Discrete Structure

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Discrete Structure Chapter 1 SetTheory 30

Discrete Structure

© All Rights Reserved

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Set Theory

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

A set is a well-defined collection of objects

finite sets, infinite sets, cardinality of a set, subset

A={1,3,5,7,9}

1 A,1 B ,1 C

B={x|x is odd integer} = {x|x integer ganjil}

C={1,3,5,7,9,...}

cardinality of A=5, no of elements= n(A)=5

A B

A is a proper subset of B.

CB

C is a subset of B.

2

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

Elements of a set defined as members of a set.

Capital letters A , B , , Z - to represent sets.

Lowercase letters a , b , c ,, z to represent elements.

Equal set two sets are equal if and only if they have the same

elements.

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

Eg: Elements of a set

A={1,3,5,7,9}

1 A , 3 A

2 A

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

Def: Subset

If C , D are sets from a universe U , we say that C is a subset of D and we

write C D or D C , if every element of C is an element of D.

proper subset of D , and this is denoted by C D or D C.

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

Eg: Let A = { 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5} , C = {1 , 2} , D = {1 , 2}

C is a subset of D -

C D or D C

C is a proper subset of A --- C A

D is a proper subset of A --- D A

C is equal to D --- C = D

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

Eg: Negate x [ x A x B ]

Soln: x [ x A x B ]

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

If A = B then A B B A

If A B then [A B B A]

[A B B A]

(A B) (B A)

(A B) (B A)

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

A B x[ x A x B ]

A B x[ x A x B ]

subsets

x[ ( x A) x B )]

x[ x A x B ]

C D ( C D) ( D C )

set equality

C D (C D D C )

C D D C

9

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

universal set, universe: U

power set of A: the set of all subsets of A

Eg. A={1}, then P(A)={{ }, {1}}

Eg. B={1,2}, then P(B)={{ }, {1}, {2}, {1,2}}

Eg. C={1,2,3}, then P(C)={{ }, {1},{2},{3},{1,2},{1,3},{2,3},{1,2,3}}

If n(A)=n, then n(P(A)) = 2n.

10

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

And n(U) = 11.

If A = {1,2,3,4} then n(A) = 4. The following statements are TRUE :

a)

AU

d) {A} U

b) {A} U

c) A U

e) AU

f) {A} U

The following statements are TRUE :

a)

A B

d) {A} B

b) {A} B

c) {A} B

e) A B

f) A B

11

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

common notations

(b) N=the set of nonnegative integers or natural numbers

(c) Z+=the set of positive integers

(d) Q=the set of rational numbers={a/b| a,b is integer, b not zero}

(e) Q+=the set of positive rational numbers

(f) Q*=the set of nonzero rational numbers

(g) R=the set of real numbers

(h) R+=the set of positive real numbers

(i) R*=the set of nonzero real numbers

(j) C=the set of complex numbers

12

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

common notations

(k) C*=the set of nonzero complex numbers

(l) For any n in Z+, Zn={0,1,2,3,...,n-1}

(m) For real numbers a,b with a<b,

[ a, b] {x R | a x b}

closed

interval

( a, b) {x R | a x b}

open interval

[ a, b) {x R | a x b}

( a, b] {x R | a x b}

half-open interval

13

Set Theory

1.1 Sets and Subsets

Find the elements of the following sets:

a)

AB

b) A B

c) B C

d)

AC

e) A B

f) A C

Soln:

14

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

For A,B U

A B {x | x A x B}

union

A B {x | x A x B}

intersection

AB {x | x A B x A B} symmetric difference

A B

Def: mutually disjoint

A U A {x | x U x A}

Def: complement

Def:

a)

b)

c)

B A {x | x B x A}

15

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

Theorem: Let A , B, C U

a)If A B and B C, then A C

b) If A B and B C, then A C

c) If A B and B C, then A C

d) If A B and B C, then A C

16

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

Theorem: For any universe U and any set A,B in U, the

following statements are equivalent:

a)

b)

c)

d)

A B

A B B

A B A

B A

reasoning process

(a) (b), (b) (c),

(c) (d), and (d) (a)

17

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

(1) A A

Law of Double Complement

(2) A B A B

Demorgan' s Laws

A B A B

(3) A B B A

Commutative Laws

A B B A

(4) A ( B C ) ( A B ) C

A ( B C ) ( A B) C

Associative Laws

A ( B C ) ( A B) ( A C )

18

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

The Laws of Set Theory

(6) A A A, A A A Idempotent Laws

(7) A A, A U A Identity Laws

(8) A A U , A A

(9) A U U , A =

(10) A ( A B ) A

Inverse Laws

DominationLaws

Absorption Laws

A( A B ) A

19

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

Ex : Negate A B.

A B { x | x A x B} A B

A B A B A B

De morgan on intersection

20

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

Ex : Negate AB.

AB {x | x A B x A B}

( A B) ( A B) ( A B) ( A B)

AB ( A B ) ( A B ) A B ( A B )

( A B ) ( A B ) [( A B ) A] [( A B ) B ]

( B A) ( A B ) ( A B ) ( A B )

AB A B

21

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

Def :

iI

Ai {x | x Ai for every i I }

iI

I: index set

Ai Ai

iI

iI

Ai Ai

iI

iI

22

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

Eg: For each n+ , let An ={123,, n-1,n}. Determine

7

a)

An

n=1

11

b) An

n=1

c) An

d) An

n=1

n=1

Soln:

23

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

A B

AB

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

24

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

Eg: Use membership table to establish each of the following

a)

AB = AB

b) A A = A

c)

A (A B) = A

d) (A B) (A C) = (A B) (A C)

Soln:

25

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

Eg: Simplify the expression (AB) C B

Soln:

26

Set Theory

1.2 Set Operations and the Laws of Set Theory

Eg: Express A B in terms of and

Soln:

27

Set Theory

1.3 Counting and Venn Diagrams

BASIC, 25 studying PASCAL, and 10 are studying both. How

many freshmen are studying either computer language?

U

B

| A B | | A| | B | | A B |

20

10

15

28

Set Theory

1.3 Counting and Venn Diagrams

12

Ex: Defect types of an AND gate:

4

11

D1: first input stuck at 0

43

3 7

D2: second input stuck at 0

5

A

D3: output stuck at 1

15

C

Given 100 samples

set A: with D1

| A B C | | A| | B | | C | | A B |

set B: with D2

| A C | | B C | | A B C |

set C: with D3

with |A|=23, |B|=26, |C|=30,

| A B | 7, | A C | 8, | B C | 10,

| A B C | 3 , how many samples have defects?

Ans:57

29

Set Theory

1.3 Counting and Venn Diagrams

Ex:There are 3 games. In how many ways can one play one game each

day so that one can play each of the three at least once during 5 days?

set A: without playing game 1

set B: without playing game 2

set C: without playing game 3

| A| | B | | C | 2 5

| A B | | B C | | C A| 15

| A B C| 0

| A B C | 3 2 5 3 15 0 93

Ans 35 93 150

balls

1

2

3

4

5

containers

g1

g2

g3

30

31

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