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NCAD Referencing

Colette Fahy and Jemma Deegan

What will be covered

Why reference.
Avoiding Plagiarism.
Finding Trustworthy Sources.
Citations within the text.
How to quote and paraphrase.
Creating a bibliography.
Handy software for referencing.

Why Reference?
Credit your sources.
Show you have read extensively on the subject.
Bring in experts opinions.
Avoid plagiarism accidental or not.
Strengthen your argument.
Allows you to respond to other viewpoints.

Essay Example
Choose an artist/maker who works in both art
and design contexts. How does their design
practice relate to their art practice?
Donald Judd furniture and art.

Finding Evidence and Sources

NCAD Library.
NCAD Library Online Journals.
Sweet Search.
Google Scholar.

Donald Judd (1987) Complete writings, 1975 - 1986 Eindhoven: Van Abbemuseum.

How do I know a source is Trustworthy?

Written Academically: correct spelling and grammar, proper
It should be fairly recent.
The authors are knowledgeable.
Websites can be useful, but it is hard to check who the author is.

Use websites for your own understanding and then use


It takes a great deal of time and thought to install

work carefully. This should not always be thrown
away. Most art is fragile and some should be placed
and never moved again. Some work is too large,
complex and expensive to move. Somewhere a
portion of contemporary art has to exist as an
example of what the art and its context were meant
to be.
From: Donald Judd (1987) Complete writings,
1975-1986. Eindhoven: Van Abbemuseum p. 111

Citations in the Text

Page Number
(Smith, 1990, p. 25)

It takes a great deal of time and thought to install work carefully.

This should not always be thrown away. Most art is fragile and
some should be placed and never moved again. (Judd, 1987, p.

Judd emphasises the importance of curation; It takes a great deal

of time and thought to install work carefully. This should not
always be thrown away. Most art is fragile and some should be
placed and never moved again. (1987, p. 35)
Judd placed a great importance on the curation of work,
remarking that this process should take a large amount of time
and thought to be done correctly (1987, p. 35).

Using Quotes
Less than three lines Use quotation marks (Smith, 2014, p.100)
Over three lines no quotation marks, indent, single-space.
The idea of an isolated American painting, so popular in this country during the thirties,
seems absurd to me, just as the idea of a purely American mathematics or physics would
seem absurd... And in another sense, the problem doesnt exist at all; or, if it did, would
solve itself: An American is an American and his painting would naturally be qualified by
the fact, whether he wills or not. But the basic problems of contemporary painting are
independent of any one country. (Pollock, 1944, p.138)

Citations in the Text some exceptions

If no main author video or film, use the title.
Exact year or date unknown [ca. 1750] or [no date]
No page number just leave out.
If author has more than one publication (Smith, 1988a, p.1)
Two authors (Smith, Blake, 2000, p.7)
More than three authors (Smith et al. 1999, p.100)
If work anonymous, use name of work (Treasures of Art, 1990, p.84)

Citing sources quoted within other

Cite both in the text.
Person who said it cited in book where you read it
(1989, Smith cited in Jones, 1999, p.24)
A study by Smith argues that ... (1998, cited in Jones, 2005, p.24)

List ALL material, including interviews
List it alphabetically by authors name.
More than one work by an author list chronologically and use
letters to distinguish - Smith, R. (1990a)

Poyner, R. (1998) Design without Boundaries. London: Booth-Clibborn

Wells, L. (ed.) (2004) Photography: A Critical Introduction. 3rd ed.
London: Routledge

Bibliography - Books
Author (or editor), (year of publication in parenthesis), Title in Italics.
Place of publication: publisher.
Poyner, R. (1998) Design without Boundaries. London: Booth-Clibborn

Bibliography Chapters with Different

Author, year (in parenthesis), title of chapter or essay then write in
followed by name & initial of editor/overall author, title in italics. Place
of publication: publisher, page number(s).

Smith, P. J. (1997) British Art in the 1980s and 1990s in Murphy, B.

(ed), Art from Britain. Sidney: Museum of Contemporary Art, pp. 147159.

Bibliography Web Resources

Author/ editors name, (year in parenthesis), Title in Italics. Place of
Publication: Publisher (if ascertainable). Available from: URL (Accessed:
Holland, M. (2004) Guide to Citing Internet Sources. Poole:
Bournemouth University. Available at:
_sources.html (Accessed: 4 November 2004)

Bibliography Journal Articles

Author, (year of publication), title of article, title of journal in italics,
volume number (part number), page numbers of article.
Dawes, J. and Rowley, J. (1998) 'Enhancing the customer experience:
contributions from information technology', Management Decision,
36(5), pp. 350-357

Bibliography Newspaper Articles

Author (Year of Publication) Title of article,
Title of Newspaper in Italics, day and month,
page number(s)
Marlow, L (1997) Sarkozy suffers setback as
party loses assembly seats, Irish Times, 18
June, p.1

Bibliography - Films
Title of film (Year of Distribution) Director [Material
designation]. Place of distribution: Distribution

Macbeth (1948) Directed by Orson Welles [Film].

USA: Republic Pictures

Bibliography Exhibition Catalogues

For Exhibition Catalogues with no author, the organiser should be cited
as author.
Arts Council (1970) Art in Turmoil, London: Serpentine Gallery.

Bibliography Other Formats

Conference Proceedings.
Television Programmes.
Youtube Clips.
Personal Interviews.

Its not too complicated, honest

The things you need to take a note of from a text that you are reading
The authors name.
The year it was published.
The title.
Who published it.
Where it was published.
The pages you used.

Where to Find the Guidelines?

Titles of Films, Periodicals and Artworks

Use Italics, not inverted commas.

Ridley Scotts 1982 film Blade Runner is a film

adaptation of the 1968 novel Do Androids Dream of
Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.

Spell out the first time.
Then, just use the shortened version.
Students in the National College of Art and Design (NCAD) have said...

Numbered in text. Mark Clares recent work La Fontaine du
Realisme (Fig. 1)
Included only when referred to in the text.
artist/designer, title, date, and current location of the work.

Fig. 1. Mark Clare, La Fontaine du Realisme (2013) Recycled wood, coloured packing tape, steel tables, plastic inflatable
swimming pools. Temporary site-specific Installation Centre Culturel Irlandais, Paris

Fig. 2 Piet Mondrian Broadway Boogie Woogie (1942-43) Oil on canvas, The Museum of Modern Art, New York

Double spaced typing.
Single space for long quotes.
Font 12.
Print on one side of the page.
Include your bibliography.
Illustrations - numbered and captioned.
Use NCAD title page.

Zotero Automatic Referencing Software

Search Youtube: NCAD Zotero

Keep a record of your sources as you go.
In Text Citation: Author, Year, Page Number.
Download and follow the bibliography guidelines.
Always cite sources avoid accidental plagiarism.


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