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OBJECTIVES

At the end of the courser, the participants will be


able to:
Recognize the occupational safety and health
standards; and,
Explain the basic safety concept and principle.

Course Outline
Introduction
Occupational Safety and Health Standards
Basic Safety Concept
Housekeeping
Fire Safety
Electrical Safety
Personal Protective Equipment and Devices
Lock-out/Tag-out (LOTO)
Safety Practices
Power and Hand Tool Safety
Machine Shop Safety

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND


HEALTH STANDARDS
Issued under the authority granted to the
Department of Labor and Employment under
Article 162, Book IV of P.D. 442 otherwise
known as Labor Code of the Philippines.
First Issue (1978)
Second Issue (1989)

To protect every working man against the


dangers of injury, sickness or death through safe
and healthy working conditions thereby assuring
the conservation of valuable resources and the
prevention of loss or damage to lives and
properties.

GENERAL PROVISIONS
The Department of Labor and Employment
(DOLE) shall administer and enforce the provisions of

the Occupational Safety and Health Standards.

RULE 1000 GENERAL PROVISION


RULE 1010 OTHER SAFETY RULES
RULE 1020 REGISTRATION

RULE 1030 TRAINING OF PERSONNEL IN


OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

1031
Training Programs
1032
Accreditation
1033
Training and Personnel Complement
1034.01Qualification of a Safety Consultant
1034.02 Prohibition in the Practice of Occupational Safety
and Health

RULE 1040 HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEE


1041 General Requirements
1042 Types and Composition of Health and Safety Committee
1043 Duties of the Health and Safety Committee
1044 Term of Office of Members
1045 Duties of Employers
1046 Duties of Workers
1047 Duties of the Safety Man
1048 Other Types of Safety Organizations

RULE 1050 NOTIFICATION AND KEEPING OF


RECORDS OF ACCIDEENTS AND/OR
OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESSES
1051 Definitions
1052 Special Provision
1053 Report Requirements
1054 Keeping of Records
1055 Evaluation of Disability
1056 Measurement of Performance

RULE 1060 PREMISES OF ESTABLISHMENTS


1060.01General Provisions
1061 Construction and Maintenance
1062 Space Requirement
1063 Walkway Surface
1064 Floor and Wall Opening
1065 Stairs
1066 Window Openings
1067 Fixed Ladders
1068 Overhead Walks, Runways and Platforms
1069 Yards

RULE 1070 OCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
1071 General Provisions
1072 Threshold Limit Values for Airborne Contaminants
1073 Threshold Limit Values for Airborne Contaminants (Tables)
1074 Physical Agents
1075 Illumination
1076 General Ventilation
1077 Working Environment Measurement

SAFETY is the control of hazards to attain


an acceptable level of risk.
Control - regulate or restrain
Hazard - is an unsafe act or condition which if
left uncontrolled may contribute to an
accident.
Risk

- chance of personal or physical loss.

ACCIDENT
undesired, unplanned occurrence that results
in injury or harm to persons, property or the
environment.
usually a contact with a source of energy
above the threshold limit of the body or
structure

Causes of Accidents:
Unsafe Act
is a violation of an accepted safe procedures

which could permit the occurrence of an


accident.
Unsafe Condition
is a hazardous physical condition or

circumstance, which could permit the


occurrence of an accident.

Hidden Cost of Accidents


Direct Cost - medical, compensation
Indirect Cost

Time lost from work by:


- Injured person

- Fellow employees
- Damage to tools and equipment

MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND


SEVERITY RATES
Disabling Injury/Illness Frequency Rate (FR)
- is based upon the total number of deaths,
permanent total, permanent partial and

temporary total disabilities which occur


during the period covered by the rate.

MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND


SEVERITY RATES

No. of disabling injury x 1,000,000


Frequency Rate = --------------------------------------Employee-hours of Exposure

MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND


SEVERITY RATES
Disabling Injury/Illness Severity Rate (SR)
- is based on the total of all scheduled charges
for all deaths, permanent total and
permanent partial disabilities, plus the total
actual days of disabilities of all temporary

total disability which occur during the period


covered by the rate.

MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND


SEVERITY RATES

Total Days Lost x 1,000,000


Severity Rate = ------------------------------------------Employee-hours of Exposure

Disabling injury
- a work injury which results in permanent
total, permanent partial, or temporary total
disabilities.
Death
- any fatality resulting from a work injury
regardless of the time intervening between
injury and death.

Permanent Total Disability


- any injury or sickness other than death
which permanently and totally incapacitates
an employee from engaging from any gainful
occupation or which results in the loss or the
complete loss of use of any of the following
in one accident:
both eyes;
one eye and one hand, or arm, or leg, or
foot;

Permanent Total Disability

any two of the following not in the


same limb, hand, arm, foot, leg;
permanent complete paralysis of two
limbs;
brain injury resulting in incurable
imbecility or insanity.

Permanent Partial Disability


- any injury other than death or permanent
total disability which results in the loss or
loss of use of any member of part of a
member of the body regardless of any preexisting disability of the injured member or
impaired body function.

Temporary Total Disability


- any injury or illness which does not result in
death or permanent total of permanent
partial disability but which result in disability
from work from a day or more.

Total Days Lost


- the combined total for all injuries or illnesses
of: all days of disability resulting from
temporary total injuries or illnesses; and/or
all scheduled charges assigned to fatal,
permanent total and permanent partial
injuries or illnesses.

Scheduled Charges
- the specific charge (in full days) assigned to
a permanent partial injuries or illnesses
(Table of Tabulation of Scheduled Charges)
Employee-Hours of Exposure
- the total number of employee-hours worked
by all employees of the reporting
establishment or unit.

Disabling Injury Frequency Rate


- the number of disabling injuries per 1,000,000
employee-hours of exposure rounded to the
nearest two (2) decimal places.
Disabling Injury Severity Rate
- the number of days lost per 1,000,000
employee-hour of exposure rounded to the
nearest whole number.

Charges:
Death resulting from accident shall be assigned
a time charge of 6,000 days.
Permanent Total Disability resulting from work
accident shall be assigned a time charge of
6,000 days.

Charges:
Permanent Partial Disability either traumatic or
surgical, resulting from work accident shall be
assigned the time charge as provided in Table on
Tabulation of Scheduling Charges. This charges
shall be used whether the actual number of days
lost is greater or less than the scheduled
charges or even if no actual days are lost at all.

