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DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

OF AC MACHINES
VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MACHINES

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE on


SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND
ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

Outline
Principles of Vector Control for induction machines
(steady state analysis)
Vector control problem and solutions:
Indirect VC and Direct VC
Dynamic behaviour
Flux Observers

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Classical IM equivalent circuit (steady-state)

T 3

P rr 2
P
I r 3 Er I r
e s
e

The circuit shows the two leakage inductances


The circuit gives explicit account for the air-gap flux
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Generalized IM equivalent circuit (steadystate)

~
aEr

a is a generalized constant
a=Ns/Nr yields the classical equivalent circuit
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Rotor flux IM equivalent circuit (steady-state)

~
aEr

Lm
Lr

Only one leakage inductance


The circuit gives explicit account for the rotor flux
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Torque control (steady-state)

~ ~
~
I s I sT jI s

Stator current can be decomposed into two components.


The two components are in quadrature.

One component is proportional to (establishes) rotor flux.


The other component, given the rotor flux, is proportional
to the torque.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Rotor flux component of stator current

Lm ~
Er
~
~
~
Er
Er
Lr
I s

Lm
jX m
je Lm
j
Xm
Lr

~
~
Er jer

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

~
r Lm I s

Pagina 7

Torque component of stator current

~
L ~
I r m I sT
Lr

T 3

Er I r 3

(e Lm I s ) (

Lm
I sT )
Lr

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Lm
T 3 P
I sT I s
Lr
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Slip frequency equation (steady state)

~
I sT

Lm ~
Er
Lr
2

Lm rr

2
s
Lr

Lr s ~
Er
Lm rr

~
~
Er je Lm I s

~
~
L
I sT j r se I s
rr

rr I sT
s e

Lr I s

Fixing the current components


fixes also the slip frequency.
In fact, fixing the synchronous
frequency and the rotor flux
defines the mechanical
characteristic. Therefore, fixing
the torque defines also the slip.

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Phasor diagram (steady state)

Stator current can be viewed as the phasor sum of two


components in quadrature.
Is is proportional to rotor flux.

IsT is proportional to the torque (and is the stator image of


rotor current).

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Phasor diagram (steady state)

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Vector control for IM

To achieve vector control for IM means to determine the


two components of the stator current Is and IsT which are
proportional to the rotor flux and the torque.
As a consequence, also the amplitude Is and angle (and
frequency, of course) of the stator currents are determined.
Chosing the currents means also that the equivalent circuit
can be completely solved: it is possible to determine which
is the voltage that allow to achieve the required current.
Finally, also the slip frequency (and therefore the
mechanical speed) is determined by the currents.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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From phasors to synch. reference frame


The phase relations that hold for phasors are still valid when
we consider rotating vectors.
The synchronous reference frame is obtained from the
arbitrary reference frame, when: (t ) e (t )
dr r
and the d-axis is aligned with the rotor flux:
qr 0

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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From phasors to synch. reference frame


It is possible to define the equivalent circuit in the
synchronous reference frame, valid in steady state:

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Vector control problem for IM


Knowing the desired rotor flux and torque, it is possible to
define the desired stator current rotating vector.

By using the synchronous reference frame, aligned with the


rotor flux, the q- and d- axes components of the desired
current are identifed.

PROBLEM
How do we know where the rotor flux is?
In PM machines measuring rotor position was enough;
for IM slip must be considered!
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Solutions to the Vector control problem

1. INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL


In order to determine the position of the rotor flux,
mechanical shaft position is measured and the slip
frequency equation is used.

