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You are on page 1of 40

CH1

CH2

CH3

CH4

CH5

CH6

CH7

CH8

Why Microelectronics?

Basic Physics of Semiconductors

Diode Circuits

Physics of Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Amplifiers

Physics of MOS Transistors

CMOS Amplifiers

Operational Amplifier As A Black Box

Chapter 7

CMOS Amplifiers

7.2 Common-Source Stage

7.3 Common-Gate Stage

7.4 Source Follower

7.5 Summary and Additional Examples

Chapter Outline

MOS Biasing

R2VDD

VTH

R1 R2

1

V1

W

nCox RS

L

2

1

VGS can be found using the equation above, and ID can be

found by using the NMOS current equation.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

I D RD VGS RS I D VDD

and no potential drop appears across RG.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

Current Sources

source.

NMOS draws current from a point to ground (sinks current),

whereas PMOS draws current from VDD to a point (sources

current).

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

Common-Source Stage

0

Av g m RD

W

Av 2 n Cox I D RD

L

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

Operation in Saturation

below Vin by more than one threshold voltage.

The condition above ensures operation in saturation.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

CS Stage with =0

Av g m RL

Rin

Rout RL

9

CS Stage with 0

Av g m RL || rO

Rin

Rout RL || rO

However, Early effect and channel length modulation affect

CE and CS stages in a similar manner.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

10

W

2 nCox

2 nCoxWL

L

Av

ID

ID

Since is inversely proportional to L, the voltage gain

actually becomes proportional to the square root of L.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

11

Av g m1 rO1 || rO 2

Rout rO1 || rO 2

To alleviate the headroom problem, an active currentsource load is used.

This is advantageous because a current-source has a high

output resistance and can tolerate a small voltage drop

across it.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

12

Av g m 2 (rO1 || rO 2 )

the voltage gain is the same as before.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

13

1

W / L 1

Av g m1

gm2

W / L 2

1

Av g m1

|| rO 2 || rO1

gm2

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

14

Av g m 2

|| ro1 || ro 2

g m1

source on top of the drain.

15

Av

RD

1

RS

gm

0

Similar to bipolar counterpart, when a CS stage is

degenerated, its gain, I/O impedances, and linearity change.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

16

Av

RD

1

1

g m1 g m 2

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

17

VR 0

G

gate resistance does not affect the gain or I/O impedances.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

18

rout g m rO RS rO

output impedance.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

19

1 1

Rout rO1 1 g m1

gm2 gm2

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

20

In this example, the impedance that degenerates the CS

stage is rO, instead of 1/gm in the previous example.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

21

R1 || R2

RD

R1 || R2

Av

, Av

gm R D

RG R1 || R2 1 R

RG R1 || R2

S

gm

Degeneration is used to stabilize bias point, and a bypass

capacitor can be used to obtain a larger small-signal

voltage gain at the frequency of interest.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

22

Common-Gate Stage

Av g m RD

rise in input causes a rise in output. So the gain is positive.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

23

cannot fall below Vb-VTH.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

24

1

Rin

gm

Rout RD

to those of CB stage.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

25

Av

RD

1

RS

gm

equal to that of a CS stage with degeneration, only positive.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

26

Generalized CG Behavior

Rout 1 g m rO RS rO

When a gate resistance is present it does not affect the gain

and I/O impedances since there is no potential drop across

it ( at low frequencies).

The output impedance of a CG stage with source resistance

is identical to that of CS stage with degeneration.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

27

Example of CG Stage

vout

g m1 RD

vin 1 g m1 g m 2 RS

Rout g m1rO1

|| RS rO1 || RD

gm2

current.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

28

vout

R3 || 1 / g m

g m RD

vin R3 || 1 / g m RS

for DC bias current of M1 to flow to ground.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

29

Av 1

30

vout

rO || RL

vin 1 r || R

O

L

gm

Similar to the emitter follower, the source follower can be

analyzed as a resistor divider.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

31

Av

rO1 || rO 2

1

rO1 || rO 2

g m1

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

32

1

1

Rout || rO || RL || RL

gm

gm

The output impedance of a source follower is relatively low,

whereas the input impedance is infinite ( at low

frequencies); thus, a good candidate as a buffer.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

33

1

W

2

I D nCox VDD I D RS VTH

2

L

current.

The quadratic equation above can be solved for ID.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

34

Supply-Independent Biasing

becomes independent of supply voltage.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

35

Av g m1

|| rO1 || rO 2 || rO 3

g m3

1

Rout

|| rO1 || rO 2 || rO 3

g m3

M1 acts as the input device and M2, M3 as the load.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

36

rO 2

Av

1

1

|| rO 3

g m1 g m3

M1 acts as the input device, M3 as the source resistance,

and M2 as the load.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

37

Av _ CG

rO 2

1

RS

gm

circuits, although identical in other aspects, behave

differently.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

38

Av

RD

1

1

g m1 g m 2

recognizing the right side is actually a CG stage, the

voltage gain can be easily obtained.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

39

vout 2

vin

1

|| rO 3 || rO 4

g m3

1

1

|| rO 2

gm2

g m1

circuit, different types of output can be obtained.

Vout1 is a result of M1 acting as a source follower whereas

Vout2 is a result of M1 acting as a CS stage with

degeneration.

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

40

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