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Original Title: Connecting Rod

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forces.

Compressive forces >> tensile forces, so the cross section of connecting rod

is designed as a strut and Rankines formula is used.

Rankines formula :

where,

Crushing load = crushing stress * cross sectional area A of column

a = Rankines constant

L= equivalent length of column

k= least radius of gyration

Note: For different materials , the value of rankines constant may be referred

from textbook page 607 Khurmi.

BUCKLING POSSIBILITIES:

1. buckle with X-axis as neutral axis ( in the plane of motion of rod)

2.buckle with Y-axis as neutral axis (in plane perpendicular to plane of

motion)

Connecting rod considered like both ends hinged for buckling about X-axis

and both ends fixed for buckling about Y-axis.

NOTATIONS

L = length of C.R

Fc= Compressive yield stress

Wcr = Buckling load

Ixx and Iyy = MOI of section about X and Y axis resp.

Kxx and kyy = radius of gyration about X and Y axis resp.

In order to have a C.R equally strong in buckling about both the axes , the

buckling loads must be equal.

about Y axis , equivalent length L= l/2 (for both ends fixed)

Now,

Solving ,

we get Kxx2 = 4 Kyy2

or

I xx = 4 I YY

Yes, C.R is 4 times strong in buckling about Y

axis than X axis.

OBSERVATIONS

If I xx > 4 I YY , Buckling occurs about Y axis.

If I xx < 4 I YY, Buckling occurs about X axis.

In actual practice, I xx is kept slightly less than 4 I YY.

usually taken between 3 and 3.5.

C.R is designed for buckling about X-axis and the design will

always be safe about Y axis too.

The most suitable section for C.R is I-section and shown in

next slide with suitable proportions.

After calculating, I xx = 419/12t4

and I yy = 131/12 t4

Dividing , we get I xx / I yy = 3.2 approx.

Hence it lies between 3 to 3.5 so the design is safe .

inertia as low as possible.

Two types of forces act :

1.Force due to gas or steam pressure and inertia of

reciprocating parts.

notations going to be used.

RECIPROCATING PARTS

NOTATIONS

pressure * area = p * A

FI = Mass*acc. = mR*2 (cos + cos2/n)

Net force acting on piston pin = FL +/ FI

NOTE:

( - ) sign used when piston accelerated and (+) when retarted.

sides of cylinder walls.

practically, FC taken equal to FL neglecting inertia effects.

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