4/3, WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR
ACCESS NETWORK PLANNING.

117

TRANSMISSION PLANNING GUIDELINES


BHARTI CELLULAR LIMITED-EASTERN REGION
2. BACKBONE TRANSMISSION DESIGN CRITERIA:
POWER TRANSMIT: 24 dBm FOR CERAGON STM-1 RADIOS.
POWER TRANSMIT: 23 dBm FOR FLEXIHOPPER 7 GHz RADIOS.
RADIO OPERATING MODES: HSB (1+1) FOR ALL LINKS.
SPACE DIVERSITY WILL BE USED FOR ALL BACKBONE SDH LINKS.
FOR SPUR LINKS NOKIA WILL PERFORM LINK AVAILABILITY
CALCULATIONS.
TRAFFIC CAPACITY: STM-1 FOR Ceragon 7GHz (28 MHz BW) and
16E1 for Nokia FlexiHopper 7 GHz (28MHz BW).
RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER10 raised to power minus 6: 68 dBm for Ceragon radios.
RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER TEN RAISED TO POWER
MINUS 6: -81dBmFOR FLEXIHOPPER 7 GHz 16X2 RADIOS.
LINK RELIABILITY: 99.999 AND FOR SECTION 99.995.
118

TRANSMISSION PLANNING GUIDELINES


BHARTI CELLULAR LIMITED-EASTERN REGION

RAIN ZONE: 120 MM/HR. RAIN INTENSITY (0.01 %).


FADE MARGIN: 35-40 Db
MAXIMUM HOP LENGTH IN 7 GHz FOR STM-1 CAPACITY IS GIVEN.
SL.NO. FREQ. LINK CONFIG.
ANTENNA SIZES
1.2 M
1.8 M
2.4 M

7 GHz (1+0)
13.5Km 17.4Km 19.4Km
(1+1)HSB
12.0Km 15.7Km 17.9Km
(1+1)HSB WITH S/D
17Km 28Km 35Km
FOR LOS STUDY, 100 % FIRST FREZNEL ZONE CLEARANCE AT
K=4/3 AND 60 % F.F.Z. CLEARANCE ATK=2/3 WILL BE CONSIDERED
FOR BACK BONE PLANNING.

119

SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND BID


SUBMISSION FOR LOS AND OFC LINKS
CONCLUSION: The course has been developed with the objective,
that, Engineers come out of colleges with more theoretical
knowledge and are not aware of actual field problems. International
Exposure experienced during last 20 years on similar assignments
have been shared.

120

SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND BID


SUBMISSION FOR LOS AND OFC LINKS
Tick () on ones
1.
(a) Free space loss increases if frequency is increased and decreases if distance
is increased.
(b) Free space loss decreases with the increase of both distance and frequency.
(c) Free space loss increases with the increase of both distance and frequency.
2.
(a) First Fresnel Zone Radius increases with increase in distance and decreases
with increase in frequency.
(b) First Fresnel Zone Radius decreases with increase in distance and increases
with increase in frequency.
(c) First Fresnel Zone Radius decreases both with the with increase in distance
and in frequency.
3.
For standard atmosphere value of K is: (a) K=1 (b) K=4/3 (c) K=2/3
4.
In a hop Earth Bulge is maximum at (a) the ends (b) the center (c) the critical
obstructed point.
5.
Reflection point area lies between a K factor of: (a) K=1 and K=Infinity.
(b) K=4/3 and K=2/3 (c) K=7/6 and K=5/12.
121

SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND BID


SUBMISSION FOR LOS AND OFC LINKS
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.

For a hop if all other parameters are kept same, for K=4/3 tower height will be (a)
less (b) more (c) equal in comparison with K=2/3.
If frequency diversity is used, the separation between two frequencies is generally
kept (a) 12-20 % (b) 2-3% (c) 5-10%.
Separation between Space Diversity antennas is to the tune of:
(a) 100-200 (b) 5-10 (c) 20-40 .
CCIR defines availability of radio relay links over hypothetical reference circuit of
2500 Km route as (a) 97.9 % (b) 79.7 % (c) 99.7 %.
India is located between following co-ordinates:
(a) Latitude 8 - 36 N, Longitude 68 - 96 E
(b) Latitude 8 - 36 S, Longitude 68 - 96 W
(c) Latitude 8 - 36 N, Longitude 68 - 96 W
Azimuthal angles or bearing is measured from:
(a) True South (b) True North (c) True East
Maximum height of line of sight towers is normally limited to:
(a) 200 M (b) 300 M (c) 100 M

122

SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND BID


SUBMISSION FOR LOS AND OFC LINKS
13.
14.

Reliability of a LOS hop can be improved by:


(a) Space Diversity (b) Increasing the hop distance (c) Decreasing tower height.
On a straight link when single frequency is used in tandem, normally change of
polarization is recommended every: (a) 3rd hop (b) hop (c) 5th hop (d) depends on
the configuration of the route.

123