Charges:
Permanent Partial Disability
For each finger or toe, use only charge for
the highest valued bone involved. For
computations of more than one finger or toe,
total the separate charges for each finger or
toe.

Charges:
Permanent Partial Disability
Loss of hearing is considered a permanent
partial disability only in the event of industrial
impairment of hearing from traumatic injury,
industrial noise exposure or occupational
illness.

Charges:
Permanent Partial Disability
For permanent impairment affecting more
than one part of the body the total charge
shall be the sum of the schedule charges
for the individual body parts. If the total
exceeds 6,000 days, the charge shall be
6,000 days.

Charges:
Permanent Partial Disability
Where an employee suffers from both
permanent partial disability and temporary
total disability in one accident, the greater
days lost shall be used and shall determine
the injury classification.

Charges:
Permanent Partial Disability
The charge for any permanent partial
disability other than those identified in the
schedule of time charges shall be the
percentage of 6,000 days as determined by
the physician authorized by the employer to
treat the injury or illness.

Charges:
The charge for a Temporary Total Disability shall

be the number of calendar days of disability


resulting from the injury or illness.

TABULATION OF SCHEDULED CHARGES


A. For Loss of Member - Traumatic or Surgical
FINGERS, THUMB AND HEAD
Amputation involving
all or part of bone
Distal Phalange

Middle Phalange
Proximal Phalange
Metacarpal

Fingers
Thumb
300

Index
100

Middle
75

Ring
60

Little
50

600
900

200
400
600

150
300
500

120
240
450

100
200
400

TABULATION OF SCHEDULED CHARGES


A. For Loss of Member - Traumatic or Surgical
TOE, FOOT AND ANKLE

Amputation involving
all or part of bone

Great Toe

Fingers

Distal Phalange
Middle Phalange
Proximal Phalange

150
300

35
75
150

Metatarsal

600

350

Foot at ankle, 2400

TABULATION OF SCHEDULED CHARGES


A. For Loss of Member - Traumatic or Surgical
ARM
Any point above elbow, including joint
Any point above wrist and at or below elbow

4500
3600

LEG
Any point above knee
Any point above ankle at or below knee

4500
300

TABULATION OF SCHEDULED CHARGES


B. Impairment of Function
One eye (loss of sight),
Both eyes (loss of sight),
One ear (complete industrial loss of hearing)
Both ears (complete industrial loss of hearing)
Un-repaired Hernia

1800
6000
600
3000
50

HOUSEKEEPING
Housekeeping is not just cleanliness;

it is effective workplace organization.


Housekeeping is important because it

eliminates workplace hazards thus it


lessens accidents and related injuries
and illnesses.

SIGNS OF
POOR HOUSEKEEPING
cluttered and poorly arranged areas
untidy or dangerous storage of materials
items no longer needed or in excess
blocked aisles and exists
dusty, dirty floors and work surfaces

tools and equipment left in work areas

SIGNS OF
POOR HOUSEKEEPING
overflowing waste bins and containers
presence of spills and leaks
overcrowded/disorderly shelves and storage
areas
presence of rusty and dirty materials and
equipment

ACCIDENTS FROM
POOR HOUSEKEEPING
being hit by falling objects
tripping over loose objects on floors, stairs and
platforms
slipping on greasy, wet or dirty surfaces
striking against projecting, poorly stacked items or
misplaced material
cutting, puncturing, or tearing the skin of hands or
other parts of the body on projecting nails, wire or
steel strapping
electrocution from exposed & unattended live wires
having skin burns from unexpected fires

Why do we need to practice good


housekeeping at work?

improves the companys image


helps the company in maintaining
inventory to a minimum
helps to effectively use workspace
makes the workplace neat, comfortable,
and pleasant not a dangerous eyesore

Recommended Housekeeping Practices


Keep work areas clean
Keep aisles clear

Keep exits and entrance clear

Keep floors clean, dry, and in good condition

Vacuum or wet sweep dusty areas frequently

Stack and store items safely

Store all work materials in approved, clearly labeled


containers in designated storage areas only.

Recommended Housekeeping Practices


Use proper waste containers
Keep sprinklers, fire alarms, and fire extinguishers
clear
Clean up spills and leaks of any type quickly and
properly
Clean and store tools, items, and equipment
properly
Fix or report broken or damaged tools, equipment,
etc.
Keep lighting sources clean and clear
Follow maintenance procedure

ORGANIZATION
Managements Role
Provide adequate equipment.
Include housekeeping budget in operations
planning.
Include good housekeeping as part of
individuals job responsibility.
Provide clean up schedule.
Maintain executive and supervisory interest.

Supervisors Role
Maintain constant check on housekeeping
conditions.
Correct unusual situations or perform clean-

up immediately.
Plan for orderliness in all operations.
Issue definite instructions to employee.
Insist on housekeeping after every job.

Workers Role

Follow housekeeping procedures


Maintain an orderly workplace
Report to supervisors any unsafe condition

PLANNING

What is 5S?
a tool that represents the basic principles
of housekeeping and workplace
organization. It is more than cleaning and
painting. It is a disciplined approach to
keep the workplace efficient and effective.

The 5S of Good Housekeeping


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

SEIRI -- Sort/ Clearing up


SEITON -- Systematize/ Organize
SEISO Sweep/ Sanitize/ Clean
SEIKETSU Standardize
SHITSUKE Self-discipline/ Training

Take out unnecessary items and dispose

Arrange necessary items in good order

Clean your workplace

Maintain high standard of housekeeping

Do 5S spontaneously

Benefits of 5S
Achieve work standardization
Improve efficiency, quality and productivity

Increase profitability
Simplify work environment
Improve safety and enhance moral and

pride of employees

Benefits of 5S
Sales
Savings
Standardization

Satisfaction
Safety

MONITORING
WHAT:

Monitor how unit is meeting its plan

REFERENCE: Unit objectives and 5S


implementation plan
WHO MONITORS: Unit leaders/ supervisors

FREQUENCY:

Weekly (Suggested)

HOUSEKEEPING CHECKLIST

Location :

Date:
Items

Aisles
Exits and Entrance
Hand and Portable Tools

Fire Fighting Equipment


Floors
Ladders
Lighting
Machines

Roadways, Parking Areas


Signs, Tags
Stacking and Storage
Stairs

Ventilation System
Waste Disposal

Remarks

EVALUATION
Reports, photos, report findings and
recommendation.
Evaluation criteria.
Recognition.

Conclusion

HOUSEKEEPING is an ongoing operation:


it is not a hit-and-miss cleanup done
occasionallyit is an EVERYDAY job!

