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HOWARD-SETH MODEL OF

BUYER BEHAVIOUR

BY-MAHESH CHANDRA
PGDM 3RD Sem
Howard -Seth gave the model of

buyer behavior which has four sets


known as constructs or variables.
These are :
¡ Inputs

¡ Perceptual and learning

construct(hypothetical construct)
¡ Output

¡ Exogenous variable

INPUTS
some inputs are necessary for the customer for

making the decision. these types of stimuli are


provided by three type of stimuli:
¡ Significative stimuli- Price, quality

,distinctiveness, service, availability


¡ Symbolic stimuli- Price, quality ,distinctiveness,

service, availability
¡ Social stimuli-family ,friend ,reference groups,

social class
Perceptual and Learning
constructs

These are the internal states of the individual that
process and interpret the input stimuli.

PERCEPTUAL CONSTRUCT-

Attention-opening and closing of sensory
receptors to control information intake.

Stimulus ambiguity-perceived uncertainty and
lack of meaningfulness of information received from
the environment.

Perceptual bias- a distortion of information that
is received.

Overt search-all active search for
information
Learning constructs

The variables under the learning


constructs are:
¡ Motives
¡ Brand comprehension
¡ Choice criteria
¡ Attitude
¡ Intention
¡ Confidence
¡ Satisfaction
Outputs
¡ Attention
¡ Brand comprehension
¡ Attitude
¡ Intention
¡ Purchase
¡