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The Cell

Dr. S. Francis

Typical Cell

Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology


Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Cytoplasm
Portion of cell interior not occupied by the
nucleus
Consists of
Organelles
little organs
Distinct, highly organized, membrane-enclosed
structures

Cytosol
Complex, gel-like mass in which the cytoskeleton is
found
Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology
Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Cytosol
Occupies about 55% of total cell volume
Semi-liquid portion of cytoplasm that surrounds
the organelles
Contains cytoskeleton and cell nutrients
Activities associated with gelatinous portion of
cytoplasm
Enzymatic regulation of intermediary metabolism
Ribosomal protein synthesis
Storage of fat, carbohydrate, and secretory vesicles
Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology
Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Cytoskeleton
Complex protein network protein of cytosol
that acts as bone and muscle of cell
Three distinct elements
Microtubules
Microfilaments
Intermediate
filaments

Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology


Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Element

Function

Microtubules

Transport secretory vesicles


Movement of specialized cell
projections
Form mitotic spindle during cell division

Microfilaments Contractile systems


Mechanical stiffeners

Intermediate
filaments

Help resist mechanical stress

Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Examples of Organelles

Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi complex
Lysosome
Peroxisome
Ribosomes
Mitochondrion
Vault

Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology


Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)


Elaborate fluid-filled membranous system
distributed throughout the cytosol
Primary function
Protein and lipid manufacture

Two types
Smooth ER (lipid synthesis)
Mesh of tiny interconnected tubules

Rough ER (protein synthesis)


Projects outward from smooth ER as stacks of relatively
flattened sacs
Surface has attached ribosomes
Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology
Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology


Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Ribosomes
Consist of two subunits
Large and a small subunit

Involved in Protein Synthesis

Golgi Complex
Closely associated with ER
Consists of a stack of flattened, slightly curved,
membrane-enclosed sacs called cisternae
Number of Golgi complexes per cell varies
with the cell type
Functions
Processes raw materials into finished products
Sorts and directs finished products to their final
destinations
Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology
Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Golgi Complex

Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology


Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Lysosomes
Membranous sacs containing hydrolytic
enzymes
Serve as intracellular digestive system
Extracellular material attacked by lysosomes
enters cell by endocytosis
Pinocytosis
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
phagocytosis
Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology
Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Peroxisomes
Membranous sacs
that house oxidative
enzymes that detoxify
various waste products

Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology


Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Vaults
Shaped like octagonal barrels
May serve as extracellular transport vehicles
May contribute to multi-drug resistance
sometimes displayed in cancer cells
Exact function is not clear

Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology


Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Mitochondria
Energy organelle
Major site of ATP
production
Contains enzymes for citric
acid cycle and electron
transport chain

Enclosed by a double
membrane
Inner infolded membrane
is called the cristae
Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology
Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Nucleus
Typically largest single organized cell
component
Enclosed by a double-layered nuclear
envelope
Contains cells genetic material, DNA
DNA functions
Directs protein synthesis
Serves as genetic blueprint during cell replication
Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology
Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Plasma Membrane
Also called the cell membrane
Surrounds every cell
Separates cell contents from its surroundings
Separates ICF and ECF

Controls movement of molecules into and out


of cell

Chapter 2 Cellular Physiology


Human Physiology by Lauralee
Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-

Plasma Membrane Structure


Most abundant are the lipids (phospholipids)
Polar end of phospholipid is hydrophilic
Nonpolar end of phospholipid is hydrophobic .

Fluid lipid bilayer embedded with proteins


Also has small amount of carbohydrates
On outer surface only

Cholesterol
Tucked between phospholipid molecules
Contributes to fluidity and stability of cell
Chapter 3 The Plasma
membrane
Membrane and
Membrane
Potential
Human Physiology by Lauralee

Plasma Membrane
Functions of the Plasma Membrane
Physical isolation
Barrier

Regulates exchange with environment


Ions and nutrients enter

Wastes eliminated and cellular products released

Monitors the environment


Extracellular fluid composition

Chemical signals

Structural support
Anchors cells and tissues
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Plasma Membrane
Membrane Lipids
Double layer of phospholipid molecules
Hydrophilic headstoward watery environment, both

sides
Hydrophobic fatty-acid tailsinside membrane
Barrier to ions and watersoluble compounds

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Plasma Membrane
Membrane Carbohydrates
Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids
Extend outside cell membrane
Form sticky sugar coat (glycocalyx)

Functions of the glycocalyx


Lubrication and protection
Anchoring and locomotion

Specificity in binding (receptors)


Recognition (immune response)
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Plasma Membrane Structure

Chapter 3 The Plasma


Membrane and Membrane
Potential
Human Physiology by Lauralee

Plasma Membrane
Membrane Proteins
Integral proteins
Within the membrane

Peripheral proteins
Bound to inner or outer surface of the membrane

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Plasma Membrane
Membrane Proteins
Anchoring proteins (stabilizers)
Attach to inside or outside structures

Recognition proteins (identifiers)


Label cells as normal or abnormal

Enzymes
Catalyze reactions

Receptor proteins
Bind and respond to ligands (ions, hormones)

Carrier proteins
Transport specific solutes through membrane

Channels
Regulate water flow and solutes through membrane
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Membrane Transport
The plasma (cell) membrane is a barrier, but
Nutrients must get in
Products and wastes must get out
Permeability determines what moves in and out of a cell, and
a membrane that
Lets nothing in or out is impermeable

Lets anything pass is freely permeable


Restricts movement is selectively permeable
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Membrane Transport
Plasma membrane is selectively permeable
Allows some materials to move freely
Restricts other materials

Selective permeability restricts materials based on

Size
Electrical charge
Molecular shape
Lipid solubility

Membrane Transport: Fat-and Water-Soluble Molecules


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Membrane Transport
Transport through a plasma membrane can be
Active (requiring energy and ATP)
Passive (no energy required)

Diffusion (passive)
Carrier-mediated transport (passive or active)
Vesicular transport (active)

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Membrane Transport
All molecules are constantly in motion

Molecules in solution move randomly


Random motion causes mixing
Concentration is the amount of solute in a
solvent
Concentration gradient
More solute in one part of a solvent than another
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Diffusion
Diffusion is a Function of the Concentration
Gradient
Diffusion
Molecules mix randomly
Solute spreads through solvent
Eliminates concentration gradient

Solutes move down a concentration gradient


Membrane Transport: Diffusion
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Diffusion

Figure 314 Diffusion.


