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PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF DC

ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTORS USING A


NOVEL SWITCHING TECHNIQUE
M.Sc.Engg. Thesis Presentation
Presented by

S.M.Ferdous
Std. ID 092606

Overview of the Presentation


Performance improvement of a DC Drive based
traction system using a novel winding switch-over
technique in Compound Motor.
Modeling and characterization of the motor.
Analysis of Traction Load characteristics.
Design and Simulation of Converter.
Controller Circuits.
Overall System Modeling and Simulation.
Conclusion

Introduction
Electric Traction
Locomotive
Main Line Supply System Based.
Battery Operated.

Electric Vehicle
Battery Operated (Stand Alone).
Hybrid

Electric Traction Drives


AC Drives (Induction Motors, PMSM)
DC Drives (Series Motors, PMDC Motors)
Modern Drives (SRM, LIM, Magnetic Levitation)

Electric Traction Drives


Electric Vehicles will lead to revolutionary
improvements on vehicle performance, energy
source and pollutant emissions.
Very high efficiency and optimal performance.
Energy Conservation.
Ideal for traction system.
Advantages of Electric Drives for traction
Disadvantages

Characterization of Electric Motors for Traction


Application

High speed motors capable of operating in extended constant


speed region are best suited for Electric and Hybrid vehicles
(EV and HEVs).
Vehicle Operating Constraints like- initial acceleration and
gradability can be met with minimum power rating.

Characterization of Electric Motors for Traction


Application (contd.)
Longer constant power range operation of the motor
effectively reduces the motor power rating.
Reduced Power consumption.
Improved, fast and rapid acceleration.
Gradeability of the vehicle is improved.
Single and simple gear transmission.
Reduction in size and capacity of battery.
Design of the vehicle is compact, robust, highly
efficient and reliable.

Tractive effort and power versus vehicle speed with


different speed ratio, x

Introduction of Compound Motor as


Traction Drive
DC Series motor is widely and conventionally used for traction
purpose as its characteristics matches the Traction load
characteristics the most.
At the same time DC series motor suffers from two significant
disadvantages Field control is not suitable and unstable
during regenerative braking.
A Compound motor provided with winding change over
facility should outdo the performance of DC series motor.
This will enable the motor to operate at three different
configuration Compound, Series and Shunt.
This would suit the traction characteristics more.
Switching will prolong the constant power range operation of
the motor.

Introduction of Compound Motor as


Traction Drive (contd.)

Fig.3. Different Torque-Speed Characteristics of a DC Machine of same power


rating (175W) with three separate configuration

Introduction of Compound Motor as Traction Drive


(contd.)

Introduction of Compound Motor as Traction Drive


(contd.)

Winding Change over design

This simple arrangement can be designed for winding change over


using a SPST and a SPDT switch.
Change over will take place by sensing the speed of the vehicle
using a tachometer and a F/V converter.
Simple Relay contacts (N/O and N/C) can be used for winding
change over purpose.

Free wheeling path for the winding current must be provided .

Benefits of winding change over Technique used


for the motor
An Optimum performance would be obtained using a DC
Compound motor with winding change over technique
High starting Torque with Low speed
Due to winding change over a high final speed is attained with a
drop in Load Torque.
Very smooth regenerative braking is possible as the machine will be
configured as Shunt Motor during the time of regenerative braking
which is very much stable for this kind of operation.
Reduced Power rating of the motor to achieve same performance.
Single gear transmission instead of Multi gear transmission system.
Reduced sizing of the on board energy storing device or conversely
mileage of the vehicle will be increased with the storage battery of
same size and capacity.
Saving in energy is increased as the kinetic energy of the vehicle will
be used to charge the battery through regenerative braking which
implies as almost 30-40% of energy can be saved by the system.

Modeling and Analysis of the Motor

The General equations of the Motor suggests that, a


compound motor is highly non-linear in nature and
hence its analysis would be very difficult.
Torque-Speed, Torque-Current and Speed-Current
equations are highly no linear in nature.

Specification of the Motor

Ia = Armature Current
IF = Field Current
V = Supply Voltage
EB = Back EMF
RT = Total Resistance of the armature circuit = Ra+Rse
Ra = Resistance of the armature
Rse = Resistance of the series winding
RF = Resistance of the field winding.
= Total Flux = se+sh
se = Flux produced from Series field (Wb) =
sh = Flux produced from Shunt field (Wb) =
= Angular velocity (rad/sec) = ; N = R.P.M of the motor
KB = Back EMF Constant

Specification of the Motor

The specification of motor is as follows :