2. DIRECT VECTOR CONTROL


The position of the rotor flux is calculated through flux
observers which make use of other variables
measurements.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

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Indirect Vector Control (VSI inverter)

Rotor flux position

rr
se
L
r
*

I qs*

I *
ds

Estimated
values!!!
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Indirect Vector Control (CSI inverter)

CR network =
derivative operator

The derivation is
needed to add a
term which
compensates for
phase angle
variations

r
se r
L
r
*

I qs*

I *
ds

Estimated
values!!!
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Indirect Vector Control (CSI inverter)

When there is a change in


the reference from Iqs1* to
Iqs2*, the resolver block
will identify the new
amplitude, while the slip
calculator block will help
determine the frequency.
The phase change will not
be detected. Therefore, the new reference will be Is* instead of
Iqds2*, with a phase error . If not compensated, this error
will still go to zero eventually, but the dynamic perfomances
will be deteriorated.
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Direct Vector Control (VSI inverter)

Rotor flux position is


identified through the block
CFO (flux observer).
The same block estimates
also the rotor flux
amplitude, which is useful
to estimate also the torque.
Lm 2
T 3 P
I sT I s
Lr

3
L
P m r I qs
2
Lr

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

Rotor flux
Paginaposition
20
20

Direct Vector Control (CSI inverter)

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Transient analysis of Vector Controlled IM


Machine equations in the synchronous reference frame
d
qs Ls iqs Lm iqr
vqs rs iqs qs e ds
dt
d
ds Ls ids Lm idr
vds rs ids ds e qs
dt
d
qr Lm iqs Lr iqr
0 rr iqr qr (e r ) dr
dt
d
0 rr idr dr (e r ) qr
dr Lm ids Lr idr
dt
3
L
T P m (dr iqs qr ids )
2
Lr
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Transient analysis of Vector Controlled IM


Machine equations in the synchronous reference frame with
the d-axis aligned with rotor flux (r=dr)
d
qs Ls iqs Lm iqr
vqs rs iqs qs e ds
dt
d
ds Ls ids Lm idr
vds rs ids ds e qs
dt
d
qr Lm iqs Lr iqr = 0
0 rr iqr qr (e r ) dr
dt
d
0 rr idr dr (e r ) qr
dr Lm ids Lr idr
dt
3
L
T P m (dr iqs qr ids )
2
Lr
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Transient analysis of Vector Controlled IM


Equations affected by the condition of rotor flux alignment:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

0 rr iqr (e r ) dr
d
0 rr idr dr
dt
Lm iqs Lr iqr 0
T

From (3) we have:


iqr

Lm
iqs
Lr

extension of:

3
L
P m dr iqs
2
Lr

~
L ~
I sT r I r
Lm

and consistent with (2) in


steady state:
I dr 0
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Transient analysis of Vector Controlled IM


Equations affected by the condition of rotor flux alignment:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

0 rr iqr (e r ) dr
d
0 rr idr dr
dt
Lm iqs Lr iqr 0
T

From (1) we have:

e r s e

rr iqr

dr

or also:
rr Lm iqs
s e

Lr
dr

3
L
P m dr iqs
2
Lr

extension of:
s e
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 5

rr I sT

Lr I s
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Rotor current on d-axis


From (2) : 0 rr idr d dr
dt
From :

dr Lm ids Lr idr

I dr 0
idr

in steady state.

dr Lm ids

(5)

Lr
during transients.

Combining (2) and (5):


rr Lm
dr ( s )
ids ( s )
(rr sLr )

Following a step change in ids, the rotor flux


will reach its steady state value Lmids with a
first order transient defined by the rotor time
constant r = Lr/rr .

Deriving the rotor flux equation and substituting into (2) :


A transient current on rotor d-axis may exist
(rr sLr ) idr ( s) Lm s ids ( s) only if there is a change in the stator d-axis
current. After a first order transient defined by
r- =Lesson
Lr/r5r, idr will go to zero.
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines
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Effect of changes in stator current

A step change in iqs, will cause a step


change in the torque (r is constant).
Correspondingly, there will be a
proportional step change in iqr.

A step change in ids, will cause first


order transient in the rotor flux r, with
a final value proportional to the
current. Correspondingly, a similar
transient with final value zero will
appear in idr.

