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Fundamentals of Microelectronics

CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CH5
CH6
CH7
CH8

Why Microelectronics?
Basic Physics of Semiconductors
Diode Circuits
Physics of Bipolar Transistors
Bipolar Amplifiers
Physics of MOS Transistors
CMOS Amplifiers
Operational Amplifier As A Black Box

Chapter 7

CMOS Amplifiers

7.1 General Considerations


7.2 Common-Source Stage
7.3 Common-Gate Stage
7.4 Source Follower
7.5 Summary and Additional Examples

Chapter Outline

CH7 CMOS Amplifiers

MOS Biasing

R2VDD

VGS V1 VTH V 2V1


VTH
R1 R2

1
V1
W
nCox RS
L
2
1

Voltage at X is determined by VDD, R1, and R2.


VGS can be found using the equation above, and ID can be
found by using the NMOS current equation.
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Self-Biased MOS Stage

I D RD VGS RS I D VDD

The circuit above is analyzed by noting M1 is in saturation


and no potential drop appears across RG.
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Current Sources

When in saturation region, a MOSFET behaves as a current


source.
NMOS draws current from a point to ground (sinks current),
whereas PMOS draws current from VDD to a point (sources
current).
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Common-Source Stage

0
Av g m RD
W
Av 2 n Cox I D RD
L
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Operation in Saturation

RD I D VDD VGS VTH

In order to maintain operation in saturation, Vout cannot fall


below Vin by more than one threshold voltage.
The condition above ensures operation in saturation.
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CS Stage with =0

Av g m RL
Rin
Rout RL
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CS Stage with 0

Av g m RL || rO
Rin
Rout RL || rO
However, Early effect and channel length modulation affect
CE and CS stages in a similar manner.
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CS Gain Variation with Channel Length

W
2 nCox
2 nCoxWL
L
Av

ID
ID
Since is inversely proportional to L, the voltage gain
actually becomes proportional to the square root of L.
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CS Stage with Current-Source Load

Av g m1 rO1 || rO 2
Rout rO1 || rO 2
To alleviate the headroom problem, an active currentsource load is used.
This is advantageous because a current-source has a high
output resistance and can tolerate a small voltage drop
across it.
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PMOS CS Stage with NMOS as Load

Av g m 2 (rO1 || rO 2 )

Similarly, with PMOS as input stage and NMOS as the load,


the voltage gain is the same as before.
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CS Stage with Diode-Connected Load

1
W / L 1
Av g m1

gm2
W / L 2
1

Av g m1
|| rO 2 || rO1
gm2

Lower gain, but less dependent on process parameters.


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CS Stage with Diode-Connected PMOS Device

Av g m 2
|| ro1 || ro 2
g m1

Note that PMOS circuit symbol is usually drawn with the


source on top of the drain.
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CS Stage with Degeneration

Av

RD
1
RS
gm

0
Similar to bipolar counterpart, when a CS stage is
degenerated, its gain, I/O impedances, and linearity change.
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Example of CS Stage with Degeneration

Av

RD
1
1

g m1 g m 2

A diode-connected device degenerates a CS stage.


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CS Stage with Gate Resistance

VR 0
G

Since at low frequencies, the gate conducts no current,


gate resistance does not affect the gain or I/O impedances.
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Output Impedance of CS Stage with Degeneration

rout g m rO RS rO

Similar to the bipolar counterpart, degeneration boosts


output impedance.
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Output Impedance Example (I)

1 1

Rout rO1 1 g m1
gm2 gm2

When 1/gm is parallel with rO2, we often just consider 1/gm.


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Output Impedance Example (II)

Rout g m1rO1rO 2 rO1


In this example, the impedance that degenerates the CS
stage is rO, instead of 1/gm in the previous example.
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CS Core with Biasing

R1 || R2
RD
R1 || R2
Av

, Av
gm R D
RG R1 || R2 1 R
RG R1 || R2
S
gm
Degeneration is used to stabilize bias point, and a bypass
capacitor can be used to obtain a larger small-signal
voltage gain at the frequency of interest.
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Common-Gate Stage

Av g m RD

Common-gate stage is similar to common-base stage: a


rise in input causes a rise in output. So the gain is positive.
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Signal Levels in CG Stage

In order to maintain M1 in saturation, the signal swing at Vout


cannot fall below Vb-VTH.
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I/O Impedances of CG Stage

1
Rin
gm

Rout RD

The input and output impedances of CG stage are similar


to those of CB stage.
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CG Stage with Source Resistance

Av

RD
1
RS
gm

When a source resistance is present, the voltage gain is


equal to that of a CS stage with degeneration, only positive.
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Generalized CG Behavior

Rout 1 g m rO RS rO
When a gate resistance is present it does not affect the gain
and I/O impedances since there is no potential drop across
it ( at low frequencies).
The output impedance of a CG stage with source resistance
is identical to that of CS stage with degeneration.
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Example of CG Stage

vout
g m1 RD

vin 1 g m1 g m 2 RS

Rout g m1rO1
|| RS rO1 || RD
gm2

Diode-connected M2 acts as a resistor to provide the bias


current.
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CG Stage with Biasing

vout
R3 || 1 / g m

g m RD
vin R3 || 1 / g m RS

R1 and R2 provide gate bias voltage, and R3 provides a path


for DC bias current of M1 to flow to ground.
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Source Follower Stage

Av 1

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Source Follower Core

vout
rO || RL

vin 1 r || R
O
L
gm
Similar to the emitter follower, the source follower can be
analyzed as a resistor divider.
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Source Follower Example

Av

rO1 || rO 2
1
rO1 || rO 2
g m1

In this example, M2 acts as a current source.


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Output Resistance of Source Follower

1
1
Rout || rO || RL || RL
gm
gm
The output impedance of a source follower is relatively low,
whereas the input impedance is infinite ( at low
frequencies); thus, a good candidate as a buffer.
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Source Follower with Biasing

1
W
2
I D nCox VDD I D RS VTH
2
L

RG sets the gate voltage to VDD, whereas RS sets the drain


current.
The quadratic equation above can be solved for ID.
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Supply-Independent Biasing

If Rs is replaced by a current source, drain current ID


becomes independent of supply voltage.
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Example of a CS Stage (I)

Av g m1
|| rO1 || rO 2 || rO 3
g m3

1
Rout
|| rO1 || rO 2 || rO 3
g m3
M1 acts as the input device and M2, M3 as the load.
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Example of a CS Stage (II)

rO 2
Av
1
1

|| rO 3
g m1 g m3
M1 acts as the input device, M3 as the source resistance,
and M2 as the load.
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Examples of CS and CG Stages

Av _ CS g m2 (1 g m1rO1 ) RS rO1 || rO1

Av _ CG

rO 2
1
RS
gm

With the input connected to different locations, the two


circuits, although identical in other aspects, behave
differently.
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Example of a Composite Stage (I)

Av

RD
1
1

g m1 g m 2

By replacing the left side with a Thevenin equivalent, and


recognizing the right side is actually a CG stage, the
voltage gain can be easily obtained.
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Example of a Composite Stage (II)

vout 2
vin

1
|| rO 3 || rO 4
g m3

1
1
|| rO 2
gm2
g m1

This example shows that by probing different places in a


circuit, different types of output can be obtained.
Vout1 is a result of M1 acting as a source follower whereas
Vout2 is a result of M1 acting as a CS stage with
degeneration.
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