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

CONTENTS
Introduction to Fire Prevention and Protection

Definition of terms
Basic elements of fire
Causes and classes of fires

Extinguishing methods and materials


Fire fighting equipment maintenance
The hot work permit system

Emergency (Fire) Organization

78

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Have You Seen Actual Fire


Situations Like These?

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Introduction:

Fire prevention is not just a firemans job; all


of us have a responsibility to learn and be
educated on it!
Fire is the third leading cause of accidental
deaths. Yet, most people ignore this. More
than 150 workplace fires occur every day.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

What is

FIRE?

Great warmth feeling towards the opposite sex; it is


excitement.
The heat or burning that destroy things, lives, or
properties.

Is a result from fast chemical reaction between a


combustible substance and oxygen, accompanied by
the generation of heat.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

What is
FIRE rapid oxidation
Espanol = fuego
Tagalog = apoy
Cebuano = kayo
Ilongo = kalayo

FIRE?
FIRE destroying property

Espanol = esta quemando


(burning)
Tagalog/Cebuano/Ilongo =
sunog

Pampango (also Bahasa) Pampango = silab


= api
Ilocano = maor-uram
Ilocano = dumardarang

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Causes of Fire
Electrical
(Dagitab)

Stoves
(Kalan)

Hot Work - Welding and Cutting


(Pag-gamit ng mga bagay na may liyab)

Smoking (Paninigarilyo)
Poor Housekeeping
(Masamang Kaayusan)

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Results of Fire
Besides the unimaginable devastation, fire
can burn victims wherein the average hospital
stay is:
Percentage of Burn

Length of Hospital stay


(National Average)

1-10%
11-20%
21-39%
40-60%
61% and over

28 days
37 days
53 days
88 days
80% die

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

BURN: The Rule of Nines


Up to 5 yrs. Old:

18
18

13.5

Back: 18

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Results of Fire Burn


Burn injury is a major injury that affects all
parts of the human system;
The average burn patient takes 2-5 years to
mentally recover;
Most workers are hesitant to return to same
work situation in which they were burned.
Professional rehabilitation is always
necessary.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

DEFINITIONS
COMBOROLOGY is the science that deals with

the study of fire


FIRE PROTECTION is the field that covers fire
prevention, detection and extinguishment
FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING is a highly
developed & specialized field that utilizes various
engineering disciplines

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

DEFINITIONS
FLASHPOINT (FP) is the lowest temperature at

which a liquid will give off enough vapors to ignite


{flash} if it comes in contact with an ignition
source (such as a spark or flame)
FIRE POINT is the lowest temperature at which
a flammable liquid vapor can be ignited and the
combustion is sustained.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

DEFINITIONS
FLAMMABLE FP is less than 100 degrees

Fahrenheit
COMBUSTIBLE FP is at or above 100 degrees
Fahrenheit

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

DEFINITIONS
AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURE
(Or simply: Ignition Temperature)
The minimum temperature required for a

substance to self-ignite (no other source of


ignition). The auto ignition temperature is much
higher than the flashpoint for any substance.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

DEFINITIONS
SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION
The process of catching fire as a result of
heat generated by internal chemical action
It can occur at or below room temperature
by internal heat accumulation due to autooxidation, or by exposure to air of substances
highly sensitive to oxidation
(e.g. phosphorus)

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

DEFINITIONS
FLASHBACK
Rapid travel of a spreading gas from a source of

ignition back to the point at which it originated.


Flashback occurs when a gas or vapor heavier
than air travels at a low level to an ignition
source.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Fuel

Heat

Oxygen
Chemical Reaction
(Uninhibited Reaction of Free Radicals)

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Fuel

Any combustible materials such as:


Solid: coal, plastic, wax, grain, leather,
wood, paper, etc.,
Liquid: diesel, gasoline, kerosene,
alcohol, paint, varnish, oil, etc.
Gases: natural gas, propane, butane,
hydrogen, acetylene, carbon monoxide,
etc.
Note: This determines the CLASS of Fire; remember:
it is the vapor that burns

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Heat

Is the energy necessary to increase the


temperature of the fuel to a point where
sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to
occur. (E.g.., sun, lightning, friction or super
hot objects)
The FLASH POINT (FP) of materials or fuel
varies; the lower the FP the more ignitable
(flammable or combustible) it becomes

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Oxygen

The air we breathe which is about 21% oxygen


Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16%

oxygen
Oxygen at 19.5% = warning level
Minimum air:fuel mixture = 15:1

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Chemical Reaction
Occurs when the other three (3) elements are
present in the proper conditions and proportions.

Vapors of gases which are distilled during burning


process of a material are carried into the flame.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Classes of Fires
Class A

Ordinary Combustibles
(Solids, normally organic nature)
Examples:
Paper, Wood, Rags,
Rubbish,
Coal and
Natural Fibers

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Classes of Fires
Class B

Vapor/air mixture over


surface of flammable or
combustible liquids

Examples: Gasoline, Solvents,


Grease, Petrol, Hydraulic
fluids, Paint thinners and
other volatile materials

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Classes of Fires
Class C

Energized Electrical
Equipment:
Examples:
Appliances, switches,
panel boxes, power tools
and boards.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Classes of Fires
Class D

Combustible metals:

Examples:
Magnesium, titanium,
zirconium, sodium,
lithium, potassium.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Classes of Fires
Class E

Examples:

Gases or liquefied
gases:
Methane, propane, and
natural gases.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Ways to Extinguish a Fire


Cooling
reducing the rate of energy input
can use most common and cheapest form of
extinguishing medium (water)
use pressurized water, foam or multi-purpose dry
chemical extinguishers

Best for: Class A Fires


Class D Fires: use non-reactive
heat-absorbing medium

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Ways to Extinguish a Fire


Smothering
-reducing the oxygen supply.

-use foam, carbon dioxide, ordinary


dry chemical

Best for: Class B & E Fires


Works for: Class C Fires

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Ways to Extinguish a Fire


Starvation
- reducing the fuel supply
- closing of valve supplies, removal
of combustible materials, etc.

