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PRESENTATION

ON
METHODS
OF DATA
COLLECTION
• Presented by
– Kavitha V K
– Murukesh S S
– Nincey Sherin Thomas
– Rahul Nair
– Renjith R
– Shameer s
– Shanavas B
– Thoufeek A
– Vignesh S


 TYPES
OF
DATA
• PRIMARY DATA

Those data which are
collected afresh and for
the first time and thus
happen to be original in
character.
 SECONDARY DATA

Those data which have
already been collected by
someone else and has already
been passed through the
statistical process.

Interview method

1.Personal interviews
• Unstructured interviews
– they do not follow a system of pre-
determined questions and
standardized techniques of recording
information.
– Objective is to bring some
preliminary issues to the
surface so that researcher can
determine what variables need
further in-depth investigation.
Structured interviews

• It is conducted when it is
known at the outset
what information is
needed.
• The interviewer has a list
of predetermined
questions.
• The visual aids such as
pictures, line drawings,
cards and other
Focussed interview

• Interviewer has the


freedom to decide the
manner and sequence in
which the questions
would be asked and has
the freedom to explore
the reasons and
motives.
• Main task is to confine the
respondent to a
discussion of issues with
Clinical interview

• Concerned with broad


underlying feelings or
motivations or with
the course of
individual’s life
experience.
Non-directive interview

• In this the interviewer’s


function is to encourage
the respondent to talk
about the given topic
with a bare minimum of
direct questioning.

Face-to-face interview

• Advantages
1.The researcher can adapt the
questions as necessary, clarify
doubts , and ensure that the
responses are properly
understood.
2.He can also pick up nonverbal
cues from the respondent.
Disadvantages

• Geographical limitations they may


impose on the surveys and vast
resources needed if such surveys
need to be done nationally or
internationally.

• The costs of training interviewers to


minimize interviewer’s bias is high

• Respondents might feel uneasy
about the anonymity of their
responses when they interact with
Telephonic interview

• Advantages
1.A number of different
people can be reached
in a short period of
time.
2.Will eliminate any
discomfort that some
people feel in facing
the interviewer.
Disadvantages

• Respondent could
unilaterally terminate
the interview without
warning or explanation,
by hanging up the
phone.
• Researcher will not be
able to see the
respondent to read the
nonverbal
communication.
Collection of data
through Questionnaires
• In this method a
questionnaire is sent to
the persons concerned
with a request to answer
the questions and return
the questionnaire.

• Questionnaire consist of a
number of questions
printed or typed in a
definite order on a form or
set of forms.
Merits

• Low cost
• Free from bias of the
interviewer
• Respondents have adequate
time.
• Respondents who are not
easily approachable can
also be reached.
• Large samples can be used.
Thus the results are more
reliable and dependable.
Demerits

• Low rate of return of the


duly filled in
questionnaires.
• Can be used only when
respondents are
educated and co-
operating.
• The control over the
questionnaire may be
lost once it is sent.
Type and form of
questions
• Open-ended versus Closed-
ended
 open-ended questions
allow respondents to answer
them in any way they
choose.
 Closed-ended questions
would ask the respondents
to make choices among a
set of alternatives given by
the reaseacher.
• Positively and negatively
worded questions

– The tendency in respondents to
mechanically circle the points
towards one end of scale is
minimised

Doubled –barreled
questions
• A question that lends itself
to different possible
responses to its subparts
• Such questions should be
avoided.
• Example :
 “Do you think there is
a good market for the
product and that it will sell
well?”
Ambiguous questions

• The words used in framing


questions must not be
unambiguous.
• Example
 “to what extent would
you say that you are
happy”
Recall-Dependent
questions
• Some questions might
require respondents to
recall experiences from
the past that are hazy in
their memory answers to
such questions may be
biased.
Leading questions

• Questions should not be


phrased in such a way
that they lead the
respondents to give the
responses that the
researcher would like or
want them to give.
• Example
 “To what extent do
you agree that employees
Loaded questions

• Such questions are


emotionally charged
manner.
• Example
 “ To what extent do
you think management is
likely to be vindictive if
the Union decides to go on
strike?”
Social desirability

• Questions should not be


worded such that they
elicit socially desirable
responses.

• Example
 “Do you think that
older people should be
laid off?”
Collection of data through
schedules
• In this schedules are being filled in by
the ennumerators who are specially
appointed for the purpose.

• Ennumerators go to respondents with


schedules, put them the questions
from the proforma and record the
replies.

• They explain the aims and objects of
the investigation and removes the
difficulties which respondents feel
in understanding the quetions
Difference between
questionnaires and
schedules
• The questionnaire is sent through
mail to the informants to be
answered. The schedule is filled out
by the ennumerator who can
interpret questions when
necessary.

• Collection of data through
questionnaire is cheap and
economical, while collection of data
through schedules is more
expensive.

• In questionnaires identity of
respondents is not clear as to who
replies, but in case of schedule
the identity of respondent is
known.
• The questionnaire method is likely
to be very slow since many
respondents do not return the
questionnaire in time despite
several remainders, but in case of
schedules the information is
collected well in time as they are
• Personal contact is
generally not possible in
case of the
questionnaire method
,but in case of schedules
direct personal contact
is established with
respondents.
• Questionnaire method can
be used only when
repondents are literate

• The success of questionnaire method lies
more on the quality of questionnaire
itself, but in case of schedules much
depends upon the honesty and
competence of enumerators.

• Wider and more representative


distribution of sample is possible under
questionnaire, but in case of schedules
there usually remains the difficulty in
sending enumerators over a relatively
wider area.


