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Learning/Thinking styles and

Multiple Intelligences
Learning/thinking styles and Multiple Intelligence

> Thinking / learning styles is one factor that brings about student diversity.
> learners learn and think in distinct ways
- a group of learners always differ in its learning characteristics particularly the learners manner of
processing information.
- Some learners absorb lesson better when they work with their hands than when they just listen.
- there are also others prefer to watch video about a topic, in like manner students have preferred on
how to express their thoughts, feelings and ideas.( by write, draw , dance and sing).
- These preferences involve thinking/learning style and multiple

What types of learner are? Whats your Style? Answer the Style Inventory below and
find out!
1. If I have to learn how to do something, I learn best when I:
(V) Watch someone show me.
(A) Hear someone tell me how.
(K) Try to do it myself.
2. When I read, I Often find that I:
(V) Visualize what I am reading in my minds eye.
(A) Read out loud or hear the words inside my head.
(K) Fidget and try to feel the content.
3. When asked to give directions, I:
(V) See the actual places in my mind as I say them or prefer to draw them.
(A) Have no difficulty in giving them verbally.
(K) Have to point or move my body as I give them.
4. If I am unsure how to spell a word, I:
(V) Write it in order to determine if it is looks right.
(A) Spell it out loud in to determine if it sounds right.
(K) Write it in order to determine if it feels right.

5. When I write, I:
(V) Am concerned how to neat and well space my letters and words appear.
(A) Often say the letters and words to myself.
(K) Push hard on my pen or pencil and can feel the floe of the words or letters as I form them.
6. If I had to remember a list of items, I would remember it best if I:
(V) Wrote them down.
(A) Said them over and over to myself.
(K) Moved around and used my fingers to name each items.
7. I prefer teachers who:
(V) Use the board or overhead projector while they lecture.
(A) Talk with lot of expression.
(K) Use hands-on activities.
8. When trying to concentrate, I have a difficult time when:
(V) There is a lot of clutter or movement in the room.
(A) There is a lot of noise in the room.
(K) I have to sit still for any length of time.
9. When solving a problem, I:
(V) Write or draw diagrams to see it.
(A) Talk myself through it.
(K) Use my entire body or move objects to help me think.

10. When given written instructions on how to build something, I:

(V) Read them silently and try to visualize how the parts together.
(A) Read them out loud and talk to myself as I put the parts
(K) Try to put the parts together first and read later.
11. To keep occupied while waiting , I:
(V) Look around, stare, or read.
(A) Talk or listen to others.
(K) Walk around, manipulate things with my hands, or move/shake my feet as I sit.
12. If I had to verbally describe something to another person, I would:
(V) Be brief because I do not like to talk at length.
(A) Go into great detail because I like to talk.
(K) Gesture and move around while talking.
13. If someone were verbally describing something to me, I would:
(V) Try to visualize what she was saying.
(A) Enjoy listening but want to interrupt and talk myself.
(K) Become bored if her description gets too long and detailed.
14. When trying to recall names, I remember:
(V) Faces but forget names.
(A) Names, but forget names.
(K) The situation that I met the person other than the persons name of space.

The activity you just answered is a learning Style

Inventory, your answers reflects you whether you
are Visual, Auditory or a kinesthetic learner.
This is how learning and teaching style variations
A. Hilliard describes that learning style as the
sum of the patterns of how individuals develop
habitual ways of responding to experiences

Learning/Thinking Styles
-refers to the preferred way of individual processes information.
-it will describe a persons typical mode of thinking in remembering or
problem solving.
-style is usually considered to be bipolar dimension.
-learning/thinking styles simply denotes a tendency to behave in a certain
-ones style may usually describe as a personality dimension which
influences the attitudes, values and in social interaction.
There are two perspectives in learning-thinking style;
1) Sensory preferences-tend to gravitate towards one or two type of
sensory input and maintain dominance in one of the three sensory
preferences such as Visual Learner, Auditory learners and Tactile/
Kinesthetic Learner.

A. Visual Learner learners must see their teachers actions and facial expression to fully understand the content of a
>this type of learners tends to view pictures and learn best from visual aids.
Ex. Diagrams, illustrated textbooks, videos, flipcharts and etc.
>these learners also often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb better the information shared.
Ri Charde- categorizes visual learners into two categories:
1.Visual- iconic refers to that learners much interested in visual
these groups of learners usually have good picture memory/ iconic imagery.
-they like to read a map better than to reading a book.
2.Visual-symbolic - learners feel comfortable and prefers with abstract symbolism such as mathematical formulae or
the written word.
-this is in contrast visual iconic.
-they like to read better a book than to read a map.
-prefer to read about things than to hear about them.
-a good abstract thinkers and do not require practical means.
B. Auditory Learners - learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what
others have say.

