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Optimists
• Hafiz M. Hammad Nomani
• Umaz Hussnain
• M. Iqbal
• Imran Javid
• Taufeeq Khalid
• Anjum Ali
• M. Haroon Shakeel
Optimists
History at a Glanc
Liaquat
Ali Khan Ghulam
Chaudhary
15 Aug Muhammad
Muhhammad Ali
Prime Minister 17 Oct
12 Aug
Governor
Prime Minister
General

Quaid-e-Azam
Muhammad Ali Khawaja Khawaja Muhammad Ali Iskander Ali
Jinnah Nazimuddin Nazimuddin Bogra Mirza
15 Aug 14 Sep 17 Oct 17 Apr 06 Oct
Governor Governor Prime Minister Prime Minister Governor
General General General

>>
1947 1948 1951 1953 1955
Husain Shaheed Malik Feeroz
Suharwardy Khan
Sep 16 Dec
Prime Minister Prime Minister

Muhammad Ayub Presidential


Iskander Ali Ibrahim Ismail Agha Muhammad
Khan Election
Mirza Chundigar Yahya khan
27 Oct 02 Jan
23 Mar 17 Oct 25 Mar
Chief Marshal
President Prime Minister President
Law
n w w
t io La r La
tu l Wa al
23 ns ti c t sha p
Se - Pak 25 rsh
r o O ar Mar 23 , 1962 r a
Ma st C 07 st M nd 06 ndo Ma nd M
1 1 2 I 2
Constitution >>
1956 1957 1958 1965 1969
Zulfiqar Ali Fazal Elahi
Bhutto Chaudhry
20 Dec 14 Aug
Civil chief President Muhammad
Marshal Zia-ul-Haq Muhammad khan
Administrator 16 Sep Junejo
Chief Marshal 23 Mar
Nurul Ammin Law Prime Minister
07 Dec
Prime Minister

Zulfiqar Ali PNA


1st General Separation Of East Bhutto 2nd General 3rd General
Election Pakistan 14 Aug Election Election
Oct 16 Dec Prime Minister 07 Mar 25 Feb
n
t io La
w
t
itu l er men
g
Au ons
t ha b d
em men
a rs v
14 rd C rd
M No th A
3 3 8
>>
1970 1971 1973 1977 1985
Farooq Ahmad
khan Leghari
Benazir Bhutto 02 Dec
02 Dec President
Prime Minister

Nawaz Sharif
05 Nov
Benazir Bhutto
Prime Minister
4th General 19 Oct
Election Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif
Nov 05 Nov
Prime Minister

IJ
I
Ghulam Ishaq Muhammad Rafiq
Khan Tarar
17 Aug 5th General 6th General 7th General 01 Jan
President Election Election Election President
24 Oct 06 Oct 03 Feb
e nt
n dm
r il Ame
Ap th
13
>>
1988 1990 1993 1997 1998
Asif Ali Zardari
06 Sep
President

Shukat Aziz
28 Aug
Mir Zafarullah
Prime Minister Yousuf Raza
Khan Jamali
Gillani
23 Nov
25 Mar
Prime Minister
Prime Minister

Chuadhry Shujat
Pervez Musharaf Pervez Musharaf Hussain
12 Oct 20 Jun 8thGeneral 9th General
Election 26 June Election
Chief Executive President Prime Minister
20 Oct 18 Feb
w
La
t h al
Oc ars Nov3 ,
12 th M 2007
4
PCO

1999 2001 2002 2004 2008


Constitution
s
e Government of India Act, 19
qUnder Section 8 of the Indian Independence Act,
1947, it became the working constitution of
Pakistan.

qThe first Constituent Assembly was formed under


the Independence Act, 1947.

qPurpose to frame a Constitution for the


country.


