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OF AC MACHINES

VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MACHINES

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND

ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

Outline

Principles of Vector Control for induction machines

(steady state analysis)

Vector control problem and solutions:

Indirect VC and Direct VC

Dynamic behaviour

Flux Observers

Pagina 2

T 3

P rr 2

P

I r 3 Er I r

e s

e

The circuit gives explicit account for the air-gap flux

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 3

~

aEr

a is a generalized constant

a=Ns/Nr yields the classical equivalent circuit

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 4

~

aEr

Lm

Lr

The circuit gives explicit account for the rotor flux

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 5

~ ~

~

I s I sT jI s

The two components are in quadrature.

The other component, given the rotor flux, is proportional

to the torque.

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 6

Lm ~

Er

~

~

~

Er

Er

Lr

I s

Lm

jX m

je Lm

j

Xm

Lr

~

~

Er jer

~

r Lm I s

Pagina 7

~

L ~

I r m I sT

Lr

T 3

Er I r 3

(e Lm I s ) (

Lm

I sT )

Lr

Lm

T 3 P

I sT I s

Lr

Pagina 8

~

I sT

Lm ~

Er

Lr

2

Lm rr

2

s

Lr

Lr s ~

Er

Lm rr

~

~

Er je Lm I s

~

~

L

I sT j r se I s

rr

rr I sT

s e

Lr I s

fixes also the slip frequency.

In fact, fixing the synchronous

frequency and the rotor flux

defines the mechanical

characteristic. Therefore, fixing

the torque defines also the slip.

Pagina 9

components in quadrature.

Is is proportional to rotor flux.

rotor current).

Pagina 10

10

Pagina 11

11

two components of the stator current Is and IsT which are

proportional to the rotor flux and the torque.

As a consequence, also the amplitude Is and angle (and

frequency, of course) of the stator currents are determined.

Chosing the currents means also that the equivalent circuit

can be completely solved: it is possible to determine which

is the voltage that allow to achieve the required current.

Finally, also the slip frequency (and therefore the

mechanical speed) is determined by the currents.

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 12

12

The phase relations that hold for phasors are still valid when

we consider rotating vectors.

The synchronous reference frame is obtained from the

arbitrary reference frame, when: (t ) e (t )

dr r

and the d-axis is aligned with the rotor flux:

qr 0

Pagina 13

13

It is possible to define the equivalent circuit in the

synchronous reference frame, valid in steady state:

Pagina 14

14

Knowing the desired rotor flux and torque, it is possible to

define the desired stator current rotating vector.

rotor flux, the q- and d- axes components of the desired

current are identifed.

PROBLEM

How do we know where the rotor flux is?

In PM machines measuring rotor position was enough;

for IM slip must be considered!

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 15

15

In order to determine the position of the rotor flux,

mechanical shaft position is measured and the slip

frequency equation is used.

The position of the rotor flux is calculated through flux

observers which make use of other variables

measurements.

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 16

16

rr

se

L

r

*

I qs*

I *

ds

Estimated

values!!!

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 17

17

CR network =

derivative operator

The derivation is

needed to add a

term which

compensates for

phase angle

variations

r

se r

L

r

*

I qs*

I *

ds

Estimated

values!!!

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 18

18

the reference from Iqs1* to

Iqs2*, the resolver block

will identify the new

amplitude, while the slip

calculator block will help

determine the frequency.

The phase change will not

be detected. Therefore, the new reference will be Is* instead of

Iqds2*, with a phase error . If not compensated, this error

will still go to zero eventually, but the dynamic perfomances

will be deteriorated.

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 19

19

identified through the block

CFO (flux observer).

The same block estimates

also the rotor flux

amplitude, which is useful

to estimate also the torque.

Lm 2

T 3 P

I sT I s

Lr

3

L

P m r I qs

2

Lr

Rotor flux

Paginaposition

20

20

Pagina 21

21

Machine equations in the synchronous reference frame

d

qs Ls iqs Lm iqr

vqs rs iqs qs e ds

dt

d

ds Ls ids Lm idr

vds rs ids ds e qs

dt

d

qr Lm iqs Lr iqr

0 rr iqr qr (e r ) dr

dt

d

0 rr idr dr (e r ) qr

dr Lm ids Lr idr

dt

3

L

T P m (dr iqs qr ids )

2

Lr

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 22

22

Machine equations in the synchronous reference frame with

the d-axis aligned with rotor flux (r=dr)

d

qs Ls iqs Lm iqr

vqs rs iqs qs e ds

dt

d

ds Ls ids Lm idr

vds rs ids ds e qs

dt

d

qr Lm iqs Lr iqr = 0

0 rr iqr qr (e r ) dr

dt

d

0 rr idr dr (e r ) qr

dr Lm ids Lr idr

dt

3

L

T P m (dr iqs qr ids )

2

Lr

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 23

23

Equations affected by the condition of rotor flux alignment:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

0 rr iqr (e r ) dr

d

0 rr idr dr

dt

Lm iqs Lr iqr 0

T

iqr

Lm

iqs

Lr

extension of:

