Textile Dyeing, Printing and Finishing Industry (Wastewater Management

)
Dr. Akepati S. Reddy Head, Dept. Analytical Services, TCIRD Thapar University Patiala

Textile Dying and Finishing Industry
• Wastewater Management Strategies • Core Activities and Environmental Concerns • Supporting Activities and Environmental Concerns • Statutory Environmental Requirements • Wastewater Management Systems

Textile Dying and Finishing Industry: Wastewater Management Strategies

Wastewater Management
What do you mean by wastewater management? Is it wastewater collection, treatment and disposal? Got ill?
– Then stop working. – Go to doctor and take medicine. – Take rest, get well and get back to work incur losses and only losses!

Wastewater generated?
– Then collect it – Treat to comply with standards and to make wastewater compatible for disposal into the environment – Dispose Spend resources and bear the burden or face the music from the regulator and pollute the environment!

Wastewater Management
Should be more than collection, treatment and disposal Have to include
Source Reduction Wastewater Recycling and Reuse (in addition to wastewater Collection, Treatment & Disposal) Hierarchical order is important

Importance should be given to
Wastewater generation Segregation of wastewaters Pretreatment and recycling and reuse to minimize wastewater generation Treat and dispose unavoidable wastewaters and not recyclable and reusable wastewaters

energy, water and chemicals raw material recycling & reuse

Industrial process

product

wastes for recycling & reuse secondary wastes byproducts & resources recovered

energy, water and chemicals wastes from other processes Pre-treated wastes From other units energy, water and chemicals treated wastes for recycling & reuse

Waste pretreatment

treated wastes for recycling & reuse secondary wastes byproducts & resources recovered

Waste treatment

treated wastes for disposal

Source Reduction
Source reduction
– Eliminate wastewater generation – Reduce volume or strength or both of the wastewater – Increase of strength in the process of volume reduction usually proves beneficial

Wastewater is generated at many points because of many reasons
– Identify all the points of generation and understand the mechanism of generation – Both core activities and support activities are equally important – Take into account even unintended wastewater generations from leaks & spills and housekeeping – Better prepare an inventory of the wastewaters generated

Source Reduction
Work for source reduction – Do not forget that the wastewater generation rates are closely related to the water consumption rates – Process modifications can be beneficial – Maintain the source reductions achieved Examples – Use of eco-friendly and non-hazardous inputs – One step fabric preparation (minimize number of dumps and washings) – Minimize liquid to fabric ratio – Batch washing and/or counter-current washing in place continuous single step washing – Minimize liquid retention during bath dump – Minimizing reprocessing of fabric

Recycling and Reuse
Wastewater collection (segregation and mixing scheme) Decide which one is wastewater and which one is not
– Are cooling water and steam condensate wastewaters? – Allow only the wastewater into the drain leading to ETP

Segregate waste streams
– With potential for recycled and reused (after pretreatment!) – That demand pretreatment for compatibility to mix with other wastewater for further treatment and disposal – That need separate treatment and disposal – dye effluents – From which resources and byproducts can be recovered

Bath dumps represent concentrated waste and warrant segregation Dye effluents may need segregation for treatment and disposal

Recycling and Reuse
• Wastewater from a process can be a useful resource for some other process • Wastewater generated by a process may have
– altered quality (from the water used in the process) – residual and unused input materials of the process – residual product & byproducts that could not be recovered – wastes generated from the process.

• Segregated wastewaters of a process can be recycled and reused either directly or indirectly after pre-treatment
– May be reused in the same process or recycled and reused in some other process

• Recycling and reuse may require storage and transportation of the wastewater

Recycling and Reuse
Wastewater pre-treatment
– Through removing undesirable contaminants and altering the quality it can enhance recycle and reuse potential of the wastewater – It can facilitates recovery of residual input materials and unrecovered products and byproducts – It can transform some of the contaminants of the wastewater into useful resources – It can transform the wastewater into compatible for mixing with other wastewaters and enhance treatability of the effluent Pre-treatment requires resource input and can be costly It can generate secondary wastes that need proper handling and disposal

Textile Dying and Finishing Industry: Core Activities and Environmental Concerns

Textile fiber and textile industry
Textile fibers are two types: natural and man-made • Natual fibers:
– Protein fibers of animal origin (wool and silk) – Cellulosic fibers of plant origin (cotton, flax and jute)

• Man made fibers:
– Synthetic polymers (polyester, nylon and acrylic) – Regenerated cellulose (viscose and lyocell) – Cellulose acetate (diacetate and triacetate)

Textile industry is concerned with
– Preparation of fiber and transformation into yarn/thread/web – Conversion of yarn into fabric or related products – Garment manufacturing

Textile dying and finishing industry
A wet, water and energy intensive process industry Dyeing and finishing can be carried on
– Fibers – Yarn – Fabric – Garments

Dyeing and finishing industry can be considered to include
– Pretreatment – Dyeing – Printing – Finishing operations

Man-made Filament fiber Texturizing

Man-made Staple fiber Fiber preparation

Raw wool Cotton

Warping

Spinning

Slashing Knitting Weaving Knitting

Preparation

Dyeing

Printing

Finishing

Textile dying and finishing industry
Core processes/activities
• Fabric preparation
– Scouring, desizing, mercerizing, bleaching, etc. – Singeing, heat setting, etc.

• Dyeing • Printing
– Print paste preparation – Printing – Print fixing and drying – Print washing

• Finishing
– Mechanical finishing – Chemical finishing

Key equipment and machinery used in the core activities
• Jet washer • Winche machine • Jigger • Preparation of woolen fabric • Printing range • Ager • Print wash • Wet or chemical finishing (Stenter) • Mechanical finishing

Jet washers
Used for • Washing of the fabric specially at high temperature
– for the removal of stains and sizing chemicals – for conditioning the fabric for dying

• Dying of the farbic specially at high temperature (>90°C at 125-135°C)
– Winch machine or jigger can be used in place of jet washer specially for dying at lower temperature (<90°C)

Two types of jet washers are in use: Long tube type and Utube types jet washers Jet washers of stainless steel body are used and the washers are not insulated (?)

