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DC and AC 03/01/10

DC stands for “Direct


Current” – the current only
flows in one direction:
Time

1/50th s

AC stands for “Alternating 240V


Current” – the current
changes direction 50 times
every second (frequency = T
50Hz)

V
Types of Batteries
03/01/10

Type of Battery Contains Uses

Wet cell Lead and acid Cars, industry


rechargeable

Dry cell Nickel, cadmium, Mobile phones,


rechargeable lithium power tools

Dry cell non- Zinc, carbon, Torches, clocks,


rechargeable manganese, lithium hearing aids

Why use rechargeable batteries? Why use standard batteries?


• Long long-term expense • No need for charger
• Can be used many times • Less expensive
• Less energy to produce • Rechargeables contain carcinogens
Battery Capacity
03/01/10

The capacity of a battery is measured in Amp Hours (Ah).


Basically, a battery with a capacity of 1Ah will provide a
current of 1A for 1 hour.
Capacity (Ah) = Current (A) x Time (hours)

1) A battery provides a current of 2A for 2 hours. What was


its capacity?

2) Another battery has a capacity of 10Ah. If it runs out


after half an hour what current was being drawn?

3) A mobile phone battery has a capacity of 1100mAh. If it


runs on a current of 250mA when being used in a phone call
Electric Current
03/01/10

Electric current is a flow


of negatively charged Note that
particles (i.e. electrons). electrons go
from negative
to positive
+ - e-

e-
Basic ideas…
03/01/10

Electric current is when electrons start to flow around a


circuit. We use an _________ to measure it and it is
measured in ____.

Potential difference (also called _______) is


how big the push on the electrons is. We use a
________ to measure it and it is measured in
______, a unit named after Volta.

Resistance is anything that resists an electric current. It is


measured in _____. It usually increases when a device gets
hot.
Words: volts, amps, ohms, voltage, ammeter, voltmeter
More basic ideas…
03/01/10

If a battery is
added the current
will ________
because there is a
greater _____ on
the electrons

If a bulb is added
the current will
_______ because
there is greater
________ in the
circuit
03/01/10

Electromagnetic
induction
The direction of the induced current is
reversed if…
1) The magnet is moved in the opposite
direction
2) The other pole is inserted first

The size of the induced current can be


increased by:
1) Increasing the speed of movement
2) Increasing the magnet strength
3) Increasing the number of turns on
the coil
Generators (dynamos)
03/01/10

Induced current can be


increased in 4 ways:
1) Increasing the speed of
movement
2) Increasing the magnetic
field strength
3) Increasing the number of
turns on the coil
4) Increasing the area of the
coil
Resistance
03/01/10

Resistance is anything that will


RESIST a current. It is measured
in Ohms, a unit named after me.

Georg Simon Ohm


1789-1854
The resistance of a component can be
calculated using Ohm’s Law:

V
Resistance = Voltage (in V)
(in Ω ) Current (in A)
I R
An example question:
03/01/10

Ammeter
reads 2A
A

V
1) What is the resistance across
this bulb?
2) Assuming all the bulbs are the
Voltmeter
same what is the total resistance
reads 10V
in this circuit?
More examples…
03/01/10

3A
6V

12V

3A

2A
What is the
4V resistance of
2V these bulbs?
1A
Resistance
03/01/10

Resistance is anything that opposes an electric current.

Resistance (Ohms, Ω ) = Potential Difference (volts, V)


Current (amps, A)

What is the resistance of the following:


1) A bulb with a voltage of 3V and a current of 1A.
2) A resistor with a voltage of 12V and a current of 3A
3) A diode with a voltage of 240V and a current of 40A
4) A thermistor with a current of 0.5A and a voltage of
10V
Current-voltage graphs
03/01/10

I
Low R I

High R

V
V
1. Resistor 3. Thermistor

Current V Resistance goes


increases in 2. Bulb down as the
proportion As voltage increases thermistor gets
to voltage the bulb gets hotter hotter (i.e.
and resistance more voltage)
increases
LDRs and Thermistors
03/01/10
LDRs and Thermistors
03/01/10

1) Light dependant 2) Thermistor –


resistor – resistance resistance DECREASES
DECREASES when light when temperature
intensity INCREASES INCREASES

Resistance Resistance

Amount of light Temperature


Electrical Inventions
03/01/10

Match these inventions with when they were invented:

Electric kettle 1876

Telephone 1882

Television 1891

Electric fire 1892

Electric iron 1908

Vacuum cleaner 1920s


Computers
03/01/10

IBM 5100 portable PC (1975), 25kg, Apple 1 (1976) – 1Mhz


1.9MHz processor, 64K RAM, 200K processor, 4K RAM, cost $670
internal tape storage, cost up to $20,000

Commodore 64 (1982) – 1Mhz


processor, 64K RAM, 16 Apple Macintosh (1984) – 8Mhz
colours, cost $600, 17m sold processor, 512K RAM, cost $2500
Superconductivity
03/01/10

In 1911 I discovered superconductivity.


This is when a metal can conduct
electricity with zero resistance. I won the
Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1913.
Heike Kamerlingh
Onnes (1853-1926)

The Maglev train is based on


superconductivity and uses
magnets to propel the train to
speeds of over 300mph.