Objective
Resolution
q The Constituent Assembly passed the resolution
on 12 March 1949.
q Resolution was moved by Liaquat Ali Khan.
q "Magna Carta" of Pakistan's constitutional history.
q Features:
Ø Sovereignty belongs to Allah.
Ø State shall exercise powers through the chosen
representatives.
Ø The principles of democracy, freedom, equality,
tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by
Islam, shall be fully observed.
Ø Muslims to order their lives in accordance with
the teachings of Islam.
Ø Adequate provision shall be made for the
minorities.
Ø Pakistan shall be a federation.
The Constitution of
1956
q Adopted on 29 February 1956.
q Enforced on 23 March 1956.
q Contained 234 Articles divided into thirteen
parts and six schedules.
q Constituent Assembly became the Interim
National Assembly
q Governor General Iskander Mirza was sworn
in as the first President of Pakistan.
The Constitution of
1956 …
q Features
Ø The Objectives Resolution, the preamble of the
Constitution.
Ø Country was declared an Islamic Republic of
Pakistan.
Ø President must be Muslim of at least 40 years of age.
Ø The Constitution vested the executive authority of
the President in the Federation.
Ø The Constitution of 1956 provided unicameral
legislature.
Ø National Assembly was to consist of 300 members.
Ø The principle of parity was introduced.
Ø Minimum age of 21 was allowed to vote in the
elections.
Ø Urdu and Bengali, State languages and English,
Official language for first 25 years
The Constitution of
1962
q Shahabuddin Commission, 17 February 1960.

q Promulgated by President Ayyub on 1st


March, 1962.

q Came into effect on 8th June, 1962.


q Contained 250 articles divided into 12 parts


and three schedules.

The Constitution of
1962 …
q Features
Ø Pakistan was renamed as 'Republic of Pakistan'.
Ø The President was to be a Muslim not less than
35 years of age and could not held more than
two consecutive terms.
Ø The National Assembly was to consist of 156
members, later increased to 218 members
after 8th amendment.
Ø The system of indirect presidential elections was
presented.
Ø President owned the ‘Right of Veto’.
Ø The President had the power to dissolve the
National Assembly.
Ø The Advisory Council of Islamic Ideology was
introduced.

q Martial Law was enforced in the country and the


The Constitution of 1973

The Existing Constitution
q 'Constitutional Accord‘ 17 October 1972.

q The National Assembly approved the


constitution on April 10th, 1973.

q Came into effect on 14th August 1973.


q Contained 280 articles divided into 12 parts


and 7 schedules.

The Constitution of
1973 …
q Features
Ø The Constitution named Pakistan as the Islamic
Republic of Pakistan.
Ø Islam as the religion of the country.
Ø The President was to be a Muslim at least 45
years of age.
Ø The head of the Government, will be the Prime
Minister.
Ø The 1973 Constitution set up a bicameral
legislature.
Ø Establishment of a National Finance Commission
(NFC)
Ø The Senate was to consist of 63 members.
Ø National Assembly consisted of 200 seats.

q General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, imposed Martial


Law on July 5th, 1977.
Amendments
Amendments
q First Amendment
– Came into effect on May 4, 1974.
– Amended Article 1.
– Redefined the boundaries of Pakistan and removed references to
East Pakistan.
q Second Amendment
– Came into effect on September 7,1974.
– Amended Article 260.
– Declared the status of Qadianis and Ahmadis as minority.
q Third Amendment
– Came into effect on February 18, 1975.
– Amended Article 10.
– Allowed the government to detain a person without trial for
three months.
q Fourth Amendment
– Came into effect on November 25, 1975.
– Amended Article 106 and 51.
– Decreed additional seats for minorities.
– Deprived courts of the power to grant bail to any person
Amendments
q Fifth Amendment
– Came into effect on September 15, 1976.
– Amended Article 192.
– Separate High Courts for the Provinces of Sindh and
Baluchistan.
q Sixth Amendment
– Came into effect on January 4, 1977.
– Amended Article 179 and 195.
– Chief Justice of Supreme Court will be retired at the age of 65
and a High Court at 62.
q Seventh Amendment
– Came into effect on May 16, 1977.
– Amended Article 96.
– It enables the Prime Minister to obtain a vote of confidence of
the people of Pakistan by requesting the President of
Pakistan to hold a national referendum
q Eighth Amendment
– Came into effect on November 11, 1985.
– Amended Article 58.
– Provisions regarding dissolution of the Assembly by the
A m e n d m e n ts …
qNinth Amendment
–The Ninth Amendment of the Junejo government was never passed.
–Provide that the Injunctions of Islam shall be the supreme
law and source of guidance for legislation.
qTenth Amendment
–Came into effect on March 29, 1987.
–Amended Article 54 and 61.
–Working days in a year of National Assembly and the Senate
were curtailed form 160 to 130
qEleventh Amendment
–Introduced in the Senate on December 31, 1989.
–Sought to restore twenty women seats in the National Assembly.
–The Bill was withdrawn after assurance given by the Minister
for Law and Justice that the Government intends to introduce
the same Bill very soon.
qTwelfth Amendment
–Came into effect on July 28, 1991.
–Amended Article 212.
–Provided for establishment of Special Courts for trial of
heinous offences.
Amendments ….
q Thirteenth Amendment
– Came into effect April 3, 1997.
– Amended Article 58.
– Withdrawal of discretionary powers of the President and of the
Governor with regards to dissolution of the Assembly and of the
President with regards to appointment of the Heads of the Armed
Forces.
q Fourteenth Amendment
– Came into effect on July 3, 1997.
– Amended Article 63.
– Regarding the disqualification of a Member of Parliamentary party
on the ground of defection.
q Fifteenth Amendment
– Passed by National Assembly on October 9, 1998.
– Stalled in senate.
– Also called Shariah bill.


