Fertilization and Development

Human Fertilization
 The

union of sperm and egg nuclei  Occurs in the upper third of the oviduct  If egg is not fertilized within 24 hours after ovulation, then it will begin to deteriorate

Human Fertilization
 If

fertilization occurs, zygote will begin cleavage, or splitting and growing.

Human Fertilization
 6-10

days later the embryo may become implanted in the uterine lining
 Yolk

has been depleted and it now obtain nutrients from the uterus

Other Fertilization
 

 

If more then one egg is released, multiple births can occur Identical twins: Develop from one zygote which separates during cleavage Fraternal Twins- Developed from two different eggs, fertilized by two different sperm cells, that were released at the same time. In Vitro: fertilized externally and then implanted into the uterus Conjoined twin Video More information on the Twins

Fraternal Twins

These Twins were born on the same day from the same parents. Mom was Aboriginal and Dad was German

Fertilization Indepth
 The

union (fusion) of a monoploid (n) sperm nucleus and a monoploid (n) egg nucleus  During meiosis, chromosome number is reduced from 2n to n, but after fertilization the zygote once again is 2n.  Fertilization must occur in a moist environment

External Fertilization
 Aquatic

vertebrate animals such as fish and amphibians  Occurs outside of the body of the female  Because of harsh environment and lack of protection, large numbers of eggs are produced (because of low survival rate).

Internal Fertilization
 Most

terrestrial vertebrates  Gametes fuse in moist reproductive tract of female

Embryonic Development
 Cleavage:

a series of rapid mitotic cell divisions that leads to the formation of cells called the morula

Embryonic Development
 After

more cell divisions, the blastula forms
space inside blastula

 Blastocoel:

Gastrulation
 One

side of the blastula becomes indented forming the gastrula
 Blastopore:

opening of

gastrula  Endoderm: inner layer  Ectoderm: outer layer  Mesoderm: third layer that forms between ectoderm and endoderm.

Differentiation

 

Each layer will give rise to different tissues, organs, and systems of the multicellular animals Ectoderm: nervous system and skin Mesoderm: muscles, circulatory system, skeleton, excretory system, and gonads. Endoderm: lining of digestive and respiratory tracts, portions of the liver and pancreas

External Development
  

Occurs outside the females body Occurs in both terrestrial and aquatic environments In water:
  

Fertilized and developed externally Survival rate is low  large number of fertilized eggs produced Embryos source of food is the yolk stored in the egg Internal fertilization, external development Birds, many reptiles, and a few mammals Better survival rate, fewer fertilized eggs are produced

On land:
  

External Development

 Occurs

in a shell  Membranes help provide a favorable environment

Amnion
 Contains
P

amniotic fluid

rovides watery environment  P rotects embryo from shock  P revents adhesion to shell

Yolk Sac
 Blood

vessels surround yolk and penetrate yolk sac to transport food to embryo

Allantois
 Respiratory

membrane and storage site for nitrogenous waste and uric acid

Chorion
 Outer

membrane surrounding the other embryonic membranes and separates them from the environment.

Internal Development
 Placental

animals

 Embryos

develop internally in the uterus  Eggs have little yolk

The Placenta

Placenta forms from embryonic and maternal tissues  Exchange of nutrients, wastes, and respiratory gasses occur here between mother and embryo  No connections to bloodstream  Transport is accomplished by diffusion  Umbilical chord connects embryo to placenta with blood vessels.

Placental Animals
 Baby

is inside an amniotic sac where it sits in amniotic fluid
 The

fluid is there to protect the baby from shock.  Amniocentesis: The process by which amniotic fluid is extracted and tested to look at the babies DNA.

Marsupials
 Mammals

where the baby is born underdeveloped and crawls into it’s mothers pouch to continue to develop