Jet washers
Includes • Body of the jet washer for retaining the circulating fabric and liquid and bringing fabric in contact with liquid • Provisions for draining out the liquid, for the loading and unloading of the fabric and for circulating the fabric • External heat exchanger for heating/cooling jet washer contents through indirect heating/cooling of the circulating liquid of the jet washer with steam/cooling water • Pump and necessary piping for circulating the liquid through the heat exchanger • Provisions for adding water, and solution of dyes and other chemical ingradients

Jet washers
Requires • Cooling water for use in the heat exchanger for indirect cooling • Water use in the jet washer
– for the preparation dye bath or chemical wash bath – for maintaining liquid-fabric ratio – for the fabric washing

• Saturated steam in the heat exchanger for indirect heating • Dyes and other dye bath ingradients • Soaps, detergents, scouring agents, desizing chemicals

Jet washers
Concerns associated with the jet washers • Dumped dye baths, desize baths, scour baths, etc. • Washwater from the jet washing of the fabric • Steam condensate generated at the external heat exchanger (can be contaiminated by leaks in the heat exchanger) • Cooling water generated at the external heat exchanger (can be contaiminated by leaks in the heat exchanger) • Packing material with residual chemical left behind after chemical use • Hot surfaces of the jet washer and heat loss

Winch machine
• Used for washing and also for low temperature dying
– used for cotton dyeing and also for dyeing silk with nylon or polyester

• Includes a tub and a winch for passing the fabric through the wash liquid or dye solution • The tub has provisions for
– Direct injection of steam and maintaining tub temperature at the desired level – Addition of water for cooling the tub contents and washing the fabric – Draining off the tub contents

• Material of the tub and relative surface area exposed matter in the heat loss

Winch machine
Requires
– Washing and dying chemicals: aqueous solutions are made and added to the tub – Saturated steam for heating and maintaining the tub contents temperature – Water for maintaining the fabric-liquid ratio, for cooling the tub contents and for washing the fabric

Concerns associated with the winche machine
– Dumped dye baths, desize baths, etc. – Wastewater generation from the cooling and washing of the fabric – Vapours and heat loss from the liquid and fabric surface – Liquid/water spills and leaks – Generation of chemicals packing waste

Jigger
Used for
• Chemical application and padding of the fabric • Washing, conditioning and dying (cotton!) of the fabric • In one of units it is used for washing, mercerizing, bleaching, and neutralization

Includes
• Vat with liquid (hot washing/dying chemical solution and hot/cold water for rinsing the fabric) • Winding and unwinding rolls and rolls submerged in the vat contents for facilitating passing of the unwinded fabric through the vat contents • Vat with provisions for the addition of water and chemical solutions, direct injection of steam and for the draining out the vat contents

Jigger
Requires
– Chemicals for washing, mercerizing, pre-treatment (conditioning) and dying: aqueous solutions are made and added to the vat – Steam for heating and maintaining temperature of the vat contents – Water for preparing different chemical solutions, for maintaining the liquid-fabric ratio and for the fabric washing

Concerns associated with the jigger include
– Generation of wastewater in the form of vat dumps, fabric washwaters and vat overflows, spills and leaks – Generation of chemicals packing waste

Preparation of woolen fabric
Preparation of woolen fabric in one of the unit visited involved
– – – – – Carbonizing Drying and width setting on stenter Dry bitting Neutralization/washing Miffing

Carbonizing
– Meant to remove leaf particles, bits of grass and other cellulosic impurities from woolen fabric – Woolen fabric is passed through sulfuric acid bath and padded with the acid – Fabric padded with acid is allowed to rest for carbonizing – Mange squeezing of the fabric after carbonizing

Preparation of woolen fabric
Drying and width setting on Stenter
– Done at 120-130°C while using steam as heating medium

Dry bitting
– Fabric is rotated over a winch like milling machine for the removal of vegetable matter

Neutralization/washing:
– Batch neutralization with soda in water (in the presence of non-ionic wetting agent) at 40-60°C to 6-7 pH – Washing in plain water and then hydrosqueezing

Miffing
– Involves application of slurry of Lap (petroleum product) in H2SO4 at ambient temperature – Optionally water based wetting agent is used

Printing of the fabric
Involves application of dyes/pigments in the form of thick paste (print paste) and fixation of applied colour through a suitable after-treatment Can be considered to include
– Printing of the fabric – Drying and fixation of the dyestuff – Washing off Paint kitchen (place of paint preparation) and cleaning of screen plates/drums are integral parts of printing

Preparation of Print Paste
Usually prepared in paint kitchen Ingradients of print paste include
– Dyes/pigments – Thickeners, binders and cross linking agents – Sequestrants, dispersing agents (like surfactants), and water retaining agents (humectants) – Adhesion promoters, defoamers, catalysts, etc.