Voltage, V = 60V, Ia(rated) = 40A , IF = 5A, Total Current, ITotal = 40+5=45A
Total armature Resistance, Rtotal = Rse+Ra = 0.15;
Field Resistance, RF = 12
Rated power, P
No load Speed of the motor, NNL = 1800 RPM
No load angular velocity, NL = 188.4 rad/sec
To overcome the maximum torque offered by the load (i.e. the vehicle
itself) the motor must be capable of developing a torque of 65Nm at rated
condition. So, the rated torque of the motor should be 65N.m and must be
developed at rated power.
rated = 38.1 rad/sec

Characteristics of the Motor


Speed-Current characteristics is given by Torque-Current Characteristics is given by Speed-Torque characteristic is given by-

where,

Characteristics of the Motor

Non-Linear Model of the Motor

Non-Linear Modeling of the Motor


(contd.)
Assuming the field Current is constant the model can be
converted into-

Linearization of the Model


The linearized system model equations can be written as
(neglecting all the small terms with values very close to zero)

Linearized Block Diagram

Linearized Transfer Function


The Linearized transfer Function obtained aswhere,

Dynamics of Traction Load


Modeling of traction load means is to develop an equation for the
tractive effort required for the propulsion of the vehicle.
Total force required for the propulsion of the vehicle is given byFte= Frr+ Fad+ Fhc+ Fla+ Fa
Where,
Frris the rolling resistance force,
Fadis the aerodynamic drag,
Fhcis the hill climbing force,
Flais the force required to give linear acceleration
Fa is the force required to give angular acceleration to the
rotating motor
We should note that Fla and Fa will be negative if the vehicle is
slowing down, and that Fhc will be negative if it is going downhill.

Dynamics of Traction Load (contd.)


Putting all the vehicle parameters the final equation for
tractive load can be obtained as-

Fte =
The system arrangement for vehicle propulsion can be shown
with the following diagram-

Dynamics of Traction Load (contd.)


Load Torque referred to motor shaft can be written as-

Specification of the Vehicle


The electric vehicle has a mass of 380 kg, with a typical passenger of
mass 180 kg (for 3 passengers with average mass of 60kg) so total
mass m = (180+200) = 380 kg.
To incorporate the angular acceleration of different rotating parts of
the vehicle along with motor, m is increased by 5% in the linear
acceleration term only. A value of 400 kg will thus be used for total
mass of the vehicle.
The drag coefficient Cd is estimated as 0.3, a reasonable value for a
small electric vehicle whose shape of the body is aerodynamically
designed and optimized.
The frontal area of vehicle and rider = 1.2 m2.
The tires and wheel bearings give a coefficient of rolling resistance,
rr= 0.005 which is a typical value for specially designed tires for
electric vehicle.
The motor is connected to the rear wheel using a 2:1 ratio belt
system, and the wheel diameter is 60 cm. Thus G = 2 and r = 0.3 m.

Equation of Dynamics of the vehicle


Putting all the values in the obtained equation of the
torque-

This equation defines the load torque in terms of


motor speed. Where as a torque equation in terms
of vehicle speed can be obtained by simple
manipulation as-

Simulation of vehicle acceleration and other


parameters
Two equations are obtained to simulate the vehicle
performance parameters. The 1st equation is applicable when
motor speed is less than Base speed and the 2nd equation will
be applicable when the motor speed is greater than Base
speed.

Simulation Results (without winding


Change over)

Figure 17: The initial acceleration and final


velocity of the vehicle. From the figure it is
clearly evident that the vehicle takes just
over 5 seconds to reach its maximum speed
of 22.5kmph.

Figure 18: The torque-velocity curve of


the motor and vehicle respectively.

Simulation Results (without winding


Change over) (contd.)

Fig. 18 : Motor Torque and current Profile with respect to time and velocity

Simulation Results (with winding Change over)

Fig. 19. Simulated Speed, acceleration and Torque characteristic of the vehicle with
the feature of winding change over facility.

Simulation Results (with winding Change over)


A comparative diagram showing the speed without and with the winding
change over facility would be more helpful to justify the improvement in
the performances of vehicle. A diagram of such kind is shown in Figure 20
in the following-

Figure 3.11: Comparative analysis showing the differences in terms of final speed
between the two types of motor.

Simulation Results (with winding Change over)


There is a sharp rise in current to a extremely high value
which is sufficient to damage the motor. So, Power electronic
current controller along with converter must be provided to
limit the current with in a permitted range.

Fig.21 : Current profile of the motor during


its entire period of operation.

Fig. 22: Speed-current characteristic of the


motor. After winding change over, the value of
the current remains very high during the
entire period of its acceleration.

