General Arrangement & Layout of Substation Switchyard

Jagannathan

Main components of Sub Station 1) Bus Bars and supports 2) Circuit Breakers 3) Isolators 4) Current transformers & CVTs 5) Lightning arresters 6) Transformers / Reactors 7) Protective relays

Sub station has many component ( C.B., switches , fuses , instrument etc). which must be housed properly to ensure continues reliable service

Isolator
C.B SF6 C.T P.T

Equipments
Transformer & Reactors Vital Costliest 3 phase or 1 Phase ( based on transportation logistics) 315MVA Autotransformers are generally used. ( Three windings) ( HV/IV/LV-LV for tertiary loading)

Protection and Control Equipments Control Panels Protection Panels Line/Autoreclosure Transformer/Reactor Busbar/LBB

 Transmission bus

Circuit Breakers Mechanical on-load switches For making, carrying and breaking currents under normal condition For breaking under abnormal conditions Arc extinguishing medium – Air blast, Gas Drive mechanism – Pneumatic/hydraulic/spring

Oil Circuit Breaker

Air Circuit Breaker

 Vacuum Circuit breaker (inside)

Air Break Circuit breaker

Air Circuit Breaker

SF6 Circuit Breaker

Instrument Transformers  To get the replica of characteristics of current and voltage  Current Transformer for current  CVT/PT for voltage  Useful for transferring the parameters to measuring instruments, meters, relays

PT

CT

 These current transformers have the primary

winding connected in series with the conductor carrying the current to be measured or controlled. The secondary winding is thus insulated from the high voltage and can then be connected to lowvoltage metering circuits.

400 kv current transformer

 Potential transformers are required to provide

accurate voltages for meters used for billing industrial customers or utility companies

Potential Transformer

Lightning Arrestor Protection from lightning Protection from switching surges

Lightning Arrester

 Hardware      

Bus post insulators String insulators Disc insulators Terminal connectors Conductors Miscellaneous

Control room building
               Control room Relay room PLCC/SCADA room Battery room DCBD & Battery charger room MCC room Engineer’s room Shift – in – charge room Store room Library Conference room Toilets A/C plant room / AHU room Pantry room Test lab

The substation control house contains switchboard panels, batteries, battery chargers, supervisory control, power-line carrier, meters, and relays. The control house provides all weather protection and security for the control equipment. It is also called a doghouse

Supervisory control
Control room Relay room PLCC/SCADA room

A rectifier is a device used to convert alternating current to direct current.

 A relay is a low-powered device used to

activate a high-powered device. Relays are used to trigger circuit breakers and other switches in substations and transmission and distribution systems.

Wave traps/Line Traps Provide low impedance path for power frequency Provide high impedance path for high frequency ( 30-500Hz)

 Coupling capacitors
 To transmit communication signals to

transmission lines,  To measure the voltage in transmission lines.  In signal transmission the coupling capacitor is part of a power line carrier circuit .  A coupling capacitor is used in this circuit in conjunction with a line trap.

Voltage regulating equipments Shunt capacitors Series capacitors Shunt reactors( Static/Dynamic)

Shunt reactors are used in an extra high-voltage substation to neutralize inductive reactance in long EHV transmission lines. The photo shows an installation of both an older version and a newer version of the reactor.

Capacitive Bank - are used to control the level of the voltage supplied to the customer by reducing or eliminating the voltage drop in the system caused by inductive reactive loads.

Bus supportsare porcelain or fiberglass insulators that serve to isolate the bus bar switches and other support structures and to prevent leakage current from flowing through the structure or to ground

IR value of Insulators
0 – 50 M.Ohms 51 –500 M.Ohms Grade ‘A’ Grade ‘ B’ ‘ C’ Grade

501–1000 M.Ohms -

1000 – 2000M Ohms - ‘ D’ Grade 2000 & above ‘ E’ Grade

 A type of insulator with a bell or pot-like shape used to connect

underground electrical cables to overhead lines.  It serves to separate the bunched-up conductors from one another in the cable to the much wider separation in the overhead line.  It also seals the cable end from the weather. Potheads are mounted on a distribution pole and the assembly is called a riser pole.

Isolators - Provide visible air gap isolation of equipment and feeder sections  For safe examination, maintenance and repair  For carrying normal current  Short circuit (SC) current for specified time

Air Break Isolator

Isolators

Earth switch of isolator • Mechanical device for earthling circuit paths • Capable of withstanding SC currents for specified time • Not required to carry currents under normal conditions

Isolators

 Circuit Switches : provide equipment

protection for transformers, lines, cables, and capacitor banks.  They also are used to energize and deenergize capacitor banks and other circuits

Fused cut out

 Disconnect switches or circuit breakers are used

to isolate equipment or to redirect current in a substation. Many different types of disconnect switches are shown below.

Fused load break

Non load break Fused

Circuit switches

Outdoor mc switchgear

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