Best for: Class B,C & E Fires


Works for: Class A & D Fires

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

3 METHODS OF FIRE
EXTINGUISHMENT vs. CLASSES
OF FIRE (Summary)
COOLING

: CLASS A

SMOTHERING

: CLASS B,C & E

(SUFFOCATION)

STARVATION : CLASS A,B,C,D & E

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

METHODS OF FIRE TRANSFER

Conduction

Convection
Radiation

Direct Contact

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

METHODS OF FIRE
TRANSFER

Conduction
Travel of fire thru a heat
conducting medium like metals
Example ignition of other various
parts of a structure which are
contact with pipes, etc.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

METHODS OF FIRE
TRANSFER

Convection
Travel of heat thru circulating air or

gases (hot-up, cold-down)


Example fire from one part of the
room may ignite all other materials
due to the hot gases

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

METHODS OF
FIRE TRANSFER

Radiation
Travel of heat from a source by

means of rays or radiation


Example structure fire may
ignite all other structure, etc. in the
immediate vicinity

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

METHODS OF
FIRE TRANSFER

Direct Contact
Direct travel of fire from one

burning material to another


combustible material
Example ignition of various parts
of a structure as touched by the fire

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Portable Fire Extinguishers


Appliances designed to be carried and operated

by hand.
They contain an extinguishing medium, which can
be expelled by action of internal pressure and
directed onto a fire.

DISCHARGE LEVER

PRESSURE GAUGE
(not found on CO2
extinguishers)

DISCHARGE LOCKING PIN


AND SEAL

CARRYING
HANDLE

DISCHARGE HOSE
DATA PLATE

DISCHARGE NOZZLE
BODY
DISCHARGE ORIFICE

Fire Extinguisher Anatomy

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Portable Fire Extinguishers &


their application

Water
(Distinguishing color: RED)
Used to extinguish fires of common

materials such as wood, cloth, & etc.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Portable Fire Extinguishers &


their application

Dry Chemical
(Distinguishing color: BLUE)
Suitable for extinguishing flammable liquids
such as petrol, kerosene, oil, & etc.
May also be used to extinguish fires in electrical
equipment..

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Portable Fire Extinguishers &


their application

Foam
(Distinguishing color: CREAM)
Suitable for extinguishing flammable liquid such
as petrol, oil bitumen, paints, etc.

Must not be used to extinguish fires in live


electrical equipment, it is conductor of electricity.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Portable Fire Extinguishers &


their applications
Vaporizing Liquids

(Distinguishing color: YELLOW/GREEN)


Can be used on wood, paper, petrol, oils, fires involving
live electrical equipment.
Chemical breakdown of these products are TOXIC.
BCF/Halon 1211 & Halon 1301 had been phased out to
prevent ozone layer depletion and current substitutes are
the Clean Agents such as Halotron

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Portable Fire Extinguishers &


their applications

CO2
(Distinguishing color: RED With Black Band)
Suitable for extinguishing most types of fires.
Frostbite is possible due to the extremely low
temperature.

Exposure for some time to carbon dioxide in a confined


space could cause suffocation.
Vacate the area immediately. Ventilate the space to
disperse the gas when feasible.

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

How to Use a Portable Fire


Extinguishers
Pull the pin.
Aim the nozzle at the base of the
fire.
Squeeze the lever/trigger while
holding the extinguisher upright.
Sweep from side to side covering
the area of the fire.
Remember: P A S S

119

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Maintenance & Inspection of Fire


Extinguishers

Assign a person in the plant or organization


the responsibility to maintain and inspect all
the fire extinguishers.

Maintain a stock of consumable materials and


supplies of spare parts, like hoses, pins, tags,
etc., that will be used in replacing the parts.

Establish a record system and organized plan


for checking and inspecting fire extinguishers.
121

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Maintenance & Inspection of Fire


Extinguishers
Periodically check the pressure of the fire
extinguisher and recharge these as necessary.
Conduct hydrostatic pressure test on the cylinders.
Ensure that fire extinguishers are sealed and that
seals are not tampered.

122

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

The HOT WORK PERMIT

A control system meant to


prevent any unintended
ignition of materials that may

lead to major fires

123

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

The HOT WORK PERMIT


It is to establish control over
operations using flames or
producing sparks such as welding
jobs, grinding, drilling, hammering,
or where there is friction and/or
electrostatic discharge

124

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

HOT WORK PERMIT


CRITICAL ELEMENTS
Balance of authority--responsibility--accountability

with both issuer and receiver for heat-producing


jobs
Consistent and no-flaw in communication and
coordination between all involved everyone is
updated on all developments
Isolation of combustibles.
Competent and duly trained individuals and groups
in both issuing and receiving ends (inspectors, fire
watches, etc.)

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

HOT WORK PERMIT


CRITICAL ELEMENTS
Physical features/requirements are evident and

conspicuously located tags, warning systems, fire


extinguishers, etc.
Required individual elements (personnel) are visible
and ready for any eventuality (fire watch with fire
extinguisher, etc.)
Last but not least the TIME ELEMENT!
(Start, finish, fire watch
vigilance, extension)

126

Sample Form Courtesy of FM

127

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

FIRE CHRONOLOGY/STAGES
1. Fire Ignites/Starts from Tiny Spark (Incipient Phase)
2. The FIRE is Noticed/Detected (Free Burning Phase)
3. Alarm Stage Fire Notification
4. Activation of Emergency Organization
5. Emergency Organization/Brigade Response
6. Fire Control fire extinguisher, fire hose, etc.
7. Sprinkler/Pump Tender Response
8. Electrical/Gas Switchman Response
9. Evacuation Leaders Response
10.Damage Control/Search & Rescue Response
11.Fire is Extinguished (Smoldering Phase)
12.Normalization Stage
13.Back to Work (If & When Feasible)

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Emergency Response
Organization Requirements
Planned and directed movement of building

occupants.
First aid and medical self help
Fire fighting and control
Rescue of injured/trapped personnel
Minimizing damage to or by utilities

BOSH - Fire Prevention and Protection

Typical Emergency Organization


Chairman
Assistant Chairman
Communication
Rescue
Evacuation
Damage Control
Medical
Fire Brigade

ELECTRICAL
SAFETY

What are the Regulations ?


The OSHA HAS DEVOTED AN ENTIRE SECTION OF

ITS REGULATION TO RULES GOVERNING


ELECTRICAL WORK.
Your employer must train you in safe work practices for
working with electrical equipment. The training rules
distinguish between workers who work on or near
exposed energized parts and those who do not. Even if
you are not qualified to work on electrically energized
equipment, you must know the specific safety practices
which apply to your job.

HOW DOES ELECTRICITY WORK ?


