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speaker recognition with VQ and GMM

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Z. Fodroczi

Pazmany Peter Catholic. Univ.

Outline

Discrete Markov process

Hidden Markov Model

Vitterbi algorithm

Forward algorithm

Parameter estimation

Type of them

Popular models

State of the art and limitation

S1 a12

a11

a21

a13

S2

States={S1,S2,S3} P(qt=Si|qt-1=Sj)=aij

Sum(j=1..N)(aij)=1

a23

S1: rain or snow

S2: cloudy

S3: sunny

a22

a32

a31

S3

a33

A aij 0.2 0.6 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.8

What is the probability that the weather for the next 3 days will be sun,sun,rain.

O={S3,S3,S1} observation sequence

P(O|Model)=P(S3,S3,S1|Model)=P(S3)*P(S3|S3)*P(S3|S1)=1*0.8*0.3=0.24

The observation is a probabilistic function of the state.

Teacher-mood-model

Situation:

Your school teacher gave three dierent types of daily homework assignments:

A: took about 5 minutes to complete

B: took about 1 hour to complete

C: took about 3 hours to complete

Your teacher did not reveal openly his mood to you daily, but you knew that

your teacher was either in a bad, neutral, or a good mood for a whole day.

Mood changes occurred only overnight.

Question: How were his moods related to the homework type assigned that

day?

Model parameters:

S - states {good, neutral, bad}

akl,- probability that state l is

followed by k

alphabet {A,B,C}

ek(x) probability that state k emit

symbol x

One week, your teacher gave the following homework assignments:

Monday: A

Tuesday: C

Wednesday: B

Thursday: A

Friday: C

Questions:

What did his mood curve look like most likely that week?

(Searching for the most probable path Viterbi algorithm)

What is the probability that he would assign this order of homework

assignments? (Probability of a sequence - Forward algorithm)

How do we adjust the model parameters (S,aij,ei(x)) to maximize P(O| )

(create a HMM for a given sequence set)

Given:

Hidden Markov model:

S, akl , ,ek(x)

Observed symbol sequence E = x1x2, xn.

Most probable path of states that resulted in symbol sequence E.

Let vk(i) be the probability of the most probable path of the symbol

sequence x1, x2, . xi ending in state k. Then:

Matrix vk(i), where kS and 1 <= I <= n.

Initialization: vk(1) = ek(x1)/#states for all states kS .

vl(i) = el(xi)maxk(vk(i - 1)akl) for all states kS , i >=2.

Algorithm

Iteratively build up matrix vk(i).

Store pointers to chosen path.

Probability of most probable path in maximum entry in

last column.

Reconstruct path along pointers.

Empty table

Question:

What did his mood curve look like most

likely that week?

Answer:

Most probable mood curve:

Day:

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

Assignment: A

C

B A C

Mood: good bad neutral good bad

Used to test the probability of a sequence.

Given:

Hidden Markov model: S, akl, , el(x).

Observed symbol sequence E = x1; : : : ; xn.

What is the probability of E.

Let fk(i) be the probability of the symbol sequence x1, x2, . xi

ending in state k. Then:

Matrix fk(i), where kS and 1 <= i <= n.

Initialization: fk(1) = ek(x1)=#states for all states kS .

fl(i) = el(xi)Pk(fk(i - 1)akl) for all states kS , i <=2.

Algorithm

Iteratively build up matrix fk(i).

Probability of symbol sequence is sum of entries in last

column.

Type of HMMs

Till now I was speaking about HMMs with

discrete output (finite ||).

Extensions:

continuous observation probability density function

mixture of Gaussian pdfs

HMMs in ASR

Separation

Feature

extraction

Understanding

Application

HMM

decoder

HMMs in ASR

How HMM can used to classify feature sequences to known classes.

Make a HMM to each class.

By determineing the probability of a sequence to the HMMs, we can decide which

HMM could most probable generate the sequence.

Isolated word recognition ( HMM for each known word)

Usable just on small dictionaries. (digit recognition etc.)

Number of states usually >=4. Left-to-rigth HMM

Monophone acoustic model ( HMM for each phone)

~50 HMM

Triphone acoustic model (HMM for each three phone sequence)

50^3 = 125000 triphones

each triphone has 3 state

HMMs in ASR

Hierarchical system of HMMs

HMM of a triphone

HMM of a triphone

HMM of a triphone

Language model

Typical state-of-the-art large-vocabulary

ASR system:

- speaker independent

- 64k word vocabulary

- trigram (2-word context) language model

- multiple pronunciations for each word

- triphone or quinphone HMM-based acoustic model

- 100-300X real-time recognition

- WER 10%-50%

HMM Limitations

Data intensive

Computationally intensive

50 phones = 125000 possible triphones

3 states per triphone

3 Gaussian mixture for each state

262 trillion trigrams

2-20 phonemes per word in 64k vocabulary

100 frame per second

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