Amendments….
q Sixteenth Amendment
– Came into effect on July 27, 1999.
– Amended Article 27.
– Restore the regional quota system in services.
q Seventeenth Amendment
– Came into effect on December 30, 2003.
– Amended Article 58.
– The President regains the authority to dissolve the National
Assembly.

Election
Process
E le ctio n C o m m issio n o f
P a k ista
q The Election Commission is an n
independent and
autonomous constitutional body.
q Established on 23rd March 1956 under the article
137 of the constitution 1956.
q Members
Ø Chief Election Commissioner( appointed by President
for 3 years).
Ø Four Judges of high courts .
q Responsibility
Ø Conduction of an independent, free, fair and
impartial elections of
Ø National Assembly
Ø Senate
Ø President
Ø Local Governments
N A T IO N A L
A S house
q NA is the lower S E Mof Parliament.
B LY
q NA consists of successful candidates in General
Election and 70 reserved seats(Women & Non-
Muslims).
q Members are elected for five years.
q Purpose
Ø Discuss and make legislations.
Ø To pass an amendment in constitution 2/3rd majority
is required.
Ø Elects Prime Minister.
q Eligibility
Ø 25 year of age
Ø Good Character
Ø Not involved in any crime.

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY …
q 342 Seats
▫ General FATA FEDERA
Seats: §12 L
Seats §02
272
Seats
▫ Women: 60
▫ Non- NWFP
Muslims:
§35 General Seats
10 §08Seats for
Women

PUNJAB
§148 General Seats
§35 Seats for
BALOCHISTAN Women
§14 General Seats
§03 Seats for
Women
SINDH
§61 General Seats
§14 Seats for
Women
§10 for Non-
SENATE
qSenate is the upper house of Parliament.
qSenate was established in 1973 under the article 50 of
the constitution of 1973.
qMembers are elected for six years.
qFirst group of senators are retired after 3 years by
draw.
qPurpose
ØTo give the equal representation of provinces.
ØTo promote national cohesion and harmony
ØTo alleviate fears of the smaller provinces.
ØCasts its vote in legislation and selection of President
qEligibility
Ø30 year of age
ØGood Character
ØNot involved in any crime.
• 100 Seats
SENATE …
▫ General Seats: 66 FEDERAL
▫ Women: 17 §02 General
FATA §01 for Women
▫ Technocrats and §08 §01 Other
Ulema : 17 Seats

NWFP
§14 General Seats
§04 Seats for Women
§04 Technocrats and
Ulema

PUNJAB
§14 General Seats
BALOCHISTAN §04 Seats for Women
§14 General Seats §04 Technocrats and
§04 Seats for Women Ulema
§04 Technocrats and
Ulema
SINDH
§14 General Seats
§04 Seats for Women
§04 Technocrats and
Ulema
Composition of Senate
Party Seats
Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians (PPPP) 27
Pakistan Muslim League (PML-Quaid) 21
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F) 10
Pakistan Muslim League (PML-Nawaz) 07
Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM ) 06
Awami National Party (ANP) 06
Other 23
• 728 Seats
PROVISIONAL ASSEMBLY
▫ General Seats:
577
NWFP
▫ Women: 128 §99 General Seats
▫ Non-Muslim : 23 §22 Seats for
Women
§03 for Non-
Muslims

PUNJAB
§297 General Seats
§66 Seats for
BALOCHISTAN Women
§51 General Seats §08 for Non-
§11 Seats for Muslims
Women
§03 for Non-
Muslims
SINDH
§130 General Seats
§29 Seats for
Women
§09 for Non-
he Constituencie
Constituencies

qNo. of seats per district.