To handle electricity safely, including working with

electrical equipment, you need to understand how


electricity acts, how it can be approached, the hazards it
presents, and how those hazards can be controlled.
Basically, there ARE TWO KINDS OF ELECTRICITY:

* Static (stationary)

* Dynamic (moving)

HAZARDS OF ELECTRICITY
Electricity is energy looking for some place to go. When it

finds the part of least resistance, whether its a light bulb,


motor, or a human being, it is going to take that path.
Until a circuit is completed, electricity is in the form of
potential energy, an energy waiting to be used.
To understand the hazards of electricity, it is not

necessary to know precisely what it is, even though such


knowledge might be helpful and desirable. What is more
important in handling electricity is to understand the
characteristics of electricity.

Characteristics of Electricity
1. What it is ?
2. What it does.
The electric current is of practical importance as a
means of transferring energy to a distance and for
the transformation of energy, as in electric furnace,
electric light, in electrolysis, etc.

Characteristics of Electricity
3. How it acts.
a) Electricity, when it flows, can move from one place

to another as does water in pipe.


b) The quantity of electricity which moves is

measured in units called amperes (as gallons,


quarts, or liters for water) flow of electrons.

c) The pressure of the flowing electricity or current,

or the force behind the current is measured in


units called volts, as water is measured in
pounds or grams.

Characteristics of Electricity
d) As electricity moves, resistance is encountered, the
amount of resistance depends on the substance
encountered. ( The unit of resistance to electrical current
is called an ohm). Unit for resistance or opposition to
the flow of current.
OHMS LAW
I (current) = V (voltage)
R (resistance)

What are the HAZARDS of ELECTRICITY ?


Shock
Burns
Arc-blast
Explosions
Fires

SHOCK IS THE MOST SERIOUS


ELECTRICAL HAZARD
This happens when you touch a live wire, a tool or

machine with poor insulation. You then become a


conductor. The shock that you feel is the electrical
current going through your body.
RESULTS OF SHOCK

* Pain
* Loss of muscle control and coordination
* Internal bleeding
* Cardiac arrest
* Death

HOW SHOCK OCCURS


1. With both wires of the electric circuit.
2. With one wire of an average circuit and the
ground.
3. With a metallic part being in contact with an
energized wire, while the person is also in
contact with the ground.

SEVERITY OF ELECTRIC SHOCK


1. Amount of current flow through the body
2. Voltage of circuit in contact.

3. Resistance of skin or clothing or both.


4. Area of contact with live conductor.
5. Length of time in circuit (the longer time
the body is subjected to the circuit, the
less RESISTANCE the body has.

THE AMOUNT OF CURRENT THAT FLOWS


THROUGH A VICTIMS BODY DEPENDS ON:
The voltage of the circuit
The insulating quality of the place he is

standing
The resistance of his skin
The area of contact with the conductor

Current flows through the body


from the entrance point,
until finally exiting
where the body is closest to the ground.

Electrical Burns

Exit Wound
Entrance Wound

Arc or Flash Burns


Thermal Contact
Burns

Internal Injuries

Involuntary Muscle Contraction

RESISTANCE OF MATERIALS
Most Metals

- 10 - 50 Ohms

Human Body (dry skin )

- 100,000 600,000 Ohms

Human Body (wet skin)

- 1,000 Ohms

Dry Wood

- 100,000,000 Ohms

Wet Wood

- 1,000 Ohms

Rubber
Ohms

- 100,000,000,000,000

Reaction of the Body to Electric Shock


Fatal Shock (100 110 volts)
a. 50-200 milliamperes

will cause death depending on length of time ( due to


ventricular fibrillation)

Freezing to the line (100-110 volts)


a.

15-20 milliamperes
will cause a painful shock and control of muscle is lost.
Will cause death due to heart collapse & stop breathing if
left in contact too long.

Reaction of the Body to Electric Shock


Sensation of Shock (100-110 volts)
a. 1-8 milli amperes

is not painful and person can let go.


b. 8-15 milli amperes
is painful and person can let go- may
lead to other accidents.

EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC SHOCK ON BODY


1. Chest muscle contraction- breathing interference
(death due to asphyxiation)
2. Temporary nerve center paralysis respiration failure.

3. Heart (normal rhythm) interference ventricular


fibrillation ( fiber of heart muscle create uncoordinated
manner, blood circulation ceases)
4. Heart action suspended by muscular contraction.
5. Hemorrhages and tissue destruction, nerve or muscle
damage caused by heat.

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
1. Defective appliances, equipment and tools.
2. Defective wiring installation.
3. Personal factor.
4. Lack of maintenance of equipment.
5. Using unapproved electrical equipment
appliances.
6. Failure to ground equipment.
7. No proper rated protective device,
8. Overloading of circuits.

CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS:


( Electrical Safety Devices )
Grounding
Insulation

Enclosure
Fuse or Circuit Breaker
Lockout / Tag out
Maintenance of Equipment

RULES TO FOLLOW
1. Do not guess every line should be assumed
energized..
2. Use right instruments to test.

3. Inspect regularly..
4. Use appropriate PPE, fuse tongs & insulated
tools.

5. Use Lockout/Tagout
6. Never work alone on electrical lines..

RULES TO FOLLOW
7.

Make temporary wirings safe..

8.

Observe NEC during installation

9.

Only qualified electricians should be allowed to


work on electrical jobs.

10.

Never use metallic ladders when working on


electricity.

11.

Never bridge a fuse with wire.

12.

Always have a high respect for electricity.

RESCUE TECHNIQUES
Cut off electrical source immediately.
Break connection between the victim and
the power source, or remove the victim

from the current source without endangering


yourself.
As soon as you can touch the victim safely,
apply artificial respiration (CPR)
immediately.

Proper LO/TO Procedure

Lockout
Lockout is a technique used to prevent the
release of hazardous energy, or to prevent the
hazardous energy from escaping.
A padlock is placed on the appropriate energy
isolating device that is in the off or closed
position.

Definitions
Authorized Employee - one who locks out
machines or equipment in order to perform the
servicing or maintenance on that machine or
equipment.
Affected Employee - one whose job requires
him/her to operate or use a machine or
equipment on which servicing or maintenance is

being performed under lockout, or whose job


requires him/her to work in an area in which such
servicing or maintenance is being performed.

Definitions, cont.
Energy Isolating Device - A mechanical device
that physically prevents the transmission or
release of energy.
Energy Control Procedure - Safety program
adopted by the employer that includes energy
control procedures plus provisions for inspecting
the procedures and training employees for
lockout/tagout.

