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FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

DEFINITION
Fire alarm system is defined as system of
fixed apparatus giving for audible

/ visible

or perceptible alarm of fire.


A general alarm of fire in a building

may be raised either by person actuating


the manual fire alarm or automatically by a

detection system.

TYPES
There are six types of fire alarm system:

Manually operated system.

Manual Electric system

Automatic Fire Alarm System

Communication system.

Restricted Alarm system

Addressable Fire Alarm System

MANUALLY OPERATED SYSTEM.


This alarm system is purely operated by a person and
continues till such time the person is operating it. The

purely manual means for raising an alarm involves


the use of basic devises which include the following:
Hand strikes e.g. iron triangles
Hand bells
Whistles

ADVANTAGES & LIMITATIONS

It is of low cost and easily available.

Relatively cheap

No complicated technical skill is required to operate it.

They give
give

alarm over a limited area and are not used to

general alarm throughout the premises nor do they

convey the alarm to central point from which the fire


brigade can be called.

As a person is required to operate it, so a continuous alarm


cannot be guaranteed for as long as may be necessary.

Not practicable if only one man is at fire place.

MANUAL ELECTRIC SYSTEM.


These are the systems which are
set in motion by a manual action but
get their power from a non-manual

source, either from a battery or a


through an electricity.

ACCESSORIES OF MANUAL
ELECTRIC FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

Manual Call Points

Fire Sounders / Bells

ADVANTAGES

Once installed remained working

Continues to give alarm until


switched off

Audible throughout the premises


/ building

It is multipurpose ie audible /
visible or both.

LIMITATIONS

Costly to install

Needs slight training for its operation

Needs exclusive wiring of appropriate type ie flame

retardant type.

Needs constant power supply with its alternative


arrangements.

Needs constant vigilant care & maintenance

AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM


SYSTEM
It is the modification of Manual
Electric

Fire

comparatively
reliable.

Alarm

more

System

and

accurate

is

and

ACCESSORIES OF MANUAL
ELECTRIC FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

Main control panel

Manual call points

Automatic fire detectors

Sounders / Bells

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM.
In addition to the facilities specifically designed

for raising the alarm it may be possible to use the


general communication facilities e.g. a telephone or
public

address

system.

With

telephone

system

arrangements can be made for a particular dialing


code to be reserved for use when reporting a fire.

Use of such code can connect the caller to a person


responsible for calling the fire brigade and sounding

the general alarm.

RESTRICTED ALARMS.
In order to avoid unnecessary disturbances in
the sensitive areas where it may be desirable to
restrict the fire alarm to the locality in which it arises
or

restricts

the

alarm

responsible personals.

to

small

number

of

ADDRESSABLE FIRE ALARM


SYSTEM

Main control panel

Manual call points

Automatic fire detectors

Sounders / Bells

Fire Protection Systems

FIRE ALARM & DETECTION SYSTEMS

Conventional

&

Addressable

REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE


ALARM SYSTEM.

It should be so installed that in a building or in a


factory no one had to run more than 30 meters

or 100ft in case of fire to run the alarm.

Its wiring should be exclusive.

Height of the push button should not be greater

than 4.5ft

or 1.4m.

Distinguished

light

arrangements

should

be

made.

Operational instructions should be printed in


both local languages as well as in English.

In case of failure of electricity an alternate


arrangement of battery must be there.

The push button approach should be free

from any sort of obstacles.

The panel should clearly indicate the exact


location of fire.

The push button of manual electric and


the installation of manual system should
be made at exit and at passages from
where easy and quick approach should be
made.

thanks