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# DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

OF AC MACHINES
VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MACHINES

## ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE on

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND
ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

Outline
Principles of Vector Control for induction machines
Vector control problem and solutions:
Indirect VC and Direct VC
Dynamic behaviour
Flux Observers

Pagina 2

T 3

P rr 2
P
I r 3 Er I r
e s
e

## The circuit shows the two leakage inductances

The circuit gives explicit account for the air-gap flux
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 3

## Generalized IM equivalent circuit (steadystate)

~
aEr

a is a generalized constant
a=Ns/Nr yields the classical equivalent circuit
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 4

~
aEr

Lm
Lr

## Only one leakage inductance

The circuit gives explicit account for the rotor flux
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 5

~ ~
~
I s I sT jI s

## Stator current can be decomposed into two components.

The two components are in quadrature.

## One component is proportional to (establishes) rotor flux.

The other component, given the rotor flux, is proportional
to the torque.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 6

Lm ~
Er
~
~
~
Er
Er
Lr
I s

Lm
jX m
je Lm
j
Xm
Lr

~
~
Er jer

~
r Lm I s

Pagina 7

~
L ~
I r m I sT
Lr

T 3

Er I r 3

(e Lm I s ) (

Lm
I sT )
Lr

Lm
T 3 P
I sT I s
Lr
Pagina 8

~
I sT

Lm ~
Er
Lr
2

Lm rr

2
s
Lr

Lr s ~
Er
Lm rr

~
~
Er je Lm I s

~
~
L
I sT j r se I s
rr

rr I sT
s e

Lr I s

## Fixing the current components

fixes also the slip frequency.
In fact, fixing the synchronous
frequency and the rotor flux
defines the mechanical
characteristic. Therefore, fixing
the torque defines also the slip.

Pagina 9

## Stator current can be viewed as the phasor sum of two

Is is proportional to rotor flux.

rotor current).

Pagina 10

10

Pagina 11

11

## To achieve vector control for IM means to determine the

two components of the stator current Is and IsT which are
proportional to the rotor flux and the torque.
As a consequence, also the amplitude Is and angle (and
frequency, of course) of the stator currents are determined.
Chosing the currents means also that the equivalent circuit
can be completely solved: it is possible to determine which
is the voltage that allow to achieve the required current.
Finally, also the slip frequency (and therefore the
mechanical speed) is determined by the currents.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 12

12

## From phasors to synch. reference frame

The phase relations that hold for phasors are still valid when
we consider rotating vectors.
The synchronous reference frame is obtained from the
arbitrary reference frame, when: (t ) e (t )
dr r
and the d-axis is aligned with the rotor flux:
qr 0

Pagina 13

13

## From phasors to synch. reference frame

It is possible to define the equivalent circuit in the
synchronous reference frame, valid in steady state:

Pagina 14

14

## Vector control problem for IM

Knowing the desired rotor flux and torque, it is possible to
define the desired stator current rotating vector.

## By using the synchronous reference frame, aligned with the

rotor flux, the q- and d- axes components of the desired
current are identifed.

PROBLEM
How do we know where the rotor flux is?
In PM machines measuring rotor position was enough;
for IM slip must be considered!
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 15

15

## 1. INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL

In order to determine the position of the rotor flux,
mechanical shaft position is measured and the slip
frequency equation is used.

## 2. DIRECT VECTOR CONTROL

The position of the rotor flux is calculated through flux
observers which make use of other variables
measurements.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 16

16

## Rotor flux position

rr
se
L
r
*

I qs*

I *
ds

Estimated
values!!!
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 17

17

## Indirect Vector Control (CSI inverter)

CR network =
derivative operator

The derivation is
term which
compensates for
phase angle
variations

r
se r
L
r
*

I qs*

I *
ds

Estimated
values!!!
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 18

18

## When there is a change in

the reference from Iqs1* to
Iqs2*, the resolver block
will identify the new
amplitude, while the slip
calculator block will help
determine the frequency.
The phase change will not
be detected. Therefore, the new reference will be Is* instead of
Iqds2*, with a phase error . If not compensated, this error
will still go to zero eventually, but the dynamic perfomances
will be deteriorated.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 19

19

## Rotor flux position is

identified through the block
CFO (flux observer).
The same block estimates
also the rotor flux
amplitude, which is useful
to estimate also the torque.
Lm 2
T 3 P
I sT I s
Lr

3
L
P m r I qs
2
Lr

Rotor flux
Paginaposition
20
20

Pagina 21

21

## Transient analysis of Vector Controlled IM

Machine equations in the synchronous reference frame
d
qs Ls iqs Lm iqr
vqs rs iqs qs e ds
dt
d
ds Ls ids Lm idr
vds rs ids ds e qs
dt
d
qr Lm iqs Lr iqr
0 rr iqr qr (e r ) dr
dt
d
0 rr idr dr (e r ) qr
dr Lm ids Lr idr
dt
3
L
T P m (dr iqs qr ids )
2
Lr
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 22

22

## Transient analysis of Vector Controlled IM

Machine equations in the synchronous reference frame with
the d-axis aligned with rotor flux (r=dr)
d
qs Ls iqs Lm iqr
vqs rs iqs qs e ds
dt
d
ds Ls ids Lm idr
vds rs ids ds e qs
dt
d
qr Lm iqs Lr iqr = 0
0 rr iqr qr (e r ) dr
dt
d
0 rr idr dr (e r ) qr
dr Lm ids Lr idr
dt
3
L
T P m (dr iqs qr ids )
2
Lr
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 23

23

## Transient analysis of Vector Controlled IM

Equations affected by the condition of rotor flux alignment:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

