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Ancient maritime trading nation Bay of Bengal was once known as CHOLA LAKE Exports touch $155 billion in 2007-08 India is among the top ten in services exports The export basket

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The foreign trade ( development and regulation ) Act The Foreign Trade Policy 2004-09 The FEMA 2000 RBI Regulations The Customs Act The Central excise Act

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A business organization Manufacturer exporter Merchant exporter Agent/ intermediary Service provider Product selection Procurement of order

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Product, standards & specification Quantity Inspection Value Terms of delivery Taxes, duties and charges Period of shipment

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Packing, labeling,marking Terms of payment- Amount.mode & currency Discounts and commissions Licences and Permits Insurance Documentary requirements Guarantee

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Force majeure Remedies Arbitration The case of Dalmia & Arun Jain of Polaris

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EXW– Ex works FCA--- Free Carrier FAS---- Free alongside ship FOB---- Free on board C&F----- Cost and freight CIF----- cost ,insurance and freight CPT– Carriage paid to CIP---- Carriage and insurance paid to

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DAF– delivered at frontier DES--- delivered EX ship DDU--- delivered duty unpaid DDP---- delivered duty paid DEQ– delivered ex quay

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Credit risk Currency risk Carriage risk Country risk Voyage risk

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IEC with DGFT PAN Bank account Appointment of agents Export licenses Customs registration Registration with export promotion councils

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IPQC– In process quality control ISI, AGMARK Fumigation ISO- 9000 & ISO – 14000 EIA SA- 8000 Global compact

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Understanding currency fluctuations Invoicing currency Forward contract Hedging Repatriation EEFC

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The policy The handbook of procedures The ITC- HSN classification Export licenses Import licenses OGL State Trading

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Exporter Person in charge of conveyance Bill of lading Export general manifest Shipping bill, packing list,ARE etc Stuffing/ examination/ sealing Self- sealing/ self- certification

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Importance of ICD/CFS/ Customs bonded warehouse Green channel for exporters Assessment New concept of Transaction value

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Importer Person in charge of conveyance Bill of entry Import general manifest Assessment EDI RMS

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Exports are free of duty Bond clearances Rebate clearances ARE 1 ARE 2 UT1 Proof of export Sealing of container

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Section 65 of customs Act Advance authorization / DFIAS Export promotion capital goods DEPB Drawback EOU SEZ

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Minimum investment of INR 10 million 300 warehousing districts as location Nearly 3000 units in existence New or conversion from DTA Manufacturing & services covered Trading units are not permitted

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Widest definition of manufacture Single B – 17 Bond Duty-free import of raw materials and inputs and similar sourcing of inputs and capital items from DTA NFE= A – B = 0 + EO over 5 years

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Can subcontract part of production to DTA Can sell upto 50% of production in DTA Can sell to other EOU/ BTP/ EHTP/STP/SEZ and count against EO Exempt from state trading and SSI reservation restrictions 100% EEFC retention

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Clubbing of exports with exports of parent company for export house status CST exemption PC and CT3 procedure Self sealing Green channel clearance on import

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Recouping of duties of customs and central excise and service taxes All industry rates Brand rate Special brand rate Post export documentation

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Import of capital goods at 5% concessional customs duty EO is 8 times the duty saved in 8 years 12 years for SSI holders and licenses for INR1000million Covers manufacturer exporters or merchant exporters with supporting manufacturers

Direct as well as third party exports allowed Shipments under Advance authorization DFIAS , DEPB & draw back will count for fulfillment of EO Physical exports required but certain deemed exports allowed Clubbing of licenses allowed

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Duty free import of inputs Fuel, oil and energy are also allowed to be imported SION norms Ad hoc SION permitted Positive value addition Issued for annual requirement also

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Advance release order/ Invalidation Supplies to SEZ counted Actual user condition Disposal of imported items after meeting EO License transferable after meeting EO and with the permission of DGFT