3

L

P m dr iqs

2

Lr

~

L ~

I sT r I r

Lm

steady state:

I dr 0

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 24

24

Equations affected by the condition of rotor flux alignment:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

0 rr iqr (e r ) dr

d

0 rr idr dr

dt

Lm iqs Lr iqr 0

T

e r s e

rr iqr

dr

or also:

rr Lm iqs

s e

Lr

dr

3

L

P m dr iqs

2

Lr

extension of:

s e

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

rr I sT

Lr I s

Pagina 25

25

From (2) : 0 rr idr d dr

dt

From :

dr Lm ids Lr idr

I dr 0

idr

in steady state.

dr Lm ids

(5)

Lr

during transients.

rr Lm

dr ( s )

ids ( s )

(rr sLr )

will reach its steady state value Lmids with a

first order transient defined by the rotor time

constant r = Lr/rr .

A transient current on rotor d-axis may exist

(rr sLr ) idr ( s) Lm s ids ( s) only if there is a change in the stator d-axis

current. After a first order transient defined by

r- =Lesson

Lr/r5r, idr will go to zero.

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines

Pagina 26

26

change in the torque (r is constant).

Correspondingly, there will be a

proportional step change in iqr.

order transient in the rotor flux r, with

a final value proportional to the

current. Correspondingly, a similar

transient with final value zero will

appear in idr.

Pagina 27

27

rr Lm iqs

s e

Lr

dr

Lm

dr ( s )

ids ( s )

(1 s r )

1

s e

r

*

iqs

1

*

ids

1 sr

Pagina 28

28

Steady state

Lm

dr ( s )

ids ( s )

(1 s r )

Dynamic

1

s e*

r

iqs

1

*

ids

1 sr

Assuming infinte BW of the current controller, a step change in ids* will cause first

order transient in the rotor flux dr, with a final value proportional to the current.

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 29

29

1

*

ids ( s )

(1 sr ) dr ( s )

L

*

(1)

Using dr* as the controlled

variable, instead of ids*, means that

now the controller has to calculate

ids* using (1) and therefore will

incorporate a compensation for

the rotor transient behaviour.

iqs*

1

s e

r 1 *

dr

Lm

*

Pagina 30

30

measurements at machine

terminals (typically voltages and

currents). Using the equations of

the dynamic model for the IM it is

possible to estimate rotor flux in

qd stationary reference frame.

Finally, from these components, it

is possible to determine rotor flux

angle and magnitude.

Flux Observers can be open loop

or closed loop

Pagina 31

31

Variables are expressed in the stationary qd reference frame (superscript S)

S

v qds

S

rs i qds

d S

qds

dt

S

S

S

qds

Ls i qds

Lm i qdr

S

S

S

qdr

Lm i qds

Lr i qdr

S

qdr

S

S

S

qds

v qds

rs i qds

dt

Lr

S

i qdr

(1)

S

S

qds

Ls i qds

Lm

S

S

qdr

Lm i qds

Lr

S

S

qds

Ls i qds

Lm

L

S

S

qds Ls m i qds

L

r

Pagina 32

32

iqdsS

S

qdr

(Ls-Lm2/Lr )^

(rs)^

vqdsS

Lr

(qdsS)^

(Lr/Lm )^

2 S

L

S

qds Ls m i qds

Lr

(qdrS)^

(qdsS)^

S

S

S

qds

v qds

rs i qds

dt

(1)

It is difficult to calculate the integral (1) at low frequencies (open loop observer)

If the rotor has closed slots, then Ls, even if it is a leakage inductance, will

depend on ir

In general, this observer gives good results at medium and high speeds.

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 33

33

Variables are expressed in the rotor qd reference frame (superscript R)

R

0 rr i qdr

d R

qdr

dt

1 d R

qdr

rr dt

L d R

R

Lm i qds

r qdr

rr dt

R

i qdr

R

R

R

qdr

Lm i qds

Lr i qdr

R

qdr

R

qdr

Lm

R

i qds

(1 r s )

Pagina 34

34

iqdsS

iqdsR

KR

(Lm)^/(1+^s)

(qdrR)^

KR-1

(qdrS)^

R

qdr

qr

Lm

R

i qds

(1 r s )

Mechanical position is required in order to identify the rotor reference frame

This observer is sensitive to saturation

This observer is suitable also for low speeds

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 35

35

iqdsS

(Ls-Lm2/Lr )^

(rs)^

vqdsS

iqdsS

iqdsR

KR

(Lm) /(1+ s)

(qdrR)^

KR

-1

(qdr,IS)^

PI

(qdsS)^

(qdr,VS)^

(Lr/Lm )

qr

(qdsS)^

CURRENT MODEL

VOLTAGE MODEL

A closed loop form for the Flux Observer can be obtained by combining the

voltage model and the current model

The gains of the PI regulator will determine a closed loop BW

Below this BW, the output if the observer will follow the current model.

Above the BW, the regulator will not have effect and therefore the output will

follow the voltage model

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Pagina 36

36

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