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Introduction to Management &

Organizations
Chapter 01

Topics to be discussed ..
Who Managers are?
Differentiate between managerial and non-managerial positions.

Levels (Classification) of mangers in business organizations.

What is Management?
Definition of management.
Concerns of effectiveness and efficiency in management.

What Managers Do?


Functional approach. (Four functions of management)
Managerial roles approach.
Managerial skills approach.

What is an organization?
Characteristics of organization.

Management Process .

Who Managers Are?

1. Manager
Someone who coordinates and
oversees the work of other people in
order to accomplish organizational
goals.
Individual who directs the activities
of others.
Managers are there, in every
organization, at various capacities.
E.g. HODs
E.g. Branch Manager in a Bank

2. Non-Managerial Employees/ Operatives


People who directly work on a job
or task and have no responsibility
for overseeing the work of others.
E.g. Lectures in your Department.
E.g. An employee making a shirt in
a garment factory.

3. Levels of Management/ Titles of Managers


There are three levels of managers in an
organization:
1)

Top Managers

2)

Middle Managers

3)

Front-line Managers

In different organizations they have


different titles and different tasks to
perform.

Top Managers
Individuals who are responsible for making
decisions about the direction of the
organization and establishing policies that
affect all organization members.

Job Titles
CEO, President, Chairman, MD

E.g. Vice Chancellor in a University.

Middle Managers
Individual at levels of management between the
top management and front-line management.

Job Titles
CFO, CMO, CIO, COO,
Business Division Managers

E.g. Dean of a faculty.

Front-line Managers
Individuals responsible for directing dayto-day activities of operative employees.
E.g. Chairman of a Department.

Job Titles
Supervisors, Office Manager,
Department Manager, Shift
Manager

What is Management?

Management

Coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their


activities are completed efficiently and effectively.
Managerial Concerns
Effectiveness

Means

Ends

(Efficiency)

(Effectiveness)

Attaining organizational goals.

To Achieve your assigned Targets/Goals.

Getting more than target output by using


same resources.

Efficiency
Doing things right

Getting the most output for the least


inputs.

Achieving your goal or target with


minimum resource usage, time and
finance are two major resources to achieve
any goal.

GOAL
Low
Waste

High
Attainment

Goal Attainment

Resource Usage

Doing the right things

Examples
Discussed in class already, students are directed to self generate four examples
regarding efficiency and effectiveness.

What Managers Do?

1. Functional Approach
Planning
Defining
Goals,
establishing strategies,
developing plans to
coordinate activities.

Progress report by
Supervisor

Controlling
Monitoring activities
to ensure that they are
accomplished
as
planned.

Reached USA
Start Doing Study
Working with Supervisor

I want to do PhD. (Goal)


Foreign Scholarship
(Strategy)

Organizing

Organizations
GOAL

Leading
Directing
and
motivating employees
and resolving conflicts .

Determine what needs


to be done, how it
would be done and
who will do it?

GRE International
Research Proposal
Availing HEC Scholarship
Getting Admission.

2. Management Roles Approach (Mintzberg)


Managerial Behavior

Interpersonal roles (Human Beings)


Figurehead (Represents Organization)
Leader (Work with and through people)
Liaison (Make internal and external networks)

Informational roles (Information)


Monitor (Over see all information flowing in organization)
Disseminator (Distribute information within organization)
Spokesperson (Give information to external stakeholder)

Decisional roles (Decision)


Disturbance handler (Resolve conflicts with stakeholders)
Resource allocator (Distribute Human & Financial resources)
Negotiator (Make deals on behalf of company with stakeholders)

3. Skills Approach
Conceptual skills
The ability to think and conceptualize about
abstract and complex situations concerning the
organizations future.
Most important are leadership skills.

Human skills
The ability to work well with other people.
Most important are communication skills.

Technical skills
Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field.
Most important are file related scientific skills.

What is an Organization?

Organization
A deliberate arrangement of people to achieve some
specific goal.
GOAL

1. Specific GOAL

2. Peoples

3. Deliberate Structure

Management Process..

Human resource
Financial resource
Technological
resource

Input

Process
Planning
Organizing
Leading
Controlling

Feed Back

Products
Services

Output