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Thermodynamic Characterization of Turbo-machinery

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department

Recognition of Fundamental Features of these Artificial


Muscles!!!

Thermodynamic Appreciation of Natural Resource


The Devices for development of mankind :
Artificial Muscles
Alternate to Biological Muscles Mechanical horse/cattle/bird
..
Production of ATP : Input
Control Mass
via glycolysis under anaerobic
conditions in the sarcoplasm to
yield 2-3 ATPs
per glucose molecule
via oxidative phosphorylation to
yield 36 ATP per glucose molecule

Thermodynamic Performance of A Muscle


The muscle converts the free energy from ATP into work
and heat.
Muscle contraction follows the 2nd Law of
Thermodynamics.
In muscle, the heat produced is lost free energy and the
efficiency of the muscle is the ratio of the work produced
to the free energy of ATP.
Free energy available = Work Produced + Heat Produced.

Work produced
Efficiency
Free Energy of ATP

Thermodynamic Cycle of A Working Muscle

Fourth Law of Power Generation


Source of
Energy

--Cycle Design
-- Equipment Design.

Land, Water
& Air (Sinks)

Thermodynamic Invention
The Devices for development of mankind.

Control Mass

Control Volume

Thermodynamic Classification
Displacement Work

Flow Work

Thermodynamic Superiority
Any device working from state 1 to state 2:

Consider a control mass and a control volume working


between same states and following isentropic process.

Exchange of Fluid Energy


Using Gibbs Equation:
For control mass:

For control volume:

Tds du pdv

Tds dh vdp

The Variations : Nature of Working Fluid


Incompressible
Fluid

Compressible
Fluid

Power Generating
Machines

Hydraulic
Turbines

Steam/Gas/wind
Turbines

Power Consuming
Machines

Pumps

Fan/blowers/
Compressors

The Variations : Principle of Force Generation


Centrifugal/
Centripetal

Impulse

Reaction

Power
Generating
Machines

Radial flow
turbines

Pelton wheel

Steam turbines
& Gas
Turbines
Kaplan Turbine

Power
Consuming
Machines

Centrifugal
pumps/compre
ssors

Axial flow
pumps/
compressors

The Variations : Direction Flow


Radial

Mixed

Axial

Power
Generating
Machines

Turbine of a
Turbocharger

Francis
Turbine

Kaplan Trbine

Power
Consuming
Machines

Centrifugal
pump

Blower &
Compressors

fan

No Break Through Just A Natural Evolution

Knowledge of turbo-machines has evolved slowly over


centuries without the benefit of sudden and dramatic
breakthrough for more than 41500 yrs!
Turbo-machines, such as windmills and waterwheels,
are millenniums old.

An Evolution from Water Wheel to Hydraulic Turbine


Waterwheels, which dip their vanes into moving water, were
employed in ancient Egypt, China, and Assyria.
Waterwheels appeared in Greece in the second century B.C. and
in the Roman Empire during the first century B.C.
A seven-ft-diameter waterwheel at Monte Cassino was used by
the Romans to grind corn at the rate of 150 kg of corn per hour,
Waterwheels at Arles ground 320 kg of corn per hour.
The Doomsday Book, based on a survey ordered by William the
Conqueror, indicates the there were 5,624 water mills in
England in 1086.
Besides the grinding of grain, waterwheels were used to drive
water pumps and to operate machinery.

Agricola (14941555) showed by illustrations how water


wheels were used to pump water from mines and to crush
metallic ores in the 16th century.
In 1685 Louis XIV had 221 piston pumps installed at Marly,
France, for the purpose of supplying 3,200m3 of Seine River
water per day to the fountains of the Versailles palace.
The pumps were driven by 14 waterwheels, each 12m in
diameter, that were turned by the currents of the Seine.
The undershot waterwheel, which had an efficiency of only
30%, were used up until the end of the 18th century.
It was replaced in the 19th century by the overshot waterwheel
with an efficiency of 70 to 90%.
By 1850, hydraulic turbines began to replace waterwheels.
The first hydroelectric power plant was built in Germany in
1891 and utilized waterwheels and direct-current power
generation.
However, the waterwheels were soon replaced with hydraulic
turbines and alternating-current electric power.

Evolution of Wind Turbines


Although the use of wind power in sailing vessels appeared in
antiquity, the widespread use of wind power for grinding grain
and pumping water was delayed until
the 7th century in Persia,
the 12th century in England, and
the 15th century in Holland.
17th century, Leibniz proposed using windmills and waterwheels
together to pump water from mines in the Harz Mountains.
Dutch settlers brought Dutch mills to America in the 18th century.
This led to the development of a multiblade wind turbine that was
used to pump water for livestock.
Wind turbines were used in Denmark in 1890 to generate electric
power.
Early in the 20th century American farms began to use wind
turbines to drive electricity generators for charging storage
batteries.

Discovery of Steam and Gas Turbines


In the second century B.C. Hero of Alexandria invented
rotors driven by steam and by gas, but these machines
produced insignificant amounts of power.
During the 18th and 19th centuries the reciprocating steam
engine was developed and became the predominant prime
mover for manufacturing and transportation industries.
In 1883 the first steam turbines were constructed by de
Laval whose turbines achieved speeds of 26,000 rpm.
In 1884 a steam turbine, which ran at 17,000 rpm and
comprised 15 wheels on the same shaft, was designed and
built by Charlie Parsons.
The gas turbine was conceived by John Barber in 1791,
and the first gas turbine was built and tested in 1900 by
Stolze .

Sanford Moss built a gas turbine in 1902 at Cornell


University.
At Brown Boveri in 1903, Armenguad and Lemale
combined an axial-flow turbine and centrifugal compressor
to produce a thermal efficiency of 3% .
In 1905 Holzwarth designed a gas turbine that utilized
constant-volume combustion.
This turbine was manufactured by Boveri and Thyssen
until the 1930s.
In 1911 the turbocharger was built and installed in diesel
engines by Sulzer Brothers, and in 1918 the turbocharger
was utilized to increase the power of military aircraft
engines.
In 1939 the first combustion gas turbine was installed by
Brown Boveri in Switzerland.
A similar turbine was used in Swiss locomotives in 1942.
The aircraft gas turbine engine (turbojet) was developed by
Junkers in Germany around 1940.