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Advantages of a Networking.

1. Resource Sharing
2. Reliability
3. Cost Factor
4. Communication Medium
Disadvantages of a Networking.
 Impossible to carry out work if server fails.
 Security of files if network is connected to
 Need of specialized staff to deal with
sophisticated and complex network.
 Poor management of networks unusable
services failure of productivity.
Used for transmitting data across the network.

a) Circuit Switching
b) Message Switching
c) Packet Switching
Circuit Switching

Physical connection (copper path) between two computer is established to transmit data.
 Dedicated connection between two machines (any two nodes only).

Message Switching
store-and-forward process

 No physical copper path.

 Data from source comp switching office
stored in buffer looks for free link to
another switching office sends data to this
 Process continues until the data is
delivered to the destination computer.
Hence this process is also known as
Packet Switching
 More efficient approach to switch data.
 Messages are broken into sections called
 Packets are Routed individually through
 Packets are reassembled to construct the
complete message at receiving device.
Mechanism used in packet

 Divides all messages on LAN into packets.

 Attaches information to the front of the packet
that identifies the recipient.
 Packets from all machines on LAN are placed
on a high-bandwidth cable running through all
machines on the network.
 As the packet moves round the network.
 Each machine analysis the header to see if the
packet is for it.
 If not, it is sent further on.
1.Bandwidth Efficiency.
2.Tight upper limit on block size.
3.Throughtput of the network is improved.

1.The primary problem is network traffic.
2.No guarantee of packets getting from source to destination. (which is
one of the strong point in circuit switching.)
circuit switching packet switching

1-Reserves required 1-Acquires and releases

bandwidth in bandwidth as and when
advanced. required
2-Reordering of packets 2-Reordering of packets
is not possible. is possible.
3-Store & forward 3-Store & forward
transmission is allowed.
transmission is not
Communication channels/transmission

The cables or media used to connect two

or more WS* are called Communication
channels/transmission media.
Communication channels/transmission
media are broadly divided into physical
media or wireless media
Physical media (Guided
1. Twisted Pair Cable
2. Coaxial Cable
3. Fiber Optics Cables
Wireless media(Unguided media)

1. Radio waves
2. Microwaves
3. Satellite links.
Twisted Pair Cable
 Easy to install.
 Not very expensive
 Physically flexible and can be easily
 Its low bandwidth capabilities make it
unsuitable for broadband app.
 Supports max data rates of 1Mbps with
Coaxial Cables
1. Coaxial cable can be used for broadband
2. Offer higher bandwidth (up to 400Mbps)
1. Expensive compared to twisted pair cables
2. Net compatible with twisted pair cables
Fiber Optics Cables
1. It is immune to electrical and magnetic interference.
2. Guaranties secure transmission.
3. Can be used for broadband transmission.
1. Most expensive of all the cables
2. Installation problem can be encountered because fiber
optic cables are quite fragile and may need special care
to make them sufficiently robust for an office
Radio Waves
Transmission making use of radio waves is called radio wave
1. Radio waves are omni directional.
2. It is cheaper than digging trenches for laying cables.
3. It offers freedom from land acquisition rights that are
required for laying or repairing cables.
4. It offers ease of communication over difficult terrain.
1. Radio wave communication is insecure communication.
2. Radio waves are absorbed by rains
Microwave signals are used to transmit
data without the use of cables. They are
used for long distance communication. The
microwave transmission consist of
transmitter, receiver and atmosphere. In
microwave communication parabolic
antennas are mounted on towers to send a
beam to other antennas.
1. Microwave have the ability to communicate
over oceans.
1. Signals from a single antenna may split up
and propagate by slightly different paths to
the receiving antenna. When these out of
phase signals recombine, they interfere,
reduce the signal strength.
Satellite links
In satellite communication the earth station consist of
satellite dish that functions as antenna and
communication equipment to transit and receive data
from satellite passing overhead.
1. Area coverage through satellite transmission is
very large.
2. Laying and maintenance of intercontinental cables
is difficult and expensive and this is where the
satellite provides to be the best alternative.
1. Technological limitation preventing the
development of large, high gain antenna on the
satellite platform.
2. Over crowding of available bandwidth due to low
antenna gains.
Thank You