0 rr iqr (e r ) dr
d
0 rr idr dr
dt
Lm iqs Lr iqr 0
T

iqr

Lm
iqs
Lr

extension of:

3
L
P m dr iqs
2
Lr

~
L ~
I sT r I r
Lm

## and consistent with (2) in

I dr 0
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 24

24

## Transient analysis of Vector Controlled IM

Equations affected by the condition of rotor flux alignment:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

0 rr iqr (e r ) dr
d
0 rr idr dr
dt
Lm iqs Lr iqr 0
T

## From (1) we have:

e r s e

rr iqr

dr

or also:
rr Lm iqs
s e

Lr
dr

3
L
P m dr iqs
2
Lr

extension of:
s e
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

rr I sT

Lr I s
Pagina 25

25

## Rotor current on d-axis

From (2) : 0 rr idr d dr
dt
From :

dr Lm ids Lr idr

I dr 0
idr

dr Lm ids

(5)

Lr
during transients.

rr Lm
dr ( s )
ids ( s )
(rr sLr )

## Following a step change in ids, the rotor flux

will reach its steady state value Lmids with a
first order transient defined by the rotor time
constant r = Lr/rr .

## Deriving the rotor flux equation and substituting into (2) :

A transient current on rotor d-axis may exist
(rr sLr ) idr ( s) Lm s ids ( s) only if there is a change in the stator d-axis
current. After a first order transient defined by
r- =Lesson
Lr/r5r, idr will go to zero.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines
Pagina 26
26

## A step change in iqs, will cause a step

change in the torque (r is constant).
Correspondingly, there will be a
proportional step change in iqr.

## A step change in ids, will cause first

order transient in the rotor flux r, with
a final value proportional to the
current. Correspondingly, a similar
transient with final value zero will
appear in idr.

Pagina 27

27

rr Lm iqs
s e

Lr
dr
Lm
dr ( s )
ids ( s )
(1 s r )
1
s e
r
*

iqs

1
*
ids
1 sr

Pagina 28

28

## Indirect control implementation (ids*,iqs*)

Lm
dr ( s )
ids ( s )
(1 s r )

Dynamic

1
s e*
r

iqs

1
*
ids
1 sr
Assuming infinte BW of the current controller, a step change in ids* will cause first
order transient in the rotor flux dr, with a final value proportional to the current.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 29

29

## Indirect control implementation (dr*,iqs*)

1
*
ids ( s )
(1 sr ) dr ( s )
L
*

(1)
Using dr* as the controlled
variable, instead of ids*, means that
now the controller has to calculate
ids* using (1) and therefore will
incorporate a compensation for
the rotor transient behaviour.

iqs*
1
s e
r 1 *
dr
Lm
*

Pagina 30

30

## Inputs to Flux Observers are

measurements at machine
terminals (typically voltages and
currents). Using the equations of
the dynamic model for the IM it is
possible to estimate rotor flux in
qd stationary reference frame.
Finally, from these components, it
is possible to determine rotor flux
angle and magnitude.
Flux Observers can be open loop
or closed loop

Pagina 31

31

## Flux Observers Voltage model

Variables are expressed in the stationary qd reference frame (superscript S)

S
v qds

S
rs i qds

d S
qds
dt

S
S
S
qds
Ls i qds
Lm i qdr

S
S
S
qdr
Lm i qds
Lr i qdr

S
qdr

S
S
S
qds
v qds
rs i qds
dt

Lr

S
i qdr

(1)

S
S
qds
Ls i qds

Lm

S
S
qdr
Lm i qds
Lr

S
S
qds
Ls i qds

Lm

L
S
S
qds Ls m i qds

L
r

Pagina 32

32

iqdsS

S
qdr

(Ls-Lm2/Lr )^

(rs)^

vqdsS

Lr

(qdsS)^

(Lr/Lm )^

2 S

L
S
qds Ls m i qds

Lr

(qdrS)^

(qdsS)^

S
S
S
qds
v qds
rs i qds
dt

(1)

## Three parameters are needed: rs, Ls, Lr/Lm

It is difficult to calculate the integral (1) at low frequencies (open loop observer)
If the rotor has closed slots, then Ls, even if it is a leakage inductance, will
depend on ir
In general, this observer gives good results at medium and high speeds.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 33

33

## Flux Observers Current model

Variables are expressed in the rotor qd reference frame (superscript R)
R
0 rr i qdr

d R
qdr
dt

1 d R
qdr
rr dt
L d R
R
Lm i qds
r qdr
rr dt

R
i qdr

R
R
R
qdr
Lm i qds
Lr i qdr

R
qdr

R
qdr

Lm
R

i qds
(1 r s )

Pagina 34

34

iqdsS

iqdsR
KR

(Lm)^/(1+^s)

(qdrR)^

KR-1

(qdrS)^

R
qdr

qr

Lm
R
i qds
(1 r s )

## Two parameters are needed: r, Lm

Mechanical position is required in order to identify the rotor reference frame
This observer is sensitive to saturation
This observer is suitable also for low speeds
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 35

35

## Flux Observers Closed loop

iqdsS

(Ls-Lm2/Lr )^

(rs)^

vqdsS

iqdsS

iqdsR
KR

(Lm) /(1+ s)

(qdrR)^
KR

-1

(qdr,IS)^

PI

(qdsS)^

(qdr,VS)^

(Lr/Lm )

qr
(qdsS)^

CURRENT MODEL

VOLTAGE MODEL

A closed loop form for the Flux Observer can be obtained by combining the
voltage model and the current model
The gains of the PI regulator will determine a closed loop BW
Below this BW, the output if the observer will follow the current model.
Above the BW, the regulator will not have effect and therefore the output will