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Carrier

Controls

Demand

Controlled Ventilation

Ventilation
Control

Why Ventilation?
Comfort Is More Than Just
The Right Temperature
Comfort =
Temperature + Ventilation

Ventilation
Control

Why Ventilation?

Ventilation
Control
Comfort
Health & Safety
Compliance

Ventilation Provides

Ventilation
Control

How is ventilation
provided in most
buildings today?
The same way it was in 1930.
With Fixed Ventilation!

Ventilation
Control

Fixed Ventilation
Building codes require ventilation rates based
on cfm/person: (typically 20 cfm/person)
Max
Actual
Actual
Occupancy:
Occupancy:
Occupancy:
2515people
person
people===500cfm
500cfm
500cfm

Inefficient!

Ventilation
Control

Total Building Heating


and Cooling Costs

Ventilation

Ventilation
Control

Fixed Ventilation In a
Multi-Zoned Building
Total cfm = Max occupants X 20 cfm

There Is No Control!

Ventilation
Control

Is There A Better Way?

Ventilation
Control

Temperature Control In
A Multi-Zoned Building
Temperature Sensor
Temperature + Ventilation Sensor

Measure In Each Zone


Control Based On Actual Load
What if we did the same thing with ventilation?

Zone
Ventilation
Control

Great Idea!
Delivers
The RIGHT Amount of Fresh Air,

To The RIGHT Place,


At The RIGHT Time

But How Does It


Work?

Zone
Ventilation
Control

Controlling Ventilation
There is a clearly defined relationship
between indoor CO2 levels & ventilation rates
established by:

ASHRAE 62.1 & 90.1


ASTM CO2 &
Ventilation Standard
Indoor CO2 levels are a measure of ventilation
rates (cfm/person)

CO2 is the control parameter for ventilation!

Zone
Ventilation
Control

Single Zone Ventilation


Actual
Actual Occupancy
Occupancy 15
25person
people
people==100cfm
20cfm
500cfm

Ventilation based on actual occupancy!

Zone
Ventilation
Control

Multi Zoned Ventilation


Control In a Building

Healthy & Efficient!

Zone
Ventilation
Control

OK!

But How Does


Carrier Do It?

Carrier DCV

PremierLink
The innovative DDC control system
that automatically gives you the
ventilation you need only when you
really need it, with a thermostat or
network.
Comfort System

Rooftop Controller

Carrier DCV
Heres how it
works

PremierLink
Individual sensors throughout the
building work together to identify
and immediately respond to
changing needs for total comfort
control.

CO2
(People Meters)

Carrier DCV

PremierLink
As certain areas become occupied,
the PremierLink identifies the
changing temperature load as well
as the change in ventilation
requirements.

Carrier DCV

PremierLink
Outside air dampers are utilized
only as deemed necessary by
actual occupant CO2 levels (rather
than maximum assumed levels),
thus reducing energy consumption
by the HVAC system.

Carrier DCV

Timeline

1916

1929

1973

1989

1997

1999

1999

2000

Mechanical
Engineers
Handbook

NY Building
code details
CO2 levels
shall not be
greater than
one part in
one thousand

Energy
crunch
introduce
VAV
system for
commercial
buildings

ASHRAE
Standard
62-89 sets
1000 PPM
maximum

Interpretation
IC-62-1989-27
clarifies use
of CO2 as a
method of
controlling
ventilation
based on
occupancy

ASHRAE
62-99
eliminates
1000 PPM
CO2
threshold
inside/outsid
e differential
introduced

ComfortID
introduced
zone level
DCV

Carrier
introduces
low cost
temp/CO2
sensor

Explains
relationship
between
CO2 and
ventilation

Carrier DCV

People exhale CO2 at


concentrations of 4%
(40,000 ppm)
Normal room
concentrations are in
the range of 400 - 1200
ppm
As a gas, CO2 diffuses
and equalizes rapidly
throughout a room

Understanding CO2

Carrier DCV

3,000

5 cfm/person

2,500

CO2 Concentrations (ppm)