• Risk of collecting incomplete and
wrong information is relatively
more under the questionnaire
method, but in case of schedules,
the information collected is
generally complete and accurate.
• In order to attract the
attention of
respondents, the
physical appearance of
questionnaire must be
quite attractive, but this
may not be so in case of
schedules

• Along with schedules,
Observation

• Structured observation
• Unstructured observation
• Participant observation
• Non-participant
observation
6. PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES
• Sometimes called as
indirect techniques.
• Developed by
psychologists to use
projection of
respondents for inferring
about underlying
motives, urges, or
intentions which are
such that the
respondent either resists
• The respondent in
supplying information
tends unconsciously to
project his attitudes or
feelings on the subject
under study.
• Projective technique play
an important role in
motivational researches
or in attitude surveys.
• The use of these
techniques requires
intensive specialized
training. In such
techniques, the
individual’s responses to
the stimulus-situation
are not taken at their
face value.
• The stimuli may arouse
many different kinds of
• The nature of the stimuli
and the way in which
they are presented
under these techniques
do not clearly indicate
the way in which the
response is to be
interpreted. The
stimulus may be a
photograph, a picture
and so on.
• Responses to these stimuli
are interpreted as
indicating the
individual’s own view,
his personality structure,
his needs, tensions, etc.
in the context of some
pre-established
psychological
conceptualization of
what the individual’s
Important Projective
Techniques
i. Word Association Tests:
These tests are used to
extract information
regarding such words
which have maximum
association.
Respondent is asked to
mention the first word
that comes to mind,
ostensibly without
thinking, as the
ii. Sentence Completion

Tests: These tests happen


to be an extension of the
technique of word
association tests. Under
this, informant may be
asked to complete a
sentence (persons who
wear Khadi are….) to find
association of
Khadiclothes with certain
iii.Story Completion Tests:
Such tests are a step
further wherein the
researcher may
contrive stories instead
of sentences and ask
the informants to
complete them.
iv.Verbal Projection Tests:
these are the tests
wherein the
 PICTORIAL TECHNIQUE

1.Thematic appreciation test


– TAT consists of a set of pictures



– deal with the ordinary situation
and unusual situation

– Shown to respondent and asked
to describe what they think
about the pictures represents



 The replies of respondents
constitutes the basis of for the
investigator to draw Inference
about their personality structure,
attitudes

2. Rosenzweig test

• this test uses a cartoon format


wherein we have a set of
cartoons with word inserted in
ballons above

• The respondent is asked to put his
own words in an empty ballons .
• RORSCHACH TEST

• Ten cards having prints of inkblots

• Design happens to be symmetrical
but meaningless

• Responses are interpreted on the
basis of pre determined
psychological frame work

• Holtzman inkblot test

• modification of RORSCHACH TEST
by
 W. H. Holtzman

• 45 inkblot cards which are based
on colour, movement, shading
and other factors involved in
inkblot perception

• Only one response per card is
obtained from the subject
(respondent) and the responses
of a subject are interpreted at
three levels of from
• ADVANTAGES

• It elicts relatively constant number
of responses per respondent

• It facilitates studying the responses
of a respondent to different cards
in the light if norms of each
cards intead of jumping them
together

• It elicts much more information
from the respondent
• Limitations

• Most of the respondent do not
know the determinents of their
percepions
 5.Tomkins- horn picture
arrangement test

• Test designed for group


administration

• Consist of 25 plates, each
containing three sketches that
may be arranged in different
ways to portray sequence of
events.

• The respondent is asked to arrange
them in a sequence which he
consider as reasonable
• The responses are intrpreted as
providing evidence confirming
certain norms, respondent’s
attitude, etc.

6. Play technique

• Subjects are asked to improvise or


act out asituation in which they
have been assigned to various
roles

• The rsearcher may observe such


traits as hostility, dominence,
sympethy, prejudice or the
absence of such traits.
• These technique have been used
for knowing the younger ones
through manipulation of dolls.

• Dolls representing different racial
groups are usually given to
children who are allowed to play
with them freely

• The manner in which children
organise dolls would indicate
their attitude towads the class of
persons represented by dolls.
7. Quizzes, tests and

examinations

 Technique of extracting
information regarding specific
ability of candidates indirectly.

 In this procedure both long and
short question framed to test
through them the memmorising
and analytical ability of
candidates
8. Sociometry

• Technique for describing the social


relationship among individuals in
agroup in an indirect way

• It attempts to describe attractions
or repulsion betweenindividuals
by asking them to indicate whom
they would choose or rejecct in
various situations.
• Sociograms are constructed to
identify leaders and followers

• This approach has been applied to
the diffusion of ideas on drugs
amongst medical practitioners
 7)DEPTH INTEVIEWS

Ø designed to discover underlying motives


and desires.
Ø
Ø Used to explore needs ,desire ,feelings of
respondent.
Ø
Ø Need considerable time and greater skill from
the part of interviewer.
Ø
Ø It may be projective or none projective.
Ø
Ø
 8)CONTENT ANALYSIS

Ø Analysis content of documentary materials


 such as books, magazine, newspaper
and
 content of all verbal or printed
materials

Ø Prior 1940 quantitative analysis of


documentary materials
Ø
Ø Since 1950 it is transformed to qualitative
 method. – emphasis on general
importance of
Ø
Ø
Ø it is a central activity concerned with study
 Of the nature of verbal materials

Ø Works in two levels


a)
b)Simple level. - certain characteristics
identified and counted.
c)
d)Subtle level. – more qualitative in nature
 Eg: study of attitude
THANK YOU !!!