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UNIT 9

Endocrine Glands

Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Hormones
Can be divided into three groups
Amino acid derivatives
Peptide hormones
Lipid derivatives

Circulate freely or bound to transport proteins

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Hormones

Figure 182 A Structural Classification of Hormones

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Introduction to the Endocrine System

Figure 181 Organs and Tissues of the Endocrine System.

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Introduction to the Endocrine System

Figure 181 Organs and Tissues of the Endocrine System.

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Endocrine Reflexes

Figure 185 Three Mechanisms of Hypothalamic Control over Endocrine


Function.

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Pituitary Gland

Figure 187 The Hypophyseal Portal System and the Blood Supply to
the Pituitary Gland.

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Pituitary Gland

Figure 188a Feedback Control of Endocrine Secretion

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Pituitary Gland

Figure 189 Pituitary Hormones and Their Targets.

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Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Include
Thyroid glands
Adrenal glands
Endocrine pancreas
Parathyroid glands

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Thyroid Gland
Consists of two lobes of endocrine tissue joined in middle by
narrow portion of gland
Follicular cells
Arranged into hollow spheres
Forms functional unit called a follicle
Lumen filled with colloid
Serves as extracellular storage site for thyroid hormone

Produce two iodine-containing hormones derived from


amino acid tyrosine
Tetraiodothyronine (T4 or thyroxine)
Tri-iodothyronine (T3)

C cells
Secrete peptide hormone calcitonin
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Thyroid Gland

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Thyroid Gland
Synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormone
Basic ingredients
Tyrosine
Synthesized in sufficient amounts by body

Iodine
Obtained from dietary intake

Synthesis
All steps occur on thyroglobulin molecules within colloid
Tyrosine-containing thyroglobulin is exported from follicular
cells into colloid by exocytosis
Thyroid captures iodine from blood and transfers it into
colloid by iodine pump
Within colloid, iodine attaches to tyrosine
Coupling process occurs between iodinated tyrosine
molecules to form thyroid hormones
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

The Thyroid Gland

Figure 1810b-c The Thyroid Gland.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

The Thyroid Gland

Figure 1811a The Thyroid Follicles: Synthesis, Storage, and Secretion


of Thyroid Hormones.

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The Thyroid Gland

Figure 1811b The Thyroid Follicles: The Regulation of Thyroid Secretion.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Thyroid Gland
Storage
Thyroid hormones remain in colloid until they are split
off and secreted
Usually enough thyroid hormone stored to supply
bodys needs for several months

Secretion
Follicular cells phagocytize thyroglobulin-laden colloid
Process frees T3 and T4 to diffuse across plasma
membrane and into blood

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Thyroid Gland
Effects of thyroid hormone
Main determinant of basal metabolic rate
Influences synthesis and degradation of
carbohydrate, fat, and protein
Increases target-cell responsiveness to
catecholamines
Increases heart rate and force of contraction
Essential for normal growth
Plays crucial role in normal development of
nervous system

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Thyroid Gland
Secretion
Regulated by negative-feedback system between
hypothalamic TRH, anterior pituitary TSH, and
thyroid gland T3 and T4
Feedback loop maintains thyroid hormones
relatively constant

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Regulation of Thyroid
Hormone Secretion

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Thyroid Gland
Abnormalities
Hypothyroidism
Causes
Primary failure of thyroid gland
Secondary to a deficiency of TRH, TSH, or both
Inadequate dietary supply of iodine

Cretinism
Results from hypothyroidism from birth

Myxedema
Term often used for myxedema in adults

Treatment
Replacement therapy
Dietary iodine
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Thyroid Gland
Abnormalities
Hyperthyroidism
Most common cause is Graves disease
Autoimmune disease
Body erroneously produces thyroid-stimulating
immunoglobulins (TSI)
Characterized by exopthalmos

Treatment
Surgical removal of a portion of the over-secreting thyroid
Administration of radioactive iodine
Use of antithyroid drugs

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Role of Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulin in


Graves Disease

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Adrenal Glands
Embedded above each kidney in a capsule of fat
Composed of two endocrine organs
Adrenal cortex
Outer portion
Secretes steroid hormones

Adrenal medulla
Inner portion
Secretes catecholamines

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Anatomy of the Adrenal Glands

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Adrenal Glands
Adrenal cortex
Consists of three layers or zones
Zona glomerulosa outermost layer
Zona fasciculata middle and largest portion
Zona reticularis innermost zone

Categories of adrenal steroids


Mineralocorticoids
Mainly aldosterone
Influence mineral balance, specifically Na+ and K+ balance

Glucocorticoids
Primarily cortisol
Major role in glucose metabolism as well as in protein and lipid
metabolism

Sex hormones
Identical or similar to those produced by gonads
Most abundant and physiologically important is
dehydroepiandosterone (male sex hormone)
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Adrenal Glands
Aldosterone
Principal action site is on distal and collecting
tubules of the kidney
Secretion is increased by
Activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by
factors related to a reduction in Na+ and a fall in blood
pressure
Direct stimulation of adrenal cortex by rise in plasma K+
concentration

