Job Analysis

Job Analysis is the process of studying & collecting information relating to the operations & responsibilities of a specific job. Edwin .B. Flippo.  Job Analysis refers to the process of studying the operations,duties and organisational aspects of jobs in order to derive specifications or as they are called by some,job descriptions. Michael J.Jucius.

Data relating to job analysis
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Job identification. Nature of the job. Operations involved in the job. Materials & equipments required to do the job. Personnel qualities required to perform the job. Relation of the job with other jobs in the organisation.

Objectives of Job Analysis
Work Simplification.  Establishment of standards of performance.  Support to other personnel activities.

Uses of Job Analysis
Organisational design.  Manpower planning.  Recruitment and Selection.  Placement and Orientation.  Training and Development.  Job evaluation.  Performance Appraisal.  Job design & redesign.  Safety and Health.  Discipline.  Employee counseling.  Labour relations.

Job Analysis Process
Analysing organisational strategies.  Collection of Background Information.  Selection of representative positions to be analysed.  Collection of Job Analysis data.  Preparation of Job Description.  Preparation of Job Specification.  Developing Employee Specifications.

Sources of Job Analysis Information
From the employees who actually perform the job.  From other employees such as supervisors who watch the workers at their jobs.  From outside observers called trade job analysts specially appointed to watch employees performing a job

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Data
Job performance.  Maintenance of Long Records.  Personal observation.  Critical Incident Technique (CIT).  Interview.  Questionnaire method.

Job Description

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It is a written statement of what the job holder does,how it is done,under what conditions and why is it done. It’s contents includeJob Title. Job Summary-location,supervision. Job Activities. Working Conditions. Social Environment. Salary levels Promotional chances and channels.

Guidelines for a good J.D.
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The JD should indicate the nature & scope of the job,including all important relationships. It should be brief,factual and precise.Avoid opinions. The extent of supervision available should be clearly stated. The reporting relationships must be indicated. More specific words should be chosen to showThe kind of work The degree of complexity. The degree of skill required. The extent of worker’s responsibility for each phase of the work. The degree and type of accountability.

(Earnest Dale)

Mode of writing J.D.
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Get the questionnaire about the job filled in by the immediate supervisor of the employee. The job analyst must observe the actual work done by the employee & complete the job description form. Every effort must be made to involve the employee and the supervisor while finalising the JD. Keep the JD up-to-date by keeping track of changing conditions & incorporating the relevant ones as & when needed.

Job Specification
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It summarises the human characteristics needed for satisfactory job completion. It spells out the important attributes of a person in terms of education, experience, skills, knowledge and abilities(SKAs) to perform a particular job. Each job description has to have a job specification,to identify what kind of persons are required to take up specific jobs. This can be developed byTalking with the current job holders about the attributes required to do the job satisfactorily. Taking additional inputs of supervisors. Checking the job needs of other organisations with similar jobs.

Personal attributes in a JS

Essential attributes : SKAs a person must possess. Desirable attributes : qualifications a person ought to possess. Contra-indicators : attributes that might become a handicap to successful job performance.

Job Specification Information

Physical specifications. Mental specifications.

Emotional and social specifications.

Behavioural specifications.

Criticism of Job Analysis

It is restrictive in nature. Job Descriptions impose undue limitations on the development of the individual in the job. Job Analysis has limited applicability in high-technology oriented businesses because of adoption of team work,flexi work etc.. (John B. Minner)

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