qOn the basis of population censes
1998.
qShare of seats of a district is
determined by dividing the
population of that district with the
quota per seat
Po p u lof
a tioa
n o f D istrict
Q u o ta p e r se a t o f
Province/Area/Agency
Pro vin ce
in the
National Assembly.
 No. of Seats=
Constituencies …
qQuota Per
Seat :
Punjab
▫Population :: 73,621,290
▫Seats in NA :: 148
▫Quota per seat in NA ::73,621,290
148
496,441
=
73,621,290
▫Quota per seat in PA :: 297
qNo . Of seats per = 247,883
district
Rawalpindi
▫Population :: 3,363,911
3,363,911
▫Seat in NA :: 496,441 = 7
= 6.76* seats
3,363,911
▫Seat in PA 247
::
,883 = 14
*Fraction of 0.5 = 13.57has
or above * generally is taken as 1seats
seat and a
fraction below 0.5 is ignored.
Constituencies …
• Inter-District Constituency
Population of
 when
District
Quota per seat of
<
 Province 0.5
D.I. Khan + Bannu + Kohat + Peshawar +

Lakki+ Tank (0.038 + 0.019 + 0.088 +


0.053 + 0.006 +0.027)
0.88=1seat
ighest Number of Constituency

Districts Province NA PA
Karachi City Sindh 20 42
Lahore Punjab 13 25
Faisalabad Punjab 11 22
Gujranwala Punjab 07 14
Rawalpindi Punjab 07 14
Hyderabad Sindh 06 12
General Election
1 st General Election
Chamber : National Assembly
Election Date : Oct , 1970
Total Seats : 300 (138 in West Pakistan, 162 in
East Pakistan)
Turnout : 63%
Prime Minister : Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
Duration : 14 Aug 1973 -  5 Jul 1977

Party Seats %
Awami League 160 53
Pakistan Peoples 81 27
Party
PML (Quyuum) 9 3
Other 50 17
2 nd General Election
Chamber : National Assembly
Election Date : 7 Mar , 1977
Total Seats : 200
Turnout : 63%
Prime Minister : (Marshal Law)
Duration : N/A

Party Seats %
Pakistan Peoples 155 78
Party
Pakistan National 36 18
Alliance
Others 09 4
3 rd General Election
Chamber : National Assembly
Election Date : 25 Feb, 1985
Total Seats : 237
Turnout : 61%
Prime Minister : Muhammad Khan Junejo
Duration : 23 Mar 1985 - 29 May 1988

Non - Party
Based
4 th General Election
Chamber : National Assembly
Election Date : 16 Nov , 1988
Total Seats : 237
Turnout : 43.1%
Prime Minister : Benazir Bhutto
Duration : 2 Dec 1988 -  6 Aug 1990

Party Seats %
Pakistan Peoples Party 92 39
Islam-e-Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI) 55 23
Muhajar Quami Mahaz 13 5
(MQM)
Other* 77 33
*20 Reserved Seats for Women
10 Reserved seats for Minorities
5 th General Election
Chamber : National Assembly
Election Date : 24 Oct , 1990
Total Seats : 237
Turnout : 45.5%
Prime Minister : Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif
Duration : 6 Nov 1990 - 18 Apr 1993

Party Seats %
Islam-e-Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI) 105 44
Peoples Democratic Alliance 45 19
(PDA)
Muhajar Quami Mahaz 15 6
(MQM)
Other* 72 31
*20 Reserved Seats for Women
10 Reserved seats for Minorities
6 th General Election
Chamber : National Assembly
Election Date : 06 Oct , 1993
Total Seats : 237
Turnout : 41%
Prime Minister : Benazir Bhutto
Duration : 19 Oct 1993 -  5 Nov 1996

Party Seats %
Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) 86 44
Pakistan Muslim League 73 19
(PML-N)Muslim League-Junejo
Pakistan 06 06
(PML-J)
Other* 72 31
*20 Reserved Seats for Women
10 Reserved seats for Minorities
7 th General Election
Chamber : National Assembly
Election Date : 07 Feb , 1997
Total Seats : 237
Turnout : 35.2%
Prime Minister : Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif
Duration : 17 Feb 1997 - 12 Oct 1999  

Party Seats %
Pakistan Muslim League 137 58
(PML-N)Peoples Party (PPP) 18
Pakistan 07
Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM ) 12 05
Other* 70 30
*20 Reserved Seats for Women
10 Reserved seats for Minorities
8 th General Election
Chamber : National Assembly
Election Date : 20 Oct , 2002
Total Seats : 342
Turnout : 41.8%
Prime Minister : Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali            
Duration : 23 Nov 2002 – 26 June 2004   

