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# CONNECTING ROD

## Connecting rod : subjected to both alternating direct compressive and tensile

forces.

Compressive forces >> tensile forces, so the cross section of connecting rod
is designed as a strut and Rankines formula is used.

Rankines formula :

## W = Crushing load/ 1 + a(L/k)2

where,
Crushing load = crushing stress * cross sectional area A of column
a = Rankines constant
L= equivalent length of column
Note: For different materials , the value of rankines constant may be referred
from textbook page 607 Khurmi.

## Let say connecting rod is subjected to an axial load W.

BUCKLING POSSIBILITIES:
1. buckle with X-axis as neutral axis ( in the plane of motion of rod)
2.buckle with Y-axis as neutral axis (in plane perpendicular to plane of
motion)

Connecting rod considered like both ends hinged for buckling about X-axis
and both ends fixed for buckling about Y-axis.

NOTATIONS

## A= cross sectional area

L = length of C.R
Fc= Compressive yield stress
Ixx and Iyy = MOI of section about X and Y axis resp.
Kxx and kyy = radius of gyration about X and Y axis resp.

In order to have a C.R equally strong in buckling about both the axes , the

## Note : about X axis , equivalent length L= l (for both ends hinged)

about Y axis , equivalent length L= l/2 (for both ends fixed)
Now,

## Fc*A/(1+a(l/ Kxx)2 = Fc*A/(1+a(l/2 KYY)2

Solving ,
we get Kxx2 = 4 Kyy2

or

I xx = 4 I YY

## What did it show ?

Yes, C.R is 4 times strong in buckling about Y
axis than X axis.

OBSERVATIONS
If I xx > 4 I YY , Buckling occurs about Y axis.
If I xx < 4 I YY, Buckling occurs about X axis.
In actual practice, I xx is kept slightly less than 4 I YY.
usually taken between 3 and 3.5.
C.R is designed for buckling about X-axis and the design will
always be safe about Y axis too.
The most suitable section for C.R is I-section and shown in
next slide with suitable proportions.

## Try calculating MOI of this fig. about X and Y axes .

After calculating, I xx = 419/12t4
and I yy = 131/12 t4
Dividing , we get I xx / I yy = 3.2 approx.
Hence it lies between 3 to 3.5 so the design is safe .

## The I-section is used due to its lightness and to keep the

inertia as low as possible.

## FORCES ACTING ON C.R

Two types of forces act :
1.Force due to gas or steam pressure and inertia of
reciprocating parts.

## On next slide, carefully observe the diagram and the

notations going to be used.

## 1.FORCES DUE TO GAS PRESSURE & INERTIA OF

RECIPROCATING PARTS

NOTATIONS

## We know, force on piston due to pressure of gas= FL =

pressure * area = p * A

## Inertia of reciprocating parts =

FI = Mass*acc. = mR*2 (cos + cos2/n)
Net force acting on piston pin = FL +/ FI

NOTE:
( - ) sign used when piston accelerated and (+) when retarted.

## The force Fp gives rise to FC in C.R and thrust FN on

sides of cylinder walls.

## But at this pos. gas pressure decreased considerably. So

practically, FC taken equal to FL neglecting inertia effects.