Regulation of aldosterone secretion is largely


independent of anterior pituitary control

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Adrenal Glands
Cortisol
Stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis
Inhibits glucose uptake and use by many tissues, but not
the brain
Stimulates protein degradation in many tissues, especially
muscle
Facilitates lipolysis
Plays key role in adaptation to stress
At pharmacological levels, can have anti-inflammatory and
immunosuppressive effects
Long-term use can result in unwanted side effects

Displays a characteristic diurnal rhythm


Secretion
Regulated by negative-feedback loop involving hypothalamic
CRH and pituitary ACTH
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Adrenal Glands
Secretes both male and female sex hormones in
both sexes
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
Only adrenal sex hormone that has any biological
importance
Overpowered by testicular testosterone in males
Physiologically significant in females where it governs
Growth of pubic and axillary hair
Enhancement of pubertal growth spurt
Development and maintenance of female sex drive

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Disorders of Adrenocortical Function


Aldosterone hypersecretion
May be caused by
Hypersecreting adrenal tumor made up of aldosteronesecreting cells
Primary hyperaldosteronism or Conns syndrome

Inappropriately high activity of the renin-angiotensin


system
Secondary hyperaldosteronism

Symptoms
Excessive Na+ retention and K+ depletion
High blood pressure

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Disorders of Adrenocortical Function


Cortisol hypersecretion
Cushings syndrome
Causes
Overstimulation of adrenal cortex by excessive
amounts of CRH and ACTH
Adrenal tumors that uncontrollably secrete cortisol
independent of ACTH
ACTH-secreting tumors located in places other than the
pituitary

Signs and symptoms


Hyperglycemia and glucosuria (adrenal diabetes)
Abnormal fat distributions
buffalo hump and moon face

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Disorders of Adrenocortical Function


Adrenal androgen hypersecretion
Adrenogenital syndrome
Symptoms
Adult females
Hirsutism
Deepening of voice, more muscular arms and legs
Breasts become smaller and menstruation may cease

Newborn females
Have male-type external genitalia

Prepubertal males
Precocious pseudopuberty

Adult males
Has no apparent effect

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Disorders of Adrenocortical Function


Adrenocortical insufficiency
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency
Addisons disease
Autoimmune disease
Aldosterone deficiency
Hyperkalemia and hyponatremia
Cortisol deficiency
Poor response to stress
Hypoglycemia
Lack of permissive action for many metabolic activities

Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency


Occurs because of pituitary or hypothalamic abnormality
Only cortisol is deficient

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Adrenal Medulla
Modified part of sympathetic nervous system
Primary stimulus for increased adrenomedullary secretion
activation of sympathetic nervous system by stress
Releases epinephrine and norepinephrine
Secreted into blood by exocytosis of chromaffin granules
Vary in their affinities for the different adrenergic receptor
types
Epinephrine
Reinforces sympathetic system in mounting general
systemic fight-or-flight responses
Maintenance of arterial blood pressure
Increases blood glucose and blood fatty acids

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Stress Response
Pattern of reactions to a situation that threatens
homeostasis
Stress
Generalized nonspecific response of body to any
factor that overwhelms or threatens to overwhelm
the bodys ability to maintain homeostasis
Stressor
Any noxious stimulus that brings about the stress
response

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Stress Response
All the actions are coordinated by the hypothalamus
Generalized stress response
Activation of sympathetic nervous system
accompanied by epinephrine secretion
Prepares body for fight-or-flight response

Activation of CRH-ACTH-cortisol system


Helps body cope by mobilizing metabolic resources

Elevation of blood glucose and fatty acids


Decreased insulin and increased glucagon secretion

Maintenance of blood volume and blood pressure


Increased activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
system and increased vasopressin secretion
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Endocrine Control of Fuel Metabolism


Metabolism
All the chemical reactions that occur within the cells of the
body
Intermediary metabolism or fuel metabolism
Includes reactions involving the degradation, synthesis,
and transformation of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
Nutrient molecules are broken down through the process of
digestion into smaller absorbable molecules
Proteins amino acids
Carbohydrates monosaccharides (mainly glucose)
Dietary fats (triglycerides) monoglycerides and free fatty
acids

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Anabolism and Catabolism


Anabolism
Buildup or synthesis of larger organic macromolecules
from small organic subunits
Reactions usually require ATP energy
Reactions result in
Manufacture of materials needed by the cell
Storage of excess ingested nutrients not immediately needed
for energy production or needed as cellular building blocks

Catabolism
Breakdown or degradation of large, energy-rich organic
molecules within cells
Two levels of breakdown
Hydrolysis of large cellular molecules into smaller subunits
Oxidation of smaller subunits to yield energy for ATP
production
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Summary of the Major Pathways Involving Organic Nutrient Molecules

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Interconversions Among Organic Molecules