Print paste formulations depend on the fiber, colorant system and type of the printing machine
– Paste for discharge printing of cotton uses soda ash base dye and sodium sulfoxilate formaldehyde – Paste for discharge printing of polyester uses stannous chloride and urea – Discharge printing of silk uses zinc dust

Printing of the fabric
In one of the units (print kitchen) preparation of disperse and discharge colour bases (print pastes) involved
– Cooking of gum in water with steam – Mixing of other ingradients to the cook and keeping in hold – Mixing dye in the preparation prior to use

For preparing the pigment colour base the unit mixed pigment, binder, fixer and other ingradients in kerosene

Printing
• Either dyed or undyed fabric is printed • Either flat screen printing or rotary screen printing is followed • Fabric is loaded on the blanket (conveyor belt), printed and transferred into oven for after treatment
– Blanket is applied with a film of water proof chemical coat may be once in a week or so – Over this film fabric, adhesive is applied thrice or four times a day (holds the fabric in position on blanket)

• Blanket is cleaned while returning back by brushing and application of water
– The washing apparently does not affect either the adhesive coat or the water proofing coat

Printing
Printing involves
– In case of flat screen printing, raising and falling of the screen and drawing of a rubber edged squeegee across the screen forces the paste onto the fabric – In case of rotary screen printing, continuous rotation of the cylindrical screen with paste pumped inside and with a stationary flexible squeegee causes the printing

Screens need cleaning – manual or mechanical cleaning done at a site specified for the purpose Environmental concerns
– Water consumption and wastewater generation from onsite blanket cleaning and off-site flat bed or rotary screens cleaning – Drippings and spills of paint paste, water proof chemicals and binders on the floor in the premises – Residual paste in the screens and in paste containers

Fixation of the Print
Printed dyes are fixed at high temperatures in the presence of steam in an Ager
– Ager has two compartments!: in the 1st compartment dye fixation occurs and in the 2nd drying of the fabric occurs – Circulating thermic fluid is used for indirect heating and maintaining temperature in the ager at desired level – Through steam injection humidity level is maintained – Controlled ventilation helps both in humidity maintenance and drying of the fabric – In one of the units visited, 160-175°C temperature and 30 lb pressure is maintained in the ager

Fixing of pigment prints is through baking the printed fabric
– Temp. and pH conditions of baking should be suitable

Evaporative solvents used in the pigment paste preparation are lost in the vents

Print Washing
Meant for for the removal of the unfixed dye, thickeners and auxiliary chemicals after the fixation Print washing uses
– Wash tubs with provisions for the supply of water (and steam!) and for the draining out of washwaters – Winche machines, mangles, etc. – Hydro-squeezers for dewatering the print washed fabric

Involves use of chemicals (including detergents) for the removal of residual paint, gums, etc., and for the fabric neutralization

Print Washing of cotton fabric
Steps involved in print washing of cotton fabric
– Cold wash – Hot soap wash (in non-ionic soap at 60-80C) – Simple cold rinse – Neutralization (with acetic acid or HCl) – Softner application – Dewatering on hydrosqueezer

Washings and neutralization are usually carried out in 2 or more than two stages Print washing of polyester and nylon
– Sequence of washing is similar to that of cotton – In place of hot soap wash caustic and hydrosulfite treatment is practiced – Acetic acid (not HCl) is used for neutralization

Print washing
Acrylic print wash
– Sequence of washing is similar to that of cotton – In place of hot soap wash bleaching and brightening with hypo and peroxide are practiced – HCl is used for neutralization

Silk and woolen print washing
– Similar to the washing of cotton print – No chemical other than soap and softner are used

Silk, wool and viscose are soluble in sodium hydroxide Pigment prints do not require washing - Pigments do not directly associate with the fibers – they are fixed to the textile with a binding agent incorporated into the paste

Print washing
Print washing in one of the units is started with dipping in HCl solution, and in another unit with dipping in soda In one more unit in the last wash tub 0.5% luke worm liquid ammonia is used to neutralize the sulfuric acid print and avoid impression on the fabric Key concerns associated with print washing are
– Consumption of chemicals like caustic, soda, sodium hydrosulfite, HCl, acetate, softners, soaps, detergents, etc. – Consumption of water (and steam to maintain temperature!) at almost almost all the stages – Wastewater generation in the form of overflows and dumps of different wash tubs – Squeeze water generation at the hydro-squeezer – Overflows, spills, splatters and leaks

Hydro-squeezer
• Used for dewatering the fabric prior to drying • Fabric is loaded into the central well with screen walls and securely closed from top • With the help of an electrical motor the loaded well is spinned for separating liquid from the fabric by centrifugal force • The process reduces the liquid to fabric ratio to about 1:2 Environmental concerns
– Centrifugally separated water comes out as wastewater – Electrical energy is needed for powering the drive

Stenter
Used for
– Heat setting prior to any processing for removing oil from the fabric – Chemical or wet finishing of fabric

Can be considered to include
– Chemical applicator – Mangle squeezer – Drier (includes pinning, oven and depinning sections – a cooling section may also be a part)

Oven portion - an enclosed chamber and inlcudes
– Radiator heaters, blowers, ducting and nozzles for applying hot dry air on fabric and maintaining temperature – Ventilation system comprising exhaust fans, ducting and vent for the removal of humid vapours from the oven

Fabric Padding Mangle Process water Cleaning chemicals Finishing chemicals Pinning Air Drying range Thermic fluid Exhaust blowers Emission into atmosphere

Residual Chemical soln. Wash water

Blowers Thermic fluid Air

Air cooling chamber

Blowers

Air

Depinning

Fabric

Stinter
Requires • Circulating thermic fluid for maintaining oven temperature at desired level
– Steam is often (in woolen mills where temp. required is lower) used in place of thermic fluid

• Finishing chemicals and water (and solvents!) for chemical solutions preparation (to fill applicator vat) • Electrical energy for running the fabric through • Water for cleaning the vat and the mangles (20-30 L per wash!) – occasionally acid is used for the cleaning

Stenter
Concerns associated with the stenter • Hot surfaces of the oven and loss of energy • Hot humid air (contaminated with fumes/vapours of oil, finishing chemicals & their degradation products) • Discarded finishing chemical preparation (spoiled and/or residual preparation) – 2-5% of finishing chemical used
– Finishing chemical batch can get spoiled from stopping of operations for sometime (20-30 minutes) - a case with urea formaldehyde!

• Washwater generated from the mangle and vat cleaning • Generation of steam condensate when steam is used as a heating medium

Singeing and cropping
Singeing • Involves brushing passing through flame and again brushing
– Water may be used for cooling the rollers close to the flame in singeing

• Has ventilation systems for handling
– Exhaust gases from singeing – SPM laden vent gases from pre-singeing and postsingeing brushing processes
• Vent gases of pre-singeing brushing may need passing through fabric bag filters for fiber removal • Vent gases of post singeing brushing may require treatment (scrubbing with water) for SPM removal

Cropping
• Cutting surface hair from fabric to give smooth appearance • Practiced on woolen fabric where singeing is not possible

Soft feel (sueding) machine
Dry process involving abrasion of the fabric surface
– Rollers with emory paper (or abrasion brush) are used

Carried out in enclosed space with a ventilation system
– Ventilation system can have fabric bag filters for removing the dust – In one of the units visited the vent gases are disposed off over the shed – Wet cleaning of the enclosed space is also possible
• Water used for wet cleaning can be collected filtered and recycled and reused

Grazing
– Similar to sueding but used for woolen fabric – Involves shearing on a rotary machine

Sanforizing
Dry mechanical process involving moistening, shrinking, ironing & lustering and cooling of the fabric • Moistening
– Required if the fabric has less than required moisture – Done with steam maintained in a perforated drum which is covered by viscose belt – Provisions made for removing humid vapours (ventilation system) and pumping out steam condensate from drum

• Compressive shrinkage
– Done by overfeeding the fabric between a hot stainless steel drum and rubber blanket – Steam injected into SS drum maintains temp. – There is provision for draining out steam condensate – Rubber blanket is maintained wet and cool through application of water shower

Sanforizing
Ironing and luster is done • By simple and/or glazing calendering
– Simple calendering: passing the fabric around and between heated stainless steel cylinders – Glazing calendering: here a friction calender, rotating at much higher speed than the fabric, is used to produce highly glazed and polished effect

• Or on a palmer drum
– Fabric is passed between a hot rotating drum and 100% polyester needle punched felt – Steam heated cylinders are also used along with the drum

Fabric cooling: done by passing the fabric over (internally) water cooled cylinders

Textile Dying and Finishing Industry: Supporting Activities and Environmental Concerns

Textile dying and finishing industry
Supporting activities and processes
• Water pumping, storage and supply system • Soft water plant or RO water plant or DM water plant • Boiler and steam distribution system • Thermopac boiler and thermic fluid circulation system • Amenities (drinking water closets, wash basins and toilets) • Electrical power system • DG sets • Compressed air and instrumental air system • Procurement, storage and handling of fuels

Water supply system
Pumping of water from groundwater source, storage, and supply as both process water and as drinking water
– Storage and supply is associated with losses through seepages and overflows – Wasteful, inefficient and unintended use – Leakages from the supply lines

• Metering and keeping record of water being pumped is needed • Groundwater quality checks may be needed

Soft water system
Produced from process water by
– Ion-exchange process – Reverse osmosis process

Ion-exchange process based soft water plant
– – – – Pressure filter Activated carbon column Salt for regenerating ion-exchange resin beds Soft water storage and supply mostly as boiler feed water

In one unit HCl regeneration based ion-exchange resin bed and degassifier is also used parallely

process water

backwash water to drain

Pressure sand filter

common salt

regeneration chemical wastewater to drain slow and rapid rinse water backwash water to drain soft water Water softner (resin bed)

Salt tank

process water

Salt dose tank

Environmental concerns
Water consumption for
– Backwashing of pressure filter, activated carbon column and ion-exchange resin beds – Preparing the salt solution – Regenerating ion-exchange resin beds (chemical draw, slow rinse and rapid rinse)

Wastewater generation from
– Backwashing of pressure filter, activated carbon column and ion-exchange resin beds – Regeneration of the resin beds during chemical draw, slow rinsing and rapid rinsing

Salt (HCl!) consumption for resin beds regeneration Generation of discarded spent activated carbon and spoilt ion-exchange resin

Soft water system
Reverse osmosis based soft water plant includes
– Chlorination – Iron removal column – Dechlorination – RO unit – Soft water storage and supply (as boiler feed water)

Process water

Chlorinating chemical

Chlorination

Water for backwashing

Iron removal

Backwash water

dechlorinating agents

Dechlorination

cleaning chemicals

RO process

Wastewater from cleaning Reject water

RO water

Environmental concerns
• Reject stream of water • Backwash water from iron removal column • Wastewater from the cleaning of RO unit • Water for cleaning of the RO unit and for backwashing the iron removal column • Chlorinating chemicals and dechlorinating agents • Chemicals for RO unit cleaning

Circulating Cooling Water System
Circulating cooling water system usually includes
– Cooling tower (includes sump and fans) – Pumps and piping for circulation between cooling towers and heat exchangers – Heat exchangers

Conserves water through avoiding once flow through Cooling tower blow down needed to avoids salt built-up Requires makeup water to compensate evaporation, drift and blow down losses; leaks and spills and consumptive uses

Circulating cooling water Process Cooling system Process Cooling system Process Cooling system Process Cooling system Leaks from circulating water Evaporation losses Consumptive use of cooling water Drift losses distributor

Conditioning chemicals Pump(s)

Cooling tower
sump

Makeup water

Cooling tower Blowdown

Cooling tower and circulating cooling water system

Environmental concerns
Cooling tower blow down water
– Has high TDS, may also have some TSS and conditioning chemicals added – May not need any treatment – can be mixed with treated effluents for regulating TDS and disposed off