> they easily interpret the underlying meaning of speech through listening to the tone of voice, pitch, speed and
other nuances.
>written information may have little meaning until it is heard.
>these learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using tape recorder.
> can attend aurally to details; translate the spoken word easily into the written word.
> not easily distracted in their listening ability.
Auditory Learners is divided into two categories; listener and talker.
Listeners refers of what they heard and recollection or a
way of remembering things and information.
Talkers the ones who prefer to talk and discuss.
-they find themselves talking to those around them.
-they are trying not to be disrupted and may not even realize they need to talk.
C. Tactile/ Kinesthetic Learners learn through hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around
- they find it so hard to sit for a long periods.
-less benefited from the discussion or written materials.
-they become distracted by their need for the activity and exploration.
-they tend to prefer learning by doing, and preferring the use of psychomotor skills to, say, and abstract thinking
-they tend to have good motor memory and motor coordination.

(2) Global- Analytic Continuum - Analytic Thinkers and Global Thinkers

a. Analytic Thinkers- tend towards the linear, step by step processes of learning.
- they tend to see finite elements of patterns rather than the whole.
- they are the tree seers
-they are more comfortable in a world of details and hierarchies of information.
b. Global Thinkers lean towards non-linear thought and tend to see the whole pattern rather than particle
- they are the forest seers, who give attention only to the overall structure and sometimes ignore details.

There are theorists have tied the global-analytic continuum the left- brain or right- brain continuum.
According to Roger Sperrys model- the left- brained dominant person is portrayed as linear (analytic),verbal,
mathematical thinker while right-brained person is one who is viewed as non-linear(global),and holistic in thought
>Both sides of the brain can reason but through different strategies.
>One side is more dominant than the other.
>The left brain regarded as analytic in approach while right brain described as holistic or global.
Left brain is also called as successive processor prefers to learn in a step by step sequential format ,beginning with
details leading to conceptual understanding of skills.
Right brain as simultaneous processor - prefers to learn beginning with the general concept and then going on to

Columns below show the comparison between the left brain and right brain;

LEFT BRAIN (Analytic)

Successive Hemispheric Style
1. Verbal
2. Responds
3. Sequential
4. Processes information linearly
5. Responds to logic
6. Plans ahead
7. Recalls people names
8. Speaks with few gestures
9. Punctual
10. Prefers formal study design
11. Prefers bright lights while studying


Simultaneous Hemispheric Style
1. Visual
2. Responds to tone of voice
3. Random
4. Processes information in varied order
5. Responds to emotion
6. Impulsive
7. Recalls peoples faces
8. Gestures when speaking
9. Less punctual
10. Prefers sound/music background while studying
11. Prefers frequent mobility while studying

Multiple Intelligences was first described by Howard Gardner on his theory in Frames of Mind
(1983).He defines intelligence as an ability or set of abilities that allows a person to solve a problem or
fashion a product that is valued in one or more cultures.
Gardner believes that different intelligences may be independent abilities. A person can be low in one
domain area but high in another. Every individual posses the intelligences but in varying degrees of
strength and skills. Gardner in his most current research indicates that there are nine (9) distinct forms of
intelligence. These are the tails leading to childrens learning that teachers should address in their
classrooms all the time.

Different Forms of Intelligences

Intrapersonal (Self Smart) learning through feelings, values and attitudes. This is
a decidedly affective component of learning through which students place value
on what they learn and take owner ship for their learning.

Interpersonal (people Smart)-learning through interaction with others. Not the

domain of children who are simply talkative or overly social. This intelligence
promotes collaboration and working cooperatively with others.

Naturalist (Nature Smart)-learning through classification, categories and

hierarchies. The naturalist intelligence picks up on subtle differences in meaning. It
is not simply the study of nature; it can be used in all areas of study.

Existential (spirit Smart) - learning by seeing the big picture;Why are we here?
What is my role in the world??What is my place my family, school and
community? This intelligence seeks connections to real world understanding and
application of new learning.

Visual/Spatial Intelligence (Picture Smart)-learning visually and organizing ideas spatially. Seeing
concepts in action in order to understand them. The ability to see things in ones mind in planning
to create a product or solve a problem.

Verbal/Linguistic (Word Smart) - learning through the spoken and written word. This intelligence
was always valued in the traditional classroom and in traditional assessments of intelligence and

Mathematical/Logical (Number Smart/Logic Smart) learning through reasoning and problem

solving. Also highly valued in the Traditional classroom, where students were asked to adapt to
logically sequenced delivery of instruction.

Bodily/Kinesthetic (Body Smart)-learning through interaction with ones environment. This

intelligence is not the domain of overly active learners. It promotes understanding through
concrete experience.

Musical/ (Music Smart) - learning through patterns, rhythms and music. This includes not only
auditory learning, but the identification of patterns through all the senses.

Multiple Intelligences as Disposition



Inclination for


Verbal- Linguistic

Speaking, listening,
sounds,meaning,stru writing,reading
cture and styles of

religious leader,
politician) or write


and numerical

Workeffectively with
tistician,economist) and

and testing
hypotheses,using the
and inductive