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Producing and Measuring Electricity

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Producing and Measuring Electricity

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Current” – the current only

flows in one direction:

Time

1/50th s

Current” – the current

changes direction 50 times

every second (frequency = T

50Hz)

V

Types of Batteries

03/01/10

rechargeable

rechargeable lithium power tools

rechargeable manganese, lithium hearing aids

• Long long-term expense • No need for charger

• Can be used many times • Less expensive

• Less energy to produce • Rechargeables contain carcinogens

Battery Capacity

03/01/10

Basically, a battery with a capacity of 1Ah will provide a

current of 1A for 1 hour.

Capacity (Ah) = Current (A) x Time (hours)

its capacity?

after half an hour what current was being drawn?

runs on a current of 250mA when being used in a phone call

Electric Current

03/01/10

of negatively charged Note that

particles (i.e. electrons). electrons go

from negative

to positive

+ - e-

e-

Basic ideas…

03/01/10

circuit. We use an _________ to measure it and it is

measured in ____.

how big the push on the electrons is. We use a

________ to measure it and it is measured in

______, a unit named after Volta.

measured in _____. It usually increases when a device gets

hot.

Words: volts, amps, ohms, voltage, ammeter, voltmeter

More basic ideas…

03/01/10

If a battery is

added the current

will ________

because there is a

greater _____ on

the electrons

If a bulb is added

the current will

_______ because

there is greater

________ in the

circuit

03/01/10

Electromagnetic

induction

The direction of the induced current is

reversed if…

1) The magnet is moved in the opposite

direction

2) The other pole is inserted first

increased by:

1) Increasing the speed of movement

2) Increasing the magnet strength

3) Increasing the number of turns on

the coil

Generators (dynamos)

03/01/10

increased in 4 ways:

1) Increasing the speed of

movement

2) Increasing the magnetic

field strength

3) Increasing the number of

turns on the coil

4) Increasing the area of the

coil

Resistance

03/01/10

RESIST a current. It is measured

in Ohms, a unit named after me.

1789-1854

The resistance of a component can be

calculated using Ohm’s Law:

V

Resistance = Voltage (in V)

(in Ω ) Current (in A)

I R

An example question:

03/01/10

Ammeter

reads 2A

A

V

1) What is the resistance across

this bulb?

2) Assuming all the bulbs are the

Voltmeter

same what is the total resistance

reads 10V

in this circuit?

More examples…

03/01/10

3A

6V

12V

3A

2A

What is the

4V resistance of

2V these bulbs?

1A

Resistance

03/01/10

Current (amps, A)

1) A bulb with a voltage of 3V and a current of 1A.

2) A resistor with a voltage of 12V and a current of 3A

3) A diode with a voltage of 240V and a current of 40A

4) A thermistor with a current of 0.5A and a voltage of

10V

Current-voltage graphs

03/01/10

I

Low R I

High R

V

V

1. Resistor 3. Thermistor

increases in 2. Bulb down as the

proportion As voltage increases thermistor gets

to voltage the bulb gets hotter hotter (i.e.

and resistance more voltage)

increases

LDRs and Thermistors

03/01/10

LDRs and Thermistors

03/01/10

resistor – resistance resistance DECREASES

DECREASES when light when temperature

intensity INCREASES INCREASES

Resistance Resistance

Electrical Inventions

03/01/10

Telephone 1882

Television 1891

Computers

03/01/10

1.9MHz processor, 64K RAM, 200K processor, 4K RAM, cost $670

internal tape storage, cost up to $20,000

processor, 64K RAM, 16 Apple Macintosh (1984) – 8Mhz

colours, cost $600, 17m sold processor, 512K RAM, cost $2500

Superconductivity

03/01/10

This is when a metal can conduct

electricity with zero resistance. I won the

Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1913.

Heike Kamerlingh

Onnes (1853-1926)

superconductivity and uses

magnets to propel the train to

speeds of over 300mph.

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