The Fatal Five Main Causes of


Lockout/Tagout Injuries
Failure to stop equipment
Failure to disconnect from
power source
Failure to dissipate (bleed,
neutralize) residual energy
Accidental restarting of
equipment
Failure to clear work areas
before restarting

Hazardous Energy Sources


Found in the Workplace
Electrical
Potential
Generated
Pressure
Hydraulic
Static
Pneumatic
Mechanical
Vacuum
Transitional
Springs
Rotational
Gravity
Thermal
Machines or
Equipment
Chemical Reactions

Types of Lockout Devices


Plug Locks

Electrical

Ball Valve Lockout

Hydraulic, pneumatic,

Gate Valve Lockout

Group Lockout Hasp

and other pressurized


systems

Lockout Procedure
Alert the operator (s) that power is being
disconnected.
Preparation for Shutdown
Equipment Shutdown
Equipment Isolation
Application of Lockout Devices

Control of Stored Energy


Equipment Isolation-Verification

Removal of Lockout
Ensure equipment is safe to operate
Safeguard all employees
Remove lockout/tagout devices. Except in
emergencies, each device must be removed
by the person who put it on.

Last person to take off lock


Follow checklist

Temporarily Reactivating
Equipment
Remove unnecessary tools from the work
area and make sure everyone is clear of the
equipment

Remove lockout/tagout devices and reenergize the system


As soon as the energy is no longer needed,
isolate the equipment and re-apply
lockout/tagout, using the six step procedure.

Special Situations
Servicing lasts longer

than one shift.


Contractors are

performing service or
maintenance at your
workplace

Worker who applied

lock is not available

Tidbits of Info.
Never attempt lockout/tagout procedures
unless you have been trained and certified by
your employer under an approved Energy
Control Program.
Never loan or share your lock, combination, or
key with anybody else.
Always be sure all lockout/tagout devices are
compatible with the environment in which they
will be used i.e. corrosive, humid, etc.

Effects

Safe Current Values

1 mA or less

Causes no sensation - not felt.

1 mA to 8 mA

Sensation of shock, not painful;


Individual can let go at will since
muscular control is not lost.
Painful shock; individual can let go at
will since muscular control is not lost.

8 mA to 15 mA

Unsafe current values

15 mA to 20 mA

Painful shock; control of adjacent


muscles lost; victim can not let go.

50 mA to 100 mA

Ventricular fibrillation - a heart


condition that can result in death - is
possible.
Ventricular fibrillation occurs.

100 mA to 200 mA
200 mA and over

Servere burns, severe muscular


contractions - so severe that chest
muscles clamp the heart and stop it
for the duration of the shock. (This
prevents ventricular fibrillation).

Personal Protective
Equipment

ACCIDENT THEORY

MATERIAL

WORKER
Work Methods

ENVIRONMENT

MACHINE

Personal Protective Equipment

Personal protective equipment are variety


of devices and garments designed to serve
as a barrier between workers and
workplace hazards.

PPE: Last line of defense


Three areas where hazards can be controlled
Administrative Control :

Exposure time limitations ,Safe work practices


Alarms and Warning signs, Training and Education

Workplace
Engineering Control :

Management

Point of contact:

Elimination of the hazard


Minimization of the hazard
Isolation of the hazard
Redirection of hazard

Worker

>PPE

Guidelines in Selecting PPE


1.

Identify the hazard

2.

Understand the effect

3.

Recommend the proper equipment

4.

Train on proper usage and maintenance

Personal Protective Equipment:


Workers Last Line of Defense
Different occupations expose workers to the possibility of injury,
illness or even death due to the various hazards present in the
workplaces. These hazards, though in some ways minimized, can
not be entirely eliminated by both engineering and administrative
control measures. There is still a need for another form of
protection that will serve as a barrier against workplace
hazardsthe Personal Protective Equipment.
Personal protective equipment or PPE is not a mere substitute
for engineering and/or administrative controls. Rather, it should be
used in conjunction with these controls to better provide for
employee safety and health in the workplace. In this light, PPE that
is made available for workers use must be appropriate and of
approved type.

Personal Protective
Equipment

Head Protection

Eye & Face Protection

Hearing Protection

Respiratory Protection

Hand & Arm Protection

Foot Protection

Torso Protection

Fall Protection

HEAD PROTECTION

Hard Hat or
Safety Helmet
A rigid device that is
worn to provide
protection for the head
and which is held in
place by a suitable
suspension.

Parts of a Hard Hat


1. The suspension system includes the headband and
straps on the inside of the hat. This system absorbs
and distributes the force of impact.
2. The hard outer shell protects the head from sharp
objects, such as falling tool. It also absorbs part of
the force of impact, since its somewhat flexible.
3. The chin strap secure the hard hat to the wearers
head.
4. The brim redirects the direction of the falling object.

Characteristics of a Good Quality Hard Hat


HARD HAT must be able to absorb the shock of
the blow from falling objects, be able to resist
penetration from sharp objects and must be a
good insulator against electrical hazards.

Additional characteristics of a hard hat is its ability


for low water absorption and slow flammability
rate of the shell.

Personal Protective Equipment

Care and Maintenance

Wash with mild soap and water.

Inspection
1. The suspension system look for frayed, worn,
or cut straps.

2. The hard outer shell must have no cracks.

Head protection
should be worn
whenever there
is even a
remote chance
that a head
injury could
happen!

Eye & Face Protection

Protective eye and face


equipment shall be required
where there is a reasonable
probability of injury that can
be prevented by such
equipment.

Personal Protective Equipment


Eye and Face Protection (ANSI Z87.1 1989)

1. Safety Spectacles
2. Eye Goggles
3. Face Shields

Safety Spectacles or Glasses are primary


protective devices intended to shield the wearers
eyes from flying and striking objects, glare and
injurious radiation hazards.

Sideshield is an integral device or an accessory


attached to spectacles that provides side exposure
protection to the eye.

Goggles are primary protective devices intended to


fit the face immediately surrounding the eyes.

Unlike safety glasses, goggles provide a secure shield


around the entire eye area. Chemical goggles protect eyes
from splashes and flying particles. Shop goggles protect
against flying particles and should be used instead of
glasses when there is the potential for objects to be flying
from all directions.

Personal Protective Equipment


Face Shield is a protective device intended to
shield the wearers face, or portions thereof
from striking objects or chemical, heat and
glare hazards.

Welding shield is a protective device


intended to shield the eyes and face from
optical radiation and impact.