CO2 levels will


build until an
equilibrium level is
reached with
outside air
entering the space

CO2 Equilibrium Levels

2,000

1,500

10 cfm/person
15 cfm/person
20 cfm/person

1,000

30 cfm/person
500

0:00

1:00
30 cfm/person

2:00
20 cfm/person

3:00
Time
15 cfm/person
(hours)

4:00
10 cfm/person

5 cfm per person

5:00

Carrier DCV

This chart
compares
ventilation usage
throughout a
typical day using
purple to represent
demand
controlled and
green to represent
constant. The
difference between
the two equates to
significant savings.

PremierLink Ventilation
Savings

Sensor
Technology

CO2 Plus Temp Sensor


First Cost Effective Zone Level CO2 + Temp Sensor
Patented
NDIR Technology
Micro Based
Self Calibration
Push Button
Calibration
Removable
Terminal Strips
Night Setback
Override

Thermistor

RJ-14 for CCN


Connection

Slide Pot
Option

Sensor
Technology
Target gas absorbs
radiation at
signature
wavelength
Filter isolates
wavelength that
reaches detector
More gas in chamber
leads to lower
signal to detector

NDIR Gas Sensing


IR Detector

IR Source
0 ppm CO2

Wavelength
Filter
IR Detector

IR Source
1000 ppm CO2

Wavelength
Filter
IR Detector

IR Source
2000 PPM CO2

Wavelength
Filter

Sensor
Technology

Advantages of IR
Sensing

Long life (15 years


expected)

Custom Designed
Infrared Filter
Diffusion Membranes

Selective - no
interference with
other gases

Stable - does not


require calibration

Incandescent
Infrared Source

Micro-Machined
Thermopile Detector

1.25"
Patented Waveguide

Microprocessor

Sensor
Technology Self Calibration Of A CO2

Sensor

Automatic Baseline
Calibration (ABC
Logic)
Self calibrating
algorithm
Considers lowest CO2
level every 24 hrs
Looks at long term
changes in
baseline
Applies a correction
factor for
calibration

Zone
Ventilation
Control

CODE COMPLIANCE
Accepted by: ASHRAE Standard 62

International Mechanical Code:


Current

technology (CO2 sensors) can permit the


design of ventilation systems that are capable of
detecting the occupant load of the space and
automatically adjusting the ventilation rate
accordingly.

Model, State & Local Codes


Can Be Measured & Documented!
Compliance Assured

Numerous Studies
Confirm That
Correct Ventilation ...

Zone
Ventilation
Control

DOE/Lawrence
Economic
Berkeley
Considerations
Labs
Evaluation
of
of
Berkeley
Labs
Air
Quality
and
Ventilation
DOE/Lawrence
Increases
Productivity
Air
Quality
and
Ventilation
in25)
Offices
(USlist
EPA)
Indoor
Environment
In
Schools
Sick
Leavevery
Statistics
vs. Ventilation
Rates
ranked
high (#2
of
on the
&Improves
Occupant/Customer
(3720
employees
buildings):
Pupils
Health
Performance
In Regard
To
CO2 Concentrations
Improvements
in
the
indoor
air/ 40
environment
substantially
of tenant retention
issues
Satisfaction
employee
moral
andsick
productivity.
A significant
was found
between
decreased
increase
Optimal correlation
ventilation
reduces
time costs.
For every

in a recent survey conducted by


performance
and
high
COventilation
levels (lower
rates).
$1 spent
to increase
cost,ventilation
$2Building
are saved
in
2Information
Estate
Systems.
Real
Helps
Prevent
Sick
sick time

Syndrome Health Affects

Zone
Ventilation
Control

Ensure for every zone

Comfort
Health & Safety
Compliance

Zone
Ventilation
Control

A Better Operating
Building
Ventilate to Actual vs.
Assumed Occupancy
Eliminate Wasteful OverVentilation
Very Attractive ROI/Lower
Operating Costs