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Diffusion
Factors Affecting Diffusion
Distance the particle has to move
Molecule size
Smaller is faster

Temperature
More heat, faster motion

Gradient size
The difference between high and low concentrations

Electrical forces
Opposites attract, like charges repel
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Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Diffusion
Diffusion Across Plasma Membranes
Can be simple or channel mediated
Materials that diffuse through plasma membrane by
simple diffusion:
lipid-soluble compounds (alcohols, fatty acids, and steroids)
dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)

Materials that pass through transmembrane proteins


(channels):
are watersoluble compounds
are ions
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Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Diffusion
Diffusion across Plasma Membranes
Factors in channel-mediated diffusion
Passage depends on:
size
charge
interaction with the channel

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Diffusion

Figure 315 Diffusion across the Plasma Membrane


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Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Diffusion
Osmosis: A Special Case of Diffusion
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across the cell
membrane
More solute molecules, lower concentration of water
molecules
Membrane must be freely permeable to water,
selectively permeable to solutes
Water molecules diffuse across membrane toward
solution with more solutes
Volume increases on the side with more solutes
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Education, Inc., publishing as
Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Membrane Transport

Osmosis
Net diffusion of
water down its
own concentration
gradient

Diffusion
Osmosis: A Special Case of Diffusion
Osmotic Pressure
Is the force of a concentration gradient of water

Equals the force (hydrostatic pressure) needed to block


osmosis

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Diffusion

FIGURE 316 Osmosis.


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Diffusion
Tonicity
The osmotic effect of a solute on a cell:
Isotonic (iso- = same, tonos = tension)
A solution that does not cause osmotic flow of water in or out of a
cell

Hypotonic (hypo- = below)


Has less solutes and loses water through osmosis

Hypertonic (hyper- = above)


Has more solutes and gains water by osmosis
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Diffusion
Osmolarity and Tonicity
A cell in a hypotonic solution:
Gains water
Ruptures (hemolysis of red blood cells)

A cell in a hypertonic solution:


Loses water
Shrinks (crenation of red blood cells)

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Carriers and Vesicles


Carrier-Mediated Transport
Carrier-mediated transport of ions and organic substrates
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport

Characteristics
Specificity:
one transport protein, one set of substrates

Saturation limits:
rate depends on transport proteins, not substrate

Regulation:
cofactors such as hormones

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Carriers and Vesicles


Carrier-Mediated Transport
Cotransport
Two substances move in the same direction at the
same time

Countertransport
One substance moves in while another moves out

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Carriers and Vesicles


Carrier-Mediated Transport
Facilitated diffusion
Passive
Carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit
through channel proteins (glucose, amino acids):
molecule binds to receptor site on carrier protein
protein changes shape, molecules pass through
receptor site is specific to certain molecules
Membrane Transport: Facilitated Diffusion
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Carriers and Vesicles

FIGURE 318 Facilitated Diffusion.


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Carriers and Vesicles


Carrier-Mediated Transport
Active transport
Active transport proteins:
move substrates against concentration gradient
require energy, such as ATP
ion pumps move ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+)
exchange pump countertransports two ions at the same time

Membrane Transport: Active Transport


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Carriers and Vesicles


Carrier-Mediated Transport
Active transport
Sodium-potassium exchange pump
active transport, carrier mediated:
sodium ions (Na+) out, potassium ions (K+) in
1 ATP moves 3 Na+ and 2 K+

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Carriers and Vesicles

Figure 319 The SodiumPotassium Exchange Pump


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Carriers and Vesicles


Carrier-Mediated Transport
Active transport
Secondary active transport
Na+ concentration gradient drives glucose transport
ATP energy pumps Na+ back out

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Carriers and Vesicles

Figure 320 Secondary Active Transport.


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Carriers and Vesicles


Vesicular Transport (or bulk transport)
Materials move into or out of cell in vesicles
Endocytosis (endo- = inside) is active transport using ATP:
receptor mediated

pinocytosis
phagocytosis

Exocytosis (exo- = outside)


Granules or droplets are released from the cell

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Carriers and Vesicles


Endocytosis
Receptor-mediated endocytosis:
Receptors (glycoproteins) bind target molecules (ligands)
Coated vesicle (endosome) carries ligands and receptors into the
cell

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Carriers and Vesicles

Figure 321 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis.


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Carriers and Vesicles


Endocytosis
Pinocytosis
Endosomes drink extracellular fluid

Phagocytosis
Pseudopodia (psuedo- = false, pod- = foot)
Engulf large objects in phagosomes

Exocytosis
Is the reverse of endocytosis
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Organelles and the Cytoplasm


Membranous Organelles
Membrane flow
A continuous exchange of membrane parts by vesicles:
all membranous organelles (except mitochondria)
allow adaptation and change

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Education, Inc., publishing as
Pearson Benjamin Cummings