Characteristics of a Good Quality


Spectacles, Goggles and Face Shields
Provide adequate protection against the particular
hazards for which they are designed
Be reasonably comfortable when worn under the
designated conditions
Fit snugly without interfering with the movements or
vision of the wearer
Be within tolerable refractive power
Be durable
Be capable of being disinfected
Be easily cleanable

Personal Protective Equipment

Use of Eye and Face Protections


"A general rule, face shields should be worn
over suitable basic eye protection."
- National Safety Council

Hearing Protection

The Need for Ear Protection and


Prevention of Excessive Noise Exposure

Exposure to high noise levels can cause


hearing loss or impairment. It can create
physical and psychological stress. There is
no cure for noise-induced hearing loss, so
the prevention of excessive noise exposure
is the only way to avoid hearing damage.

Earplugs
Hearing protectors placed inside the ear to block out
noise. To work effectively, they should fit snugly into the
ear canal.

Earmuffs
A device composed of a headband with two cushioned ear
cups that form a seal around the outer ear, covering it
completely and blocking out the noise.

Selection
proper fit
the employees noise exposure
the employees hearing ability
communication needs
other constraints specific to job tasks

ARMS LENGTH RULE

If two people (with no hearing impairment) have


to raise their voices or shout to be heard in a
distance of less than an arms length from each
other, the sound level is potentially hazardous.
blah, blah, blah

Noise Levels

PERMISSIBLE NOISE EXPOSURE


Duration Per Day
(Hours)

Sound Levels
(dB)

8
6
4
3
2
1
1

90
92
95
97
100
102
105
110

Acids/Mists
Solvents/Vapors

Gases / Smoke
Dusts/Particulates
Heavy Metals/Fumes

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
Filtration respirator
Chemical respirator
Air-supplying respirator

FILTRATION RESPIRATORS
or Mechanical Respirators
screen out dust, fume, mist
and smoke. Such Filters
need to be replaced at
frequent intervals.
CHEMICAL CARTRIDGE
DEVICES remove
contaminants by passing the
tainted air through material
that traps the harmful portions.
There are specific cartridges
for specific contaminants.

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)


Supply air from an air tank is strapped at the
persons back.

1. Temperature extremes
2. Chemical exposures and splashes
3. Sharp objects
4. Fire
5. Abrasive materials

6. Live Electrical Conductors

Burns
Bruises
Abrasions
Cuts
Punctures
Fractures
Amputations
Electrocution

Skin Protection
The job of protective
clothing is generally to
protect the skin against
chemicals, cuts, bruises,
and extremes of
temperatures. It is
therefore, important to
choose the right material for
hands protection and arms
protection.

Metal mesh gloves


resist sharp edges
and prevent cuts

Leather gloves
shield your hands
from rough surfaces
and heat

Vinyl & neoprene


gloves protect your
hands against toxic
chemicals

Rubber gloves
protect you when
working around
electricity.

Welders gloves
protect your hands
from heat and
flames

Latex disposable gloves


are used to protect your
hands from germs and
bacteria

Lead-lined gloves are


used to protect your
hands from radiation
sources.

Cotton gloves help


grasp slippery
objects and protect
against slivers, dirt,
moderate heat or
cold.

Foot and Leg Protection

Hazards:
Falling or rolling objects
Sharp objects
Hot surfaces
Wet, slippery surfaces
Live Electrical conductors

Fractures
Punctures
Burns
Cuts
Amputations
Electrocution

FOOT PROTECTION
Safety Shoes
Steel toe cap
footwear protects
your toes from being
crushed by falling
objects.

Mid-sole steel plate


protects the foot from
punctured hazards.

Safety Shoes and Boots

VINYL footwear
resists solvents,
acids, alkalies, salts,
water, grease, and
blood.

NITRILE footwear
resists animal fats, oils,
and chemicals.

Safety Shoes and Boots

ELECTROSTATIC
DISSIPATING footwear
conducts static
electricity to floors that
are grounded.

ELECTRICAL HAZARD footwear


are insulated with tough
rubber to prevent shocks and
burns from electricity.

FALL PROTECTION
Full-body Harness
(BS: 1397:1979)

FALL PROTECTION
Body Belt Used to restraint
a workers movement
to a certain area

Resistance of employees to PPE

Discomfort
Inaccurate

Lack

risk perception

of education and training

Involve employees in the selection process


Cultivate behavior-based safety

Conduct Training on PPE


Enforce disciplinary action

1. The hazard still exists.


2. A defective PPE offers no protection
3. The PPE may introduce additional hazard.
4. Most PPE are not for continuous use.
5. Improper wearing may not give maximum

protection.
6. It may transfer hazard to another location.

OSHS
RULE 1080:
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT & DEVICES
1081 General Provisions:
1081.01 Every Employer:
1) Shall at his own expense furnish his workers with

protective equipment for the eyes, face, hands and feet,


protective shields and barriers whenever necessary by
reason of the hazardous nature of the process or
environment, chemical or radiological or other mechanical
irritants or hazards capable of causing injury or
impairment in the function of any part of the body through
absorption, inhalation or physical contact.

1081.02
All protective equipment shall be of approved design and construction
appropriate for the exposure and the work to be performed.

1081.03
The employer shall be responsible for the adequacy and proper
maintenance of personal protective equipment used in his workplace.

1081.04
No person shall be subjected or exposed to hazardous environmental
condition without protection.

Power and Hand Tool Safety


Machine Shop Safety

WHATEVER TYPE OF TOOLS


YOU ARE USING
Wear eye protection.

Store and carry tools correctly.


Use the correct tools for the job.

WHATEVER TYPE OF TOOLS


YOU ARE USING
Keep tools in good condition.
Support the work.

Concentrate on what you are doing.

WHATEVER TYPE OF TOOLS


YOU ARE USING
Protect your off-hand
Beware of electrical hazards

WHATEVER TYPE OF TOOLS


YOU ARE USING
Keep the work within easy reach

Safety Points to Remember:


Adjustable wrenches have the advantage of fitting
any size fastener but they offer the least secure
grip. DO NOT USE an adjustable wrench to free a
frozen nut or in any other situation requiring a lot
of force.

Socket or box type wrenches are generally safer


and more secure than open ended or adjustable
wrenches of the same size.

When using an open ended, box or socket


wrench, ALWAYS select a wrench with an
opening that fits the fastener exactly. Use metric
sized wrenches for metric fasteners and American
standard inch wrenches for American standard
inch fasteners.

When using adapters, always make certain that


you are staying within the safe limits of the
sockets and the handle. This is especially true
when you are adapting down (using a big
handle on a small socket).