Party Seats* %
Pakistan Muslim League (PML- 118 35
Pakistan
Quaid) People's Party Parliamentarians 63 19
(PPPP)
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) 59 17
Pakistan Muslim League (PML- 18 05
Muttahida
Nawaz) Qaumi Movement (MQM ) 17 04
Other 67 20
*Including 60 Reserved Seats for Women
10 Reserved seats for Minorities
9 th General Election
Chamber : National Assembly
Election Date : 18 Feb , 2008
Total Seats : 342
Turnout : 63%
Prime Minister : Syed Yousuf Raza Gillani            
Duration : 25 Mar Nov 2008 – till today   

Party Seats* %
Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians 126 37
(PPPP)
Pakistan Muslim League (PML- 90 26
Nawaz) Muslim League (PML-
Pakistan 53 15
Muttahida
Qauid) Qaumi Movement (MQM ) 25 07
Awami National Party (ANP) 13 04
Other 35 11
*Including 60 Reserved Seats for Women
10 Reserved seats for Minorities
Major Parties
Pakistan Peoples Party
Z.A Bhutto

q Largest political party of Pakistan.


q Founded on November 30, 1967 by Z.A
Bhutto
q Chairperson:
Ø Asif Ali Zardari
Ø Bilawal Bhutto
q Contest elections on the slogans of "ROTI,
KAPRA AUR MAKAN“
q Basic principles of PPP:
Ø Islam is our Faith
Ø Democracy is our politics
Ø Socialism is our Economy
Ø All Power to the People
Pakistan Muslim League - N
qFamous political party of Pakistan.
qFounded on 1993 by Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif
qChairperson:
ØMian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif
qManifesto:
ØRevival of Genuine Democracy
ØIndependent Judiciary and the Rule of Law
ØTolerant and Pluralistic Society
ØEducation
ØHealth
qWon election in 1997
Pakistan Muslim League - Q
qFamous political party of Pakistan.
qFounded on 2002 by Mian Azhar
qChairperson:
ØChudhary Shujat Husain
qManifesto:
ØLive and let live.
ØDecency, tolerance and harmony.
ØEnsuring justice and freedom of expression.
ØDignity of the common citizen.
ØProtection and promotion of the rights of the
female.
ØProtection of the rights of minorities.
qWon election in 2002
Muthidda Qaumi Movement
qFounded in 1984 by muhajir student leader
Altaf Hussain after leading the all Pakistan
muhajir student movement in 1978 .
qIn 1997, MQM became Mutahidda Qaumi Movement
instead of Muhajir Qaumi Movement.
qChairperson:
ØAltaf Husain
qManifesto:
ØProvincial Autonomy
ØEducation.
ØHealth
ØAgrarian Reforms.
ØPoverty Alleviation And Unemployment
Awami National Party
qFounded in 1986 by Abdul Wali Khan as
continuation of National Awami Party.
qChairperson:
ØAsfandYar Wali Khan
qManifesto:
ØDemocracy
ØGuarantees for protection of rights.
ØFreedom from external domination.
ØFreedom from sectarianism.
ØSocial justice
Jamat - e -
Islami
q Oldest party operating in Pakistan
q Founded by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi on 26
August 1941.
q The party is termed most democratic for
holding elections of party's president every
five years.
q Chairperson:
Ø Monawar Hasan
q Manifesto:
Ø DJI envisions "iqamat-e-deen", establishment of
an Islamic administration governing by
Islamic law.
q Ruled one of four provinces NWFP as a
oblems of Pakistan
Politics
Issue Based
 Politics
Personality vs Issues :
personality
q wins!!!
qCore issues are always neglected
q
qNon-existence of proactive policies to
solve the basic problems.

qLack of responsibility shown by the


political parties
q
q
q
q
Feudalism
 Garbage In: Garbage
 Out
qMajority •of the politicians belong to this
category
q
qLack of interaction with the common man
q
qLeads to lack of development in rural
areas
Military
Coups
An Ever Itching
Palm
qA major factor of political
q destabilization
q
qAlways leaves an uneven ground for the
politicians
q
qAlways leave a level of uncertainty among
politicians
q
Accountability
 Selective or
qHas always wholistic???
been biased throughout the
history •
q
qIndependent NAB non existent.
q
qRecent SC decision is a new glimmer of
hope!!!

Thank You