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Indirect control implementation (ids*,iqs*)

rr Lm iqs
s e

Lr
dr
Lm
dr ( s )
ids ( s )
(1 s r )
1
s e
r
*

iqs

1
*
ids
1 sr

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Indirect control implementation (ids*,iqs*)

Steady state

Lm
dr ( s )
ids ( s )
(1 s r )

Dynamic

1
s e*
r

iqs

1
*
ids
1 sr
Assuming infinte BW of the current controller, a step change in ids* will cause first
order transient in the rotor flux dr, with a final value proportional to the current.
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Indirect control implementation (dr*,iqs*)

1
*
ids ( s )
(1 sr ) dr ( s )
L
*

(1)
Using dr* as the controlled
variable, instead of ids*, means that
now the controller has to calculate
ids* using (1) and therefore will
incorporate a compensation for
the rotor transient behaviour.

iqs*
1
s e
r 1 *
dr
Lm
*

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Flux Observers for Direct Vector Control

Inputs to Flux Observers are


measurements at machine
terminals (typically voltages and
currents). Using the equations of
the dynamic model for the IM it is
possible to estimate rotor flux in
qd stationary reference frame.
Finally, from these components, it
is possible to determine rotor flux
angle and magnitude.
Flux Observers can be open loop
or closed loop

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Flux Observers Voltage model


Variables are expressed in the stationary qd reference frame (superscript S)

S
v qds

S
rs i qds

d S
qds
dt

S
S
S
qds
Ls i qds
Lm i qdr

S
S
S
qdr
Lm i qds
Lr i qdr

S
qdr

S
S
S
qds
v qds
rs i qds
dt

Lr

S
i qdr

(1)

S
S
qds
Ls i qds

Lm

S
S
qdr
Lm i qds
Lr

S
S
qds
Ls i qds

Lm

L
S
S
qds Ls m i qds

L
r

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Flux Observers Voltage model

iqdsS

S
qdr

(Ls-Lm2/Lr )^

(rs)^

vqdsS

Lr

(qdsS)^

(Lr/Lm )^

2 S

L
S
qds Ls m i qds

Lr

(qdrS)^

(qdsS)^

S
S
S
qds
v qds
rs i qds
dt

(1)

Three parameters are needed: rs, Ls, Lr/Lm


It is difficult to calculate the integral (1) at low frequencies (open loop observer)
If the rotor has closed slots, then Ls, even if it is a leakage inductance, will
depend on ir
In general, this observer gives good results at medium and high speeds.
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Flux Observers Current model


Variables are expressed in the rotor qd reference frame (superscript R)
R
0 rr i qdr

d R
qdr
dt

1 d R
qdr
rr dt
L d R
R
Lm i qds
r qdr
rr dt

R
i qdr

R
R
R
qdr
Lm i qds
Lr i qdr

R
qdr

R
qdr

Lm
R

i qds
(1 r s )

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Flux Observers Current model

iqdsS

iqdsR
KR

(Lm)^/(1+^s)

(qdrR)^

KR-1

(qdrS)^

R
qdr

qr

Lm
R
i qds
(1 r s )

Two parameters are needed: r, Lm


Mechanical position is required in order to identify the rotor reference frame
This observer is sensitive to saturation
This observer is suitable also for low speeds
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Flux Observers Closed loop


iqdsS

(Ls-Lm2/Lr )^

(rs)^

vqdsS

iqdsS

iqdsR
KR

(Lm) /(1+ s)

(qdrR)^
KR

-1

(qdr,IS)^

PI

(qdsS)^

(qdr,VS)^

(Lr/Lm )

qr
(qdsS)^

CURRENT MODEL

VOLTAGE MODEL

A closed loop form for the Flux Observer can be obtained by combining the
voltage model and the current model
The gains of the PI regulator will determine a closed loop BW
Below this BW, the output if the observer will follow the current model.
Above the BW, the regulator will not have effect and therefore the output will
follow the voltage model
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