When using a pipe wrench, remember that at


least one tooth must reach beyond the center of
the pipe.

NEVER use a cheater pipe to extend the


handle of any wrench.
NEVER strike an ordinary wrench. If a nut is
frozen, use penetrating oil.
Important: If you have a choice, always
PULL the wrench rather than push it. You will
be less likely to fall if the wrench slips or the
bolt suddenly breaks loose.

Safety points to remember:


Do not use a screwdriver with a rounded or
otherwise damaged tip.
Be certain the screwdriver tip matches the slop in
the head of the screw perfectly.
If the tip is wider than the screw, it will damage the work.
If the tip is too narrow or if it is fatter than the slot, it will slip
easily.
Do not confuse cross-slotted screws with standard Philips
head screws. They require different screwdrivers.

Never hold the work in one hand while using a


screwdriver with the other. Set the work down on
a flat surface or secured it in a vise.

Make sure the screwdriver shank is in line with


the crew and the screwdriver is perpendicular to
the head of the screw.

The larger the diameter of the screwdriver handle,


the more force you can apply. Use a screwdriver
that is big enough for the job.

You can make it easier to drive a screw by


applying wax to the threads. Heavy grease
works equally well, although it may stain the
wood.
Drilling a pilot hole will make driving screw
considerably easier. When working with
hardwoods or with large screws, pilot holes
are usually necessary.

Never use a screwdriver in place of a chisel,


star drill or other struck tools.
Important: The purpose of ordinary plastic
handle is to make a screwdriver more
comfortable to use - NOT TO PROVIDE
ELECTRICAL INSULATION.

Safety points to remember:


Do not use pliers on nuts and bolts. A properly
sized wrench is more secure, and reduces the
chances of slipping or of damaging the fastener.
Never use pliers for cutting hardened wire unless
they have been manufactured for this purpose.
Do not extend the handles on a pair of pliers or
use force beyond hand pressure. Instead, use a
larger pair of pliers or, if necessary, cutters.

Never expose pliers to high temperatures. You


stand a good chance of ruining the tool.

Important: Many pliers have plastic or rubber


cushioned handles. This does not
necessarily mean they are insulated against
electricity! Unless tools are labeled
insulated, never assume they will provided
any protection from electric shock.

Safety points to remember:


Do not use a tool designed for soft metals on
hard metals.
Use hand pressure alone to make the cut. Do
not extend the handles with cheaters to
increase leverage. Do not hammer on the
handles or tips. If snips or cutters will not cut
under hand pressure, then get a larger pair or
use a different type.

Stay clear of sharp metal edges. Keeping snips


at a 90 angle to the metal will produce a
smoother, less sharp edge.
90

Do not cut wire on a diagonal, creating a sharp


point and beware of metal bands under tension,
which may spring out suddenly when cut.

Safety points to remember:


Always deliver a blow with the striking face of
a hammer. NEVER strike with the side or
cheek of a hammer.
Do not use hammer to strike another.

Do not use a hammer or any other striking


tool if the handle is damaged or if the head is
not securely on the handle.

Do not use an ordinary nail hammer to drive


hardened steel nails or to strike steel or concrete
chisels, or other hardened struck tools. Use a
hammer made of metal designed for the purpose,
like ball peen hammer.

MAINTAINING TOOLS

Keep cutting tools sharp


Keep tools clean
Keep bolts and screws properly tight
Keep moving parts properly lubricated
Do not use a striking tool with a damaged or
loose handle
Important: If a damaged tool
cannot be properly repaired,
DISCARD THE TOOL!

Pay close, constant attention when using any


power tool.
Be certain the tool is in good condition.
Be certain that all parts of the power source are
in good condition.
DO NOT wear loose clothing or jewelry that could
become caught in the tool.

DO wear eye protection.


DO NOT let either hand get near the operating
point of tool.
Read manufacturers instructions. Know the
correct way to maintain, adjust and operate
any power tool before using it!

BASIC SAFETY REQUIREMENTS


DRESS

Shirt Sleeves
Wool or Knit Sweaters
Work Aprons
Ties, Jewelries and Watches
Hairnets

BASIC SAFETY REQUIREMENTS


PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Safety Glasses or Goggles


Hearing Protection
Gloves
Footwear

BASIC SAFETY REQUIREMENTS


AVOIDING STRESS AND STRAIN
Back Injuries
Wrist Injuries

LIGHTING
Individual Machines
Overall Shop

HOUSEKEEPING
Floors
Work Surfaces
Care and Storage of Tools
Storage of Stock and Supplies
Clearly Marked Work Areas

MECHANICAL
Points of Operation
Shear Points
Nip Points
Power Transmission Points

ELECTRICAL
Indications of Possible Electrical Trouble:
Mild shock or tingling sensation from
contact with the machine
Frayed or exposed wiring
An excessively hot motor

ELECTRICAL
Indications of Possible Electrical Trouble:
Inoperative or erratic switches
Unusual or erratic machine operation
Unusual odors such as burning insulation
Sparks
Smoke

ELECTRICAL
NOTE:
If you notice any signs of electrical
trouble, turn off the machine and have a
qualified electrician check it out before
you attempt to operate it again.

ELECTRICAL

IMPORTANT: Before attempting non-routine


adjustments, or any repair or maintenance of
a machine, you must perform an electrical
lock-out on the machine to prevent injury
from an unexpected start up or the
unexpected release of energy.

ELECTRICAL
Common Procedures to the lockout of any machine:
Make sure all of the machines controls are in the
off position.
Disconnect and look out all energy sources
supplying the machine.

ELECTRICAL
Common Procedures to the lockout of any machine:
Make sure any secondary sources of energy,
such as flywheels or hydraulic or pneumatic
accumulators, have been disconnected or that
their energy has been dissipated.

ELECTRICAL
Common Procedures to the lockout of any machine:
Test or try the machine to make sure it is getting
no power.
Notify everyone who may be affected by the
lockout before you begin the lockout and then let
them know when you are finished and the
machine has been re-energized.

CHEMICAL
Chemical hazards are generally related to contact
with:
various types of coolant fluids like water, soluble
oils or specialized synthetic mixtures;
Petroleum oils and greases or special synthetics
used as lubricants; and,

CHEMICAL
Chemical hazards are generally related to contact
with:
Solvents used to coat or clean many kinds of
metal stock and finished workpieces.

WORKPIECES
Heat
Sharp Edges and Burrs
Chips
Motion

TOOLS
Sharp Edges
Dull or Damaged Tools
Chuck Keys
DISTRACTIONS