Design of Converter and Controller


For any traction application a two quadrant converter
with a pair of reversing switch is necessary. Otherwise it
is not possible for the motor to operate at all four
quadrants as it is mandatory for any motor to be
capable of operating in all the four quadrants employed
for traction application.
In this design a Two Quadrant Class C DC-DC converter
along with a pair of reversing switch are used. The
converter has a novel integrated feature of both PWM
and Hysteresis controller, where the PWM controller is
used for variable voltage operation of the motor (to run
the vehicle at different speed) and hysteresis controller
is used for the purpose of current control

Design of Converter and Controller


The designed system is shown in brief in the following block
diagram-

Fig.24 : Block Diagram Representation of the Motor Controller

2-quadrant Class C DC-DC Converter

A typical class C converter is made of one pair of diode and one pair of switch.
Generally, it is made from one buck and one boost converter. For normal motoring
mode the circuit operates as buck controller. During braking of the motor which is
also known as regenerative braking, the converter operates as a boost converter to
feed back the stored kinetic energy of the motor to the source and thus reducing
its speed.

Fig. 25 : Class C DC-DC converter

Buck Operation (Motoring Mode)


Transistor T1 and Diode D1 will be operating in
Motoring Mode and hence the converter will
act like a buck converter.

Fig. 26 : Buck Converter

Buck Operation (Motoring Mode)

Buck Operation (Motoring Mode)


Current Sensing
Circuit
PWM Controller

Hysteresis
Controller

Simulation Result

Fig. 27 : Motor Current, Output Voltage and PWM signal of the converter.

Simulation Result

Fig. 28 : Motor Current with out controller.

Simulation Result

Fig. 29 : Hysteresis current controller action to limit the starting motor current
within its maximum limit. If the motor current exceeds twice the value of the rated
current the controller turns off the power supply and when the current falls to
value sufficiently low enough the controller again turns on the power supply.

Simulation Result

Fig. 30 : Output voltage of the converter at a Duty cycle of 90%. The variable output
voltage can be obtained by varying the duty cycle of the converter. Variation of duty
cycle is possible by varying the reference voltage of the PWM comparator

Boost Converter (Regenerative Braking)

Transistor T2 and Diode D2 will be operating


together in this mode and the circuit behave
like a Boost converter.

Fig. 31 : Boost Converter for regenerative braking

Simulation Result (Boost Converter)

Fig 31 : Simulation of Boost Converter for Regenerative Braking

Simulation Result (Boost Converter)

Variable Duty cycle


PWM signal generating
Circuit for the Boost
Converter

Simulation Result (Boost Converter)

Fig. 32 : Output Voltage and Current of the Boost converter during Braking

Simulation Result (Boost Converter)

Fig. 33 : Generation of Reference signal to vary the duty cycle of the converter

Simulation Result (Boost Converter)

Fig. 34 : Boost Converter Input Power due to the kinetic energy stored in the vehicle .

Simulation Result (Boost Converter)

Fig. 35 : Boost Converter Output Power. This amount of energy which is equal to the
area under the curve, is feed back to the source

Overall System Simulation

Fig. 36 : Simulation of the entire Electromechanical System Using SIMULINK

Overall System Simulation

Simulated
Converter
Block

Fig. 36 : Simulation of the entire Electromechanical System Using SIMULINK

Overall System Simulation

Simulated
Traction Load
Fig. 36 : Simulation of the entire Electromechanical System Using SIMULINK

Overall System Simulation

Switch to
Simulate the
Winding
Change over
of the motor
Fig. 36 : Simulation of the entire Electromechanical System Using SIMULINK

Overall System Simulation

Instant of Winding
Change over

Fig. 37 : Speed response of the vehicle with simulated in SIMULINK

Overall System Simulation

Fig.37 : Current output of the motor. The motor current is being regulated by
the Hysteresis controller, always remains in the permissible limit of operation

Overall System Simulation


Instant of Winding
change over and there
is a large spike in
current, eventually
limited by hysteresis
controller
When Ever the
motor current
exceeds the upper
limit, the hysteresis
controller limits the
current within the
pre-defined range

Fig.37 : Current output of the motor. The motor current is being regulated by
the Hysteresis controller, always remains in the permissible limit of operation

Overall System Simulation


Motor Current
increases to its rated
value after winding
change over (40A)

Small value
of current as
motor speed
is very low

Fig.37 : Current output of the motor. The motor current is being regulated by
the Hysteresis controller, always remains in the permissible limit of operation

Overall System Simulation

Fig.38 : Load Torque for the motor, i.e. Torque offered by the vehicle towards
the motor.

Overall System Simulation

Fig. 40 : Output Power of the motor. Operated at rated power at the design
Speed (2400W)

Overall System Simulation for Series


Motor

Fig. 41 : Final Speed of a DC Motor with series configuration. The final Speed of
the vehicle is 57 kmph.

Overall System Simulation for Series


Motor

Fig. 41 : Armature current of the series Motor which is around 22A.

Overall System Simulation for Series


Motor

Fig. 41 : Output Power of the Series Motor (1375W)