Water consumption to make up cooling tower blow down, evaporation, drift and other losses Chemicals for conditioning circulating cooling water
– Antifouling agents, like, pesticides, copper sulfate algal growth, toxic compounds (chromium based!), etc. – Alkali for controlling pH (low pH cause for corrosion)

Electrical energy for
– Pumps that circulate cooling water – Fans that create upward air draft (hastening cooling)

Steam system
Includes • Steam generating boilers
– Fuel is burnt for steam generation – Flue gases are generated -discharged into atmosphere – Boiler blow-down water is generated

• Steam distribution system
– Steam condensate is generated at steam traps

• Supplied steam is used for
– Direct injection heating – Indirect heating (generates steam condensate)

• Condensate collection and return system to the boiler house for reuse as boiler feed water • DM water/ Softwater/ RO water supply for makeup

Direct use for heating steam

Flue gases to stack

Indirect use For heating

??

condensate

Condensate at steam traps Condensate drained out Boiler blowdown or not collected Boiler feed Water tank

Steam boiler

Combustion air Fuel Flue gases to stack

Condenstae tank

Pre-heater of Boiler feed Water tank

Soft water/ RO water/DM water

Flue Gases from thermopac boiler

Steam boilers
• Fuel is loaded along with combustion air and burnt in the boiler furnace – May be mixed with lime to take care of SO2 emissions – Loading may be pneumatic or mechanical or manual – FD fan is used to supply combustion air (in small fire tube boilers natural draught is depended on) – For pneumatic loading combustion air is divided into primary and secondary air and primary air is further powered and used for fuel loading • Hot combustion gases after use for steam generation and treatment in APCDs are discharged into atmosphere through a stack – ID fan sucks flue gases and pushes through stack – Cyclones/multiclones or fabric filter bag houses are used
– Height and diameter of stack are important – Stack should have a sampling port and sampling platform

• Conventional/Fluidized bed technology is used • Discarded bed material, bottom ash and fly ash are generated

Steam boilers
• Deaerated boiler feedwater is pressurized and loaded to the boiler usually after pre-heated in an economiser
– Some of the units are preheating the feedwater in the thermopac boiler preheater

• Feed water is chemically conditioned prior to use (chemicals are also directly added to the boiler)
– avoid oxidative & acidic corrosion, and scaling by removing DO, regulating pH, maintaining precipitates in suspension

• Fire tube boiler is preferred over water tube boiler for the water boiling and steam generation
– Low pressure saturated steam is generated

• For regulating TDS and TSS, boiler blow-down is practiced

rice husk received in tractors & trucks

Vibratory feeder

larger size foreign materials And dust

treated flue gases into atmosphere through stack

Husk bunker feeding air Air box sec. air flyash FD fan process water for quenching Bottom discarded bed material External boiler furnace

Saturated steam boiler bed material vent flue gases

ID fan

Fire tube boiler

Cyclone/ multiclone

flyash Boiler feed water pumps

blowdown tank Rotary valve (electrical motor Operated)

Flyash quenching

blowdown water to drain vent Conditioning chemiclas

air

flyash Feed water tank

Return condensate

soft water

Steam boilers
One units visited has a 3 ton fluidized bed boiler
– Pet coke added with lime is burnt as fuel – Soft water is used as boiler feed water – Produces 120 psi pressure steam

Another unit has 5 ton coal fired boiler
– Produces 8 kg/cm2 pressure steam – Softwater is used as boiler feed water (planning for RO plant)

3rd unit has 5 ton petcoke fluidized bed watertube boiler
– Produces steam at 10-12 kg/cm2 pressure – Soft water and decationized & degassified water is used as boiler feed water

4th unit has rice husk fired 5 ton capacity water tube and smoke tube boiler
– Produces steam at 10.5 kg/cm2 pressure – DM water is used as boiler feed water

Steam boiler
Requirements
– Fuel (and lime in case of petcoke as fuel)
• Moisture content is important (efficiency drops from evaporative consumption of energy)

– Boiler feedwater (steam condensate + softwater or RO water or DM water) – Boiler feed water conditioning chemicals – Steam for the deaeration of boiler feed water – Bed material (in case fluidized bed technology) – Electrical energy for powering FD fan (primary air fan) and ID fan

Thermic fluid system
Thermic fluid circulation system
– Hot circulating thermic fluid (of temp. as high as 250 is used as heating medium in stenter, ager, etc., units – Used fluid is returned to a balancing tank and from their pumped, reheated in a thermopac boiler and supplied back for reuse as heating medium

Thermopac boiler
– Very similar to water tube hot water boiler – Petcoke, coal, saw dust, wood, etc., are fired as fuels – Fuel firing and thermic fluid heating occur either in the same chamber or in two different chambers – Instead of boiler feedwater, thermic fluid is forced to flow through the tubes (water tubes!) for heating – A pre-heater for heat recovery from hot flue gases may also be a part of the thermopac boiler

Incoming used thermic fluid Header for incoming Expansion tank Circulation pump Makeup tank Boiler feed water Hot flue gases Pre heater Boiler feed water to atmosphere Makeup fluid ??

Fuel FD fan

Boiler

ID Fan

Stack

Carbon dust Header for outgoing

Combustion air Outgoing hot thermic fluid

Thermic fluid system
Requirements
– All the requirements of a steam boiler except the boiler feedwater and conditioning chemicals – Fresh thermic fluid for makeup – Electrical energy for powering the thermic fluid circulation pump

Environmental concerns
– All the concerns identified with the steam boiler but not the boiler blowdown – Risk of fire and explosion associated with the hot thermic fluid

Electrical power system
Electrical power system
– Sources of power are grid power and captive power from DG sets – Important constituents of a power system are power meters, LT and/or HT panels, capacitor banks, transformers (and rectifiers), power cables and distribution lines, etc. – Electrical power is supplied to various points of use, like drives, heating units, lighting systems, etc.

Key environmental concerns power system
– Electrical power consumption – Transformer oils – Batteries

DG sets
• Run on high speed diesel (HSD) as fuel • Includes two parts: diesel engine (prime mover) and alternator/generator • Usually multi-cylinder two stroke engines • Has a common crank case filled with engine oil • Engine oil is cooled by circulating coolant oil – circulating coolant oil is either air cooled or water cooled • Turbo-charger, run on exhaust gases, is used for compressing and heating the combustion air • Diesel is injected into the hot compressed air cylinders after filtering for spontaneous ignition • Shaft of the diesel engine is coupled with the alternator for generation of electric power

Air for combustion Turbo charger HSD HSD day tank Air for combustion Oil pump Lube oil Internal Combustion chambers Lube oil Engine oil reservoir Coolant oil Coolant oil Coolant Oil cooler Cooling water Makeup water Cooling water

Exhaust gases

Exhaust gases Generator/ alternator Lube oil

Cooling tower

Evap. & drift water loss Cooling tower blowdown

DG sets
Requirements
• High speed diesel for burning as fuel • Lubricating oil, grease and coolant oil
– Replacement of lubrication oil after specified hours (250 hours) of running – Replacement of circulating coolant oil after specified hours (750 hours) of running

• Batteries for running the DG set (turbo-charger) during startup • Circulating cooling water if used to cool circulating coolant oil

DG sets
Environmental concerns
• Exhaust gases discharged into atmosphere through stack (represent waste heat and air pollution) • Discarded engine oil, coolant oil, oil filters, etc. (hazardous wastes needing handling) • Noise pollution problems • Discarded batteries (statutory requirements applicable for disposal) • Leaks of oil and grease (housekeeping problem)

Compressed air and instrumental air system
• Ambient air is filtered, compressed, cooled to separate moisture, stored for use as compressed air
– Air compression is single stage or two stage process – Compressed air is cooled with circulating cooling water in coolers (and inter-coolers!)

• Compressed air is passed through an air drier, stored for use as instrumental air • Air drier beds require regeneration
– hot compressed air, after further (electrically) heating, is passed through drier beds for regeneration – Air used for regeneration can be cooled for demoisturizing and passed through already regenerated drier for dry air

cooling water cooling water

cooling water cooling Intercooler water

fresh air Filter

Stage-2 compressor Stage-1 compressn compressn cooling water cooling water Precooler cooling water Electric heater Drier Tower-1 lube oil waste oil Moisture separator cooling water

cooling water Aftercooler cooling water Moisture separator condensate Afterfilter Direr Tower-2

cooling water Aftercooler lube oil compressn compressor

cooling water Filter

Receiver tank compressed dry air

fresh air waste oil

Compressed air and instrumental air system
Requirements
– Electrical energy for powering the compressors – Lubricating oil in the compressors for replacing the oil after running the compressor for specified hours – Circulating cooling water both in the compressors and driers for compressed air cooling

Environmental concerns
– Discarded lubricating oil – Oil spills and leaks (posing house keeping problems) – Noise pollution problems

Textile Dying and Finishing Industry: Statutory Environmental Requirements

Statutory Requirements
Under Water (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1974 and Air (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1981 • Systems for the collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater (including STPs and ETPs) • Devices (APCDs) and systems (including stacks) for collection, treatment and discharge of emissions from
– from core processes – from DG sets, boilers and thermopac boilers

• Compliance with the standards as specified in the consent as consent conditions (EPA standards in EP Rules, 1986)
– Effluent standards applicable to trade effluents & sewage – Emission standards including stacks and noise applicable

Statutory Requirements
Under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 • Water consumption monitoring, water consumption records and water consumption returns Under the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 • Under the hazardous wastes (management and handling) rules, 1989
– Authorization and system and facilities for the management and handling of hazardous wastes – ETP sludge, paint sludge, cans and packing materials, etc.

• Batteries, waste oil and used oil, noise and stacks • Prohibited and regulated dyes

Applicable Standards
Effluent standards Stack heights for
– Boilers – DG sets

Emission standards for
– Boilers – DG sets

Noise standards for DG sets

6. Cotton Textile Industries (composite and processing)
pH Suspended solids (mg/L) BOD3 at 27°C (mg/L) Oil and grease (mg/L) Total chromium (as Cr in mg/L) Sulfide (as S in mg/L) Phenolic compounds (as C4H2OH in mg/L) Bio-assay test 5.5 to 9 100 150 10 2 2 5 90% fish survival after 96 hours

Depending upon the dye used SPCB can stipulate special parameters Limits on total chromium, sulfide and phenolic compounds shall be imposed where chrome dyes, sulfur dyes and/or phenolic compounds are used If quality requirement of the recipient system warrants limit of BOD should be lowered to 30 mg/L Limit on sodium absorption ratio of 26 should be imposed in case of disposal on land

7. Composite Woolen Mills)
pH Suspended solids (mg/L) BOD3 at 27°C (mg/L) Oil and grease (mg/L) Total chromium (as Cr in mg/L) Sulfide (as S in mg/L) Phenolic compounds (as C4H2OH in mg/L) Bio-assay test 5.5 to 9 100 100 10 2 2 5 90% fish survival after 96 hours

Depending upon the dye used SPCB can stipulate special parameters Limits on total chromium, sulfide and phenolic compounds shall be imposed where chrome dyes, sulfur dyes and/or phenolic compounds are used If quality requirement of the recipient system warrants limit of BOD should be lowered to 30 mg/L Limit on sodium absorption ratio of 26 should be imposed in case of disposal on land

