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WELCOME TO THE 2 ND INTERNATIONAL AMERICAN

PRAGMATICS CONFERENCE

2014 AT UCLA

“The Intersentential Code-switching by the Manado Malay Multilinguals

in Australia”

Background of the study

  • Manado Malay is one of the dialects, which is spoken by the inhabitants of North Sulawesi and particularly common in Manado as the capital city of the province.

  • This research article explores the use of Manado Malay from a sociolinguistic framework, particularly it focuses on intersentential codeswitching, which occurs frequently among Manado Malay people.

  • This study of intersentential codeswitching collected data from the native speakers of Manado Malay, who are multilingual in the following languages: Manado Malay, Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta Malay, and English.

The Ability of Codeswitching by Manado

Malay Speakers

  • Manadonese speakers considered as multilinguals due to the ability to switch with apparent and unpremeditated ease from Manado Malay to English, Bahasa Indonesia, or Jakarta Malay.

  • Having skill levels, such as with the language environment within which the speaker lives, their ability to learn languages, the opportunities to use the language and the speaker’s educational background.

Definition of Intersentential

Codeswitching

  • Intersentential codeswitching : a switch from language A to language B between sentences (Appel and Muyskens, 1987: 118).

  • Intersentential codeswitching: more likely to occur among adults than children (Poplack, 1983: 63-64).

Result of the Research of Intersentential

Codeswitching

  • Intersentential Codeswitching in English

  • Intersentential Codeswitching in Bahasa Indonesia

  • Intersentential Codeswitching in Jakarta Malay

Intersentential Codeswitching in English

  • The occurrence of intersentential codeswitching in English

based on the data obtained from five conversations of the

native speakers of Manado Malay

  • The Frequency of the occurrence of English IrSCS in five Manado Malay Conversations in Percent

English IrSCS

21% 28% 1 2 25% 13% 3 4 5 13%
21%
28%
1
2
25%
13%
3
4
5
13%
  • From the Figure above, the English IrSCS occurred more frequently than the English IrSCS of the other four conversations because of another participant suddenly joining the conversation and using English.

The first Conversation Data of English

IrSCS:

Father :

Jadi so bagitu satu hal yang mengejutkan yang kita lia membuka ini, apa, alam bapikir bahwa Indonesia bukang cuma ada di Manado, tapi soada juga di Melbourne.

So, I think there is one thing that opens the nature of thought that Indonesians are not only in Manado, but they are also here in Melbourne

Daughter

: Dad, daddy. This is Allen, my friend.

Father Daughter’s friend Father

: Are you Nett’s friend? : Yes, I am. : Hello, Allen. Thanks for coming.

  • The Topic and the Setting motivating the speakers to switch from Manado Malay to English syntactically.

  • The second Conversation Data of English IrSCS

Nae oto nae apa dari rumah so nyanda olahraga langsung pasang heater. That’s already the common thing here.

“You get in and drive the car from home and while driving it you also turn on the heater without doing any sports first”

Intersentential Codeswitching in Bahasa

Indonesia

  • From the five selected Manado Malay conversations, switches from Manado Malay to Bahasa Indonesia occurred more frequently in their speech activities because of its status as the National Language

  • Specific relationship between the two languages: Manado Malay used in daily activities, whereas Bahasa Indonesia used in formal activities

The Frequency of the Occurrence of Bahasa

Indonesia IrSCS in five selected Conversations in Percent

Indonesian IrSCS

17% 22% 1 16% 2 3 24% 4 5 21%
17%
22%
1
16%
2
3
24%
4
5
21%
  • The above figure: the percentage of conversation 2 is higher than the other four Indonesian IrSCS because of the topic being discussed concerning with the political issues in Indonesia

The Conversation Data of Indonesian

IrSCS:

Mr. R: So dari dulu dorang mo kuasai tu ABRI. Apalagi tu golongan kiri berusaha mo kuasai tu ABRI, tetapi kita masih mau menguasai ABRI itu karena kita mempunyai Pancasila sebagai milik nasional yang tak dapat digoyahkan karena sudah dari tahun 1948.

“The rebels have tried to control the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia „ABRI‟ since long time ago. More especially, they tried to control the ABRI, but they couldn‟t do it because we still have the Five Nation Principles „Pancasila‟ as our national‟s belonging, which couldn‟t be changed since 1948”

Intersentential Codeswitching in Jakarta

Malay

  • This type of codeswitching occurred in the conversations

because most of the participants having lived in Jakarta for

several years and being able to speak Jakarta Malay

  • A strong tendency from the speakers to switch from Manado Malay to Jakarta Malay because of its main characteristics as the symbol of modernity and high society (Poedjosoedarmo,

1982: 8).

The Frequency of the Occurrence of Jakarta Malay IrSCS in Five Selected Conversations in Percent

Jakarta Malay IrSCS

17% 33% 20% 7% 23%
17%
33%
20%
7%
23%

1

2

3

4

5

  • The figure shows the percentage of Jakarta Malay IrSCS from Conversation 1 higher than the Jakarta IrSCS from the other four conversations because of one of the participants feeling more comfortable by switching from Manado Malay to Jakarta Malay

The Conversation Data of Jakarta Malay

IrSCS:

Mr. C: Deng yang paling mengasyikkan buat dia adalah karna ada

banya orang Manado disini. Ini juga ada hubungannya deng

Indonesia. Lho ngapain dia ada di Manado, kok? Kiapa ada banya orang Manado disini? Apa urusannya dorang disini?

“The good thing for him is why there are so many Manadonese people here. This also has something to do with Indonesia. What is he doing in Manado? Why are there so many Manadonese people here? What is their purpose to be here?

Summary of the Occurrence of Intersentential Codeswitching

in English, Bahasa Indonesia, and Jakarta Malay given in the

table below to enable a comparison between the intersentential codeswitching to be analysed in relation to setting, topic, and interlocutor:

IrSCS in Three Categories

Total Number of IrSCS in Three Categories

IrSCS in English

24

IrSCS in Bahasa Indonesia

362

IrSCS in Jakarta Malay

30

Total

380

The Total Percentage of Intersentential

Codeswitching in Three Categories

IrSCS in Three Categories

8% 6% 1 2 3 86%
8%
6%
1
2
3
86%

From the three categories above, the IrSCS in

Bahasa Indonesia with 86% occurred more frequently than the IrSCS in English and Jakarta

Malay

  • The Bahasa Indonesia IrSCS is the most frequent switchings occurred in the conversations because of the formal topic and setting

  • The Jakarta Malay IrSCS is less frequent switchings than the English IrSCS which occurred in the conversations because the group know each other and they are well aware of their respective social standing.

  • The English IrSCS is the least frequent switchings occurred in the conversations because fluency in English was not used to denote status. English was only used when a native speaker joining the conversation.

THANK YOU