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Duty free post export remission scheme SION norms Ad hoc SION norms permitted Schedule of rates Can be used to pay for import duties Transferable scrip Scheme valid upto March 2009

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Exclusive geography Duty free enclave Sales to DTA permitted Special concessions for promoters Positive EO is required Customs duty, excise duty, service tax and VAT & CST are exempt on supplies to SEZ units

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Appendix 37E goods Duty free scrip equal to 10% incremental export growth Ceiling of INR 150 million Some exports not counted Scrip freely transferable

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Goods notified in appendix 37D Some exports not counted Duty credit scrip equal to 1.25% of FOB value of exports for each year Scrip transferable

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Notified as per Appendix 37C Duty credit scrip of 2.5% on the FOB value of exports achieved Certain exports not allowed Scrip transferable

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The concept of deemed exports Covers supply of goods against: Advance authorization/ DFIAS EOU/ STP/EHTP/BTP EPCG Projects under International competitive bidding procedure

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Projects approved by ministry of finance Supplies of capital stock to fertilizer plants Supplies of goods to Refineries and power projects Supplies of goods to UN- funded projects Supplies of goods to Nuclear power projects thro competitive bidding

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Advance authorization / DFIAS Deemed duty drawback Exemption from terminal excise duty if supplies are against International competitive bidding In other cases refund of terminal excise duty paid will be given

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To promote served from India image Appendix 10 Minimum previous year exports of INR1 million 10% duty credit scrip Scrip transferable within corporate group and not otherwise

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Export House Rs 20 crores Star export House Rs 100 crores Trading House Rs 500 crores Star Trading House Rs 2500 crores Premier Trading House Rs 10000 crores Benefits allowed to status holders

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Export without payment of duty Export under claim for duty Procurement of excisable goods for export production without payment of duty Drawback Concessional notifications

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Drawback Its limitations ASTR 1 ASTR 2 Clearances to SEZ exempt Refund of service tax paid on export related input services

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International Treaty Governing Principles MFN Non discrimination National treatment Reduction of tariffs Elimination of Non tariff barriers

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NAFTA EU MECOSUR ASEAN SAFTA Indian agreements with Sri Lanka, Thailand and Singapore Implications of FTAs

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70% of international trade is over the seas For India, it is 90% Trade through Air is comparatively very expensive and cannot become a common preference, and is unsuited for heavy, large cargo Many coastal states possess a number of ports

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India has 12 major ports and more than 180 lesser ones India has a coastline of nearly 6000 KMs All ports of India together handled 519 million tons of cargo during the fiscal year ended March 2008 Growth rate of 12%

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Limited land area Industries located in hinterland Low channel draft Too many players Inadequate deployment of skill and technology Lack of coordinated approach

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Skill – Intensive Technology driven, minimal paper work Port is the best when its an industrial complex by itself Quay cranes Crane productivity Fully automated terminals with good quay length

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Customs Port Trusts Port Health Organization Plant Quarantine Immigration Terminal operator Vessel operating agent

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Steamer agent / Mainline operator Container operating agent ( NVOCC, VOCC ) Stevedore CHA / Exporters / Importers Transport operators CFS / ICD Security agencies / External players

Factor

JNPT

SINGAPORE PORT 4 41 11,754 425 ha

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Terminals 3 Vessels per terminal 9 Quay length 600 m m Total area 133 ha

Factor

JNPT

SINGAPORE

Total no of quay cranes 8 Crane moves per hour 20 – 25 Crane rate per hour 60 -70

131 25 -30 100

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All Indian ports in 2005 -06 together handled cargo of 423.3 million tons Singapore port in the same period handled 423 million tons of cargo Transaction costs at Indian ports are 10 % Transaction costs in leading ports are 6 % The transaction costs at Indian ports are in money terms - $ 12 billion per annum

Cargo type

As on 2005-06 export import 3.57 6.6 3.78 3.23 5.62 1.88

expected exp imp 1.7 3.3 1.5 1.6 1.5

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Dry bulk Break Bulk Containers 1.00

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