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CONNECTING ROD

Connecting rod : subjected to both alternating direct compressive and tensile


forces.

Compressive forces >> tensile forces, so the cross section of connecting rod
is designed as a strut and Rankines formula is used.

Rankines formula :

W = Crushing load/ 1 + a(L/k)2


where,
Crushing load = crushing stress * cross sectional area A of column
a = Rankines constant
L= equivalent length of column
k= least radius of gyration
Note: For different materials , the value of rankines constant may be referred
from textbook page 607 Khurmi.

DESIGN OF CONNECTING ROD

Let say connecting rod is subjected to an axial load W.

BUCKLING POSSIBILITIES:
1. buckle with X-axis as neutral axis ( in the plane of motion of rod)
2.buckle with Y-axis as neutral axis (in plane perpendicular to plane of
motion)

Connecting rod considered like both ends hinged for buckling about X-axis
and both ends fixed for buckling about Y-axis.

It should be equally strong about either axes.

NOTATIONS

A= cross sectional area


L = length of C.R
Fc= Compressive yield stress
Wcr = Buckling load
Ixx and Iyy = MOI of section about X and Y axis resp.
Kxx and kyy = radius of gyration about X and Y axis resp.

In order to have a C.R equally strong in buckling about both the axes , the
buckling loads must be equal.

Note : about X axis , equivalent length L= l (for both ends hinged)


about Y axis , equivalent length L= l/2 (for both ends fixed)
Now,

Fc*A/(1+a(l/ Kxx)2 = Fc*A/(1+a(l/2 KYY)2


Solving ,
we get Kxx2 = 4 Kyy2

or

I xx = 4 I YY

What did it show ?


Yes, C.R is 4 times strong in buckling about Y
axis than X axis.

OBSERVATIONS
If I xx > 4 I YY , Buckling occurs about Y axis.
If I xx < 4 I YY, Buckling occurs about X axis.
In actual practice, I xx is kept slightly less than 4 I YY.
usually taken between 3 and 3.5.
C.R is designed for buckling about X-axis and the design will
always be safe about Y axis too.
The most suitable section for C.R is I-section and shown in
next slide with suitable proportions.

Try calculating MOI of this fig. about X and Y axes .


After calculating, I xx = 419/12t4
and I yy = 131/12 t4
Dividing , we get I xx / I yy = 3.2 approx.
Hence it lies between 3 to 3.5 so the design is safe .

DID YOU WONDER WHY I-SECTION?

The I-section is used due to its lightness and to keep the


inertia as low as possible.

It can also withstand high gas pressure.

FORCES ACTING ON C.R


Two types of forces act :
1.Force due to gas or steam pressure and inertia of
reciprocating parts.

2.Inertia bending forces.

On next slide, carefully observe the diagram and the


notations going to be used.

1.FORCES DUE TO GAS PRESSURE & INERTIA OF


RECIPROCATING PARTS

NOTATIONS

We know, force on piston due to pressure of gas= FL =


pressure * area = p * A

Inertia of reciprocating parts =


FI = Mass*acc. = mR*2 (cos + cos2/n)
Net force acting on piston pin = FL +/ FI

NOTE:
( - ) sign used when piston accelerated and (+) when retarted.

The force Fp gives rise to FC in C.R and thrust FN on


sides of cylinder walls.

We see, FC = FP / Cos = FP / (1-(sin /n )2 )1/2

Force on CR will be max when = 90o

But at this pos. gas pressure decreased considerably. So


practically, FC taken equal to FL neglecting inertia effects.

2.INERTIA BENDING FORCES

OK,ENOUGH! LETS WATCH SOME!