All effluent discharge into surface waters shall conform to the BOD limit of 30 mg/L For discharge into public sewers, on land for irrigation and into marine coastal waters BOD shall be 350, 100 and 100 mg/L respectively If observed COD in treated effluent is persistently greater than 250 mg/L, then the industry is required to identify the chemicals causing the same If the identified chemicals are found to be toxic as defined in schedule-1 of Hazardous Chemicals rules, 1989 then SPCB shall direct to install tertiary treatment within a stipulated time Standards for discharge into public sewer shall be applicable only if the sewer leads to a secondary treatment – otherwise the discharge into a public sewer should be treated as discharge into inland surface waters All efforts should be made to remove colour and unpleasant odour as far as practicable

59. Bagasse fired boilers and 97. Boilers using agricultural waste as fuel
Boiler type Step grate Horse shoe/ pulsating grate Parameter Particulate matter Particulate matter Prescribed limit (normalized to 12% CO2) 250 500 (12% CO2 normalized) 800 (12% CO2 normalized)

Spreader stroker Particulate matter

70. Small boilers
Boiler capacity < 2 ton/hr. 2 to <10 ton/hr. 10 to <15 ton/hr. >15 ton/hr. Parameter Particulate matter Particulate matter Particulate matter Particulate matter Prescribed limit (mg/Nm3) (normalized to 12% CO2) 1200* 800* 600* 150**

* cyclone/multiclone is recommended for meeting the standards ** bag filter/ESP is recommended for meeting the standards For coal or liquid fuel firing boilers stack height shall be calculated by H = 14 Q0.3 (H is stack height in meters; Q is SO2 emission rate in kg/hr.) In no case stack height shall be less than 11 meters If calculated stack height not provided SO2 limit of 400 mg/Nm3 is applicable

Sch.-6 part-D-II: Equipment based standards (min. stack height for dispersal of SO2)
Steam generation capacity < 2 tonne/hr 2 to 5 tonne/hr 5 to 10 tonne/hr 10 to 15 tonne/hr 15 to 20 tonne/hr 20 to 25 tonne/hr 25 to 30 tonne/hr > 30 tonne/hr Stack height (m) 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 or height from H=14Q0.3

For boilers of capacity <2 tonne/hr and 2-5 tonne/hr capacity PM emissions shall be within 1000 and 1200 mg/Nm3

Standards prescribed for small boilers
(Entry-1, emission standards, Guidelines of PPCB)
Parameter < 2ton/hr. SPM (mg/Nm3) Stack height 1200 9m 1000 12 m capacity 2-5 ton/hr. 5-10 ton/hr. 10-15 ton/hr. 1000 15 m 500 18 m

94. Noise limits for generator sets run with diesel
For DG sets upto 1000 KVA capacity manufactured after 1-1-05 • 75 dB(A) at 1 meter from the enclosure surface • • • • • DG set should be provided with integral acoustic enclosure at the manufacturing stage itself Manufacturer or importer of DG sets must have valid certificates of type approval and also valid certificates of conformity of production for the year No person shall sell, import or use of the DG sets not having a valid Type Approval Certificate and Conformity of Production Certificate The Dg set must be affixed with a conformance label (which shall be durable and legible) on a part necessary for normal operation and not requiring replacement during the DG set life Conformance label must contain
– Name and address of the supplier – Statement “This product conforms to the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986” – Noise limit at 1 m in dB(A) – Type approval certificate number – Date of manufacturing of the product

94. Noise limits for generator sets run with diesel
Noise limits for DG sets not covered under “upto 1000 KVA capacity and manufactured on or after 1-1-2005”
• • • • • • • • Noise shall be controlled by providing an acoustic enclosure or by treating the room acoustically at the user end Acoustic enclosure or acoustic treatment shall be designed for minimum 25 dB(A) insertion loss or for meeting the ambient noise standards (whichever is on the higher side) Insertion loss may be measured at different points at 0.5 m from the acoustic enclosure/room and then averaged Proper exhaust muffler of 25 dB(A) minimum insertion loss shall be provided Manufacturer shall offer a standard acoustic enclosure and suitable exhaust muffler each of 25 dB(A) insertion loss Efforts should be made to bring down noise levels by DG sets outside the premises within ambient noise requirements Installation of DG sets must be strictly in compliance with the recommendations of the manufacturer A proper routine and preventive maintenance procedure should be set and followed in consultation with the manufacturer to prevent deterioration of noise level with use of the DG set

Ambient air quality standards in respect of Noise (Exerpts from Schedule-3 of EP Rules, 1986)
Category of area Industrial area Commercial area Residential area Silence zone** Noise limit in dB(A) Day time (6am-9pm) 75 65 55 50 Night time (9pm-6am) 70 55 45 40

**: Silence Zone is upto 100m distance from hospitals, educational institutions and courts Mixed areas are to be declared as one of the above categories Competent Authority

Emission limits for new DG sets
(Entry-95, Schedule-1, EP Rules, 1986)
Date of implementation Emission limits (in gram/kWh) NOx HC CO PM 9.2 1.3 3.5 0.3 Smoke limit* DG set Capacity Test cycles Torque Weightin % g factors 0.7 10 0.10

> 176 – 800 kW

1-7-2004

*: smoke limit absorption coefficient (WI) (at full load) • • No person should use a DG set, which is not having valid Type Approval Certificate and Conformity of Production Certificate Specifications for the fuel should be the same as those for commercial HSD for diesel vehicles of the area (Entry-78, Schedule-I, EP Rules, 1986 provides specifications diesel fuel)

Prescribed Stack height for DG sets
(Entry-1, emission standards, Guidelines of PPCB)
Stack height H = h + 0.2 KVA0.5 ‘h’ is the height of the building housing the DG set in meters This stack height is relaxed to the following if there are provisions for the removal of SPM or gaseous emissions are installed H = 14 Qg0.3 Here Qg is gaseous emission in kg/hr. H = 74 Qp0.24 Here Qp is particulate emission in ton/hr Minimum stack height should be 9 meters