Most interconversion of organic molecules occurs in liver
Essential nutrients (certain amino acids and vitamins)
Food intake is intermittent nutrients must be stored for use
between meals
Excess circulating glucose
Stored in liver and muscle as glycogen
Once liver and muscle stores are filled up, additional
glucose is transformed into fatty acids and glycerol and
stored in adipose tissue

Excess circulating fatty acids


Become incorporated into triglycerides

Excess circulating amino acids


Converted to glucose and fatty acids

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Stored Metabolic Fuel in the Body

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Metabolic States
Absorptive state
Fed state
Glucose is plentiful and
serves as major energy
source
Postabsorptive state
Fasting state
Endogenous energy
stores are mobilized to
provide energy

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Roles of Key Tissues in Metabolic States


Liver
Primary role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels
Principal site for metabolic interconversions such as
gluconeogenesis
Adipose tissue
Primary energy storage site
Important in regulating fatty acid levels in the blood
Muscle
Primary site of amino acid storage
Major energy user
Brain
Normally can only use glucose as an energy source
Does not store glycogen
Mandatory blood glucose levels be maintained
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Pancreatic Hormones
Pancreas
Endocrine cells Islets of Langerhans
(beta) cells
Site of insulin synthesis and secretion

(alpha) cells
Produce glucagon

D (delta) cells
Pancreatic site of somatostatin synthesis

PP cells
Least common islet cells
Secrete pancreatic polypeptide

Insulin and glucagon


Most important in regulating fuel metabolism
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Pancreatic Hormones
Somatostatin
Released from pancreatic D cells in direct
response to increase in blood sugar and blood
amino acids during absorption of a meal
Prevents excessive plasma levels of nutrients
Local presence of somatostatin decreases
secretion of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin
itself
Physiologic importance has not been determined

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Pancreatic Hormones
Insulin
Anabolic hormone
Promotes cellular uptake of glucose, fatty acids,
and amino acids and enhances their conversion
into glycogen, triglycerides, and proteins,
respectively
Lowers blood concentration of these small organic
molecules

Secretion is increased during absorptive state


Primary stimulus for secretion is increase in blood
glucose concentration

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Pancreas

Figure 1816 The Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentrations

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Diabetes Mellitus
Most common of all endocrine disorders
Prominent feature is elevated blood glucose levels
Urine acquires sweetness from excess blood
glucose that spills into urine
Two major types
Type I diabetes
Characterized by lack of insulin secretion

Type II diabetes
Characterized by normal or even increased insulin
secretion but reduced sensitivity of insulins target cells

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Comparison of Type I and Type II Diabetes

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Acute Effects
of
Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Pancreatic Hormones
Glucagon
Mobilizes energy-rich molecules from storage
sites during postabsorptive state
Secreted in response to a direct effect of a fall in
blood glucose on pancreatic cells
Generally opposes actions of insulin
No known clinical abnormalities caused by
glucagon deficiency or excess
Excess of glucose can aggravate hyperglycemia of
diabetes mellitus

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Endocrine Control of Calcium Metabolism


Plasma Ca2+ must be closely regulated to prevent changes in
neuromuscular excitability
Also plays vital role in a number of essential activities

Excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac and smooth muscle


Stimulus-secretion coupling
Maintenance of tight junctions between cells
Clotting of blood

Hypercalcemia
Reduces excitability

Hypocalcemia
Brings about overexcitability of nerves and muscles
Severe overexcitability can cause fatal spastic contractions of
respiratory muscles

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Endocrine Control of Calcium Metabolism


Three hormones regulate plasma concentration of
Ca2+ (and PO43-)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Calcitonin
Vitamin D

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Endocrine Control of Calcium Metabolism


Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Secreted by parathyroid glands
Primary regulator of Ca2+
Raises free plasma Ca2+ levels by its effects on bone
kidneys, and intestines

Essential for life


Prevents fatal consequences of hypocalcemia

Facilitates activation of Vitamin D

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Parathyroid Glands

Figure 1812 The Parathyroid Glands.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Endocrine Control of Calcium Metabolism


Vitamin D
Stimulates Ca2+ and PO43- absorption from
intestine
Can be synthesized from cholesterol derivative
when exposed to sunlight
Often inadequate source

Amount supplemented by dietary intake


Must be activated first by liver and then by
kidneys before it can exert its effect on intestines

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Endocrine Control of Calcium Metabolism


Calcitonin
Hormone produced by C cells of thyroid gland
Negative-feedback fashion
Secreted in response to increase in plasma Ca2+
concentration

Acts to lower plasma Ca2+ levels by inhibiting


activity of bone osteoclasts
Unimportant except during hypercalcemia

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Negative-feedback Loops Controlling Parathyroid


Hormone (PTH) and Calcitonin Secretion

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Calcium Disorders
PTH hypersecretion (hyperparathyroidism)
Characterized by hypercalcemia and
hypophosphatemia
PTH hyposecretion (hypoparathyroidism)
Characterized by hypocalcemia and
hyperphosphatemia
Vitamin D deficiency
Children rickets
Adults osteomalacia

Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning