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Rolling of Metals

Chapter 13

This chapter describes
Flat rolling
Shape rolling
Production of seamless tubing & pipe

Rolling process of reducing the thickness of a

long work piece
Plates having thickness greater than 6mm
Sheets generally less than 6mm thick

Flat Rolling
Flat Rolling Process

Flat Rolling Process

Metal strip enters the roll gap

The strip is reduced in size by the metal rolls
The velocity of the strip is increased the metal strip is reduced in size
Factors affecting Rolling Process
Frictional Forces
Roll Force and Power Requirement

Frictional Forces

Friction Forces acting on strip forces

Max Draft
h0-hf = 2R
Roll Force
F= W0.L.Yavg
L= sqrt{R(ho-hf)}

Flat-Rolling Practice
Hot rolling
The initial break down of an ingot
Continuously cast slab
Structure may be brittle
Converts the cast structure to a wrought structure
Finer grains
Enhanced ductility
Reduction in defects
Continuous Casting
Is replacing traditional methods
Faster & better
Product of the first hot-rolling operation - Bloom or slab
Square cross section of 150mm (6in) on one side
Processed father by shape rolling
Railroad rails

Flat-Rolling Practice Cont

Billets smaller than blooms and rolled into bars and rods
Cold rolling
carried out at room temperature
Produces sheet and strip metal
Better surface finish less scale
Pack rolling when two or more layers of metal are rolled together
Changes in grain structure during hot-rolling

Defects in Rolled Plates & Sheets

Degrade surface appearance
Adversely affect the strength
Sheet metal defects include:
Scale, Rust, Scratches, Gouges, Pits, & Cracks
May be caused by impurities and inclusions
Wavy edges result of roll bending
Alligatoring complex phenomenon

Other Characteristics
Residual stresses produces:
Compressive residual stresses on the surfaces
Tensile stresses in the middle
Cold-rolled sheets: (+/- ) 0.1mm 0.35mm
Tolerances much greater for hot-rolled plates
Surface roughness
Cold rolling can produce a very fine finish
Hot rolling & sand have the same range of surface finish
Gauge numbers the thickness of a sheet is identified by a
gauge number

Schematic Illustration of Various Roll arrangements

Schematic Illustration of various roll arrangements : (a) two-high; (b)

three-high; (c) four-high; (d) cluster mill

Shape-Rolling Operations
Various shapes can be produced by shape rolling
Railroad rails
Roll-pass design requires considerable experience in order
to avoid external and internal defects

Stages in Shape Rolling of an H-section part. Various other structural

sections such as channels and I-beams, are rolled by this kind of process.

Ring Rolling
A thick ring is expanded into a large diameter ring
The ring is placed between the two rolls
One of which is driven
The thickness is reduced by bringing the rolls together
The ring shaped blank my be produced by:\
Cutting from plate
Cutting from a thick walled pipe
Various shapes can be produced by shaped rolls
Typical applications of ring rolling:
Large rings for rockets
Gearwheel rims
Ball-bearing and roller-bearing races
Can be carried out at room temperature
Has short production time
Close dimensional tolerances


(a) Schematic illustration of

Ring-rolling operation.
Thickness reduction results
in an increase in the part
(b) Examples of cross-sections
that can be formed by ringrolling

Thread Rolling
Cold-forming process
Straight or tapered threads are formed on round rods by passing the pipe
though dies
Typical products include

Thread Rolling Cont

Threads are rolled in the soft condition
Threads may then be heat treated, and subjected to final machining or grinding
Uncommon or special-purpose threads are machined

Production of Seamless Pipe & Tubing

Rotary tube piercing (Mannesmann process)

Hot-working process
Produces long thick-walled seamless pipe
Carried out by using an arrangement of rotating rolls
Tensile stresses develop at the center of the bar when it is subjected to compressive forces

Continuous Casting & Integrated Mills & Minimills

Continuous casting
Highly automated
Reduces product cost
Companies are converting over to this type of casting

Continuous Casting & Integrated Mills & Minimills Cont

Integrated Mills utilize everything from the production of hot metal to the casting and
rolling of the finished product
Scrap metal is melted
Cast continuously
Rolled directly into specific lines of products
Each minimill produces one kind of rolled product
Structural steel

Spray Casting : In spray casting the molten metal is sprayed over a

rotating mandrel to produce seamless tubing and pipe