National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(Exerpts from Schedule-7 of EP Rules, 1986)
Time weighted average Industrial area Sulfur dioxide Oxides of N as NO2 SPM Annual average 24 hours Annual average 24 hours Annual average 24 hours Annual average 24 hours Annual average 24 hours 8 hours 80 120 80 120 360 500 120 150 1.0 1.5 5.0 Concentration of ambient air Resid./ Rural area 60 80 60 80 140 200 60 100 0.75 1.0 2.0 Method of measurement Improved West and Gacke method Ultraviolet fluorescence Jacab Hochheister modified (Na Arsentire) method Gas phase chemilimine scence High volume sampling (average flow rate not less than 1.1 m3/min.) Respirable particulate matter sampler AAS method after sampling using EPM 2000 or equivalent filter paper Non dispersive infrared spectroscopy Pollutant

RPM (size < 10 µ m) Lead (Pb)

Carbon monoxide

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (contd..)
(Exerpts from Schedule-7 of EP Rules, 1986) • Annual average to be taken from 104 measurements over a year (twice a week 24 hour interval) • Limits prescribed for 24 and 8 hrs. average should be met 98% of time • Limits prescribed for 24 and 8 hrs. average not to exceed on two consecutive days - If exceeding, regular/continuous monitoring and further investigations can be instituted

Textile Dying and Finishing Industry: Wastewater Management Systems

Wastewaters from core activities
Fabric preparation
– Chemical bath dumps – Wash effluents

Dyeing
– Dye bath dumps – Wash effluents

Printing
– Screen wash water – Blanket cleaning water – Print wash effluents

Finishing
– Applicator and mangle cleaning water

Wastewaters from support activities
Soft water unit
– Backwash water – Regeneration wastewater – Slow rinse water – Rapid rinse water

RO water unit
– Reject water stream – Other wastewater stream

Cooling tower
– Cooling tower blowdown water

Boiler
– Boiler blowdown water Domestic wastewater

Wastewater Treatment
Cost-effective and consistent treatment of the unavoidable wastewater to comply with the applicable effluent standards Prescribed standards to be complied with include
– Oil and grease, BOD, TSS, Total chrome, sulfides, phenolic compounds and toxicity – Colour, COD and TDS are other parameters of concern

Most units dispose effluents into the public sewers that are not connected to STP with secondary treatment Treatment thus is needed to comply with the standards prescribed for discharge into surface water bodies

Wastewater Treatment
Use of appropriate substitutes can to a great extent take care of chrome, sulfides, and phenolics and even toxicity
– Avoid use of dyes containing heavy metals and toxic/hazardous materials – Substitute dichromate with peroxide in case of vat and sulfur dyeing

Segregation of wastewaters into three streams for further treatment disposal
– Dye and chemical bath dumps – Wash waters and other effluents from core processes – Wastewater generated by support activities

Treatment scheme for zero-effluent discharge
Segregation at source Dye effluent Wash effluent
Primary, secondary & tertiary treatment

Pre-treatment

Multiple effect evaporator

Reject stream Condensate for reuse

Reverse osmosis

Salt crystallizer

Accepts stream for reuse

Recovered salt for reuse

Existing Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs)
All wastewaters generated are collected together in an equalization tank and treated Treatment involved
– Coagulation-flocculation-settling and filtration – Adsorption in activated carbon column Coagulating agents are dosed into wastewater while pumping from equalization tank to flocculation tank In one unit these are dosed into equalization tank Flocculating agent is dosed into flocculator and flocculation is brought about by hydraulic (and mechanical) mixing Flocs formed are separated in the tube settler (or plate settler) through gravity settling Clarified effluent is polished in a pressure filter and further treated in activated carbon column prior to disposal

Sludge drained out from the tuber settler is dried in sludge drying beds and stored as hazardous waste

Existing Effluent Treatment Plant (ETPs)
Lime/caustic Equalization tank pump Flocculator Polyelectrolyte

Ferrous sulfate Raw Wastewater Tube settler Settled sludge Backwash water

Clarified effluent sump

pump

Pressure sand filter

Water for backwashing

Activated carbon column

Treated effluent

Treated effluent sump

Existing ETP
• In one unit equalization tank has a provision for aeration mixing • lime slurry (or caustic) and ferrous sulfate (or alum) solution are used as coagulating agents • Coagulating agents dosing is neither optimized nor sufficiently regulated • In some units flocculating agents are not dosed • In one unit adsorption in activated carbon column is not practiced, instead two pressure filters in series are used • In one unit ion-exchange resin bed is provided between the pressure filter and the activated carbon column
– Purpose served by this is not sufficiently clear - high TDS effluent may increase the regeneration frequency

Existing ETP
• Activated carbon in the column is neither replaced nor reactivated
– Serves no purpose specially after the pressure filter

• Sludge drying beds appear to be not adequate in size for handling the sludge generated
– Sludge sump and a filter press may be appropriate in view of non-availability of space

• Fresh water is used for backwashing the pressure filter and for preparing coagulation-flocculation chemical solutions
– Treated effluent can be used in place of fresh water

Suggestions
A two chambered equalization tank to facilitate batch coagulation in the equalization tank
– Coagulating agents are dosed into the equalization tank – Equalization tank requires provision for mixing – Facilitates optimal and controlled dosing of chemicals and better decolourization

Treatment may not ensure removal of BOD and COD to the desired level • A sequencing batch reactor may be provided downstream to tube settler or to the pressure sand filter
– May require diffused aeration system in the reactor

• Secondary sludge may also be created because of this Wastewater from supporting activities may be bypassed, clarified and mixed with treated effluent prior to disposal