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SCADA

What is SCADA?
Where we use SDADA?
What is DCS? Where it is used?

SCADA CONCEPTS
Input/output signal hardware, controllers, HMI, networks,
communication, and software.

Site control is actually performed automatically by a remote


terminal unit (RTU) or by a programmable logic controller (PLC).

HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE


Presents process data to a human operator
Through which the human operator controls the process

HARDWARE SOLUTIONS
Distributed Control System (DCS) components
IEC 61131-3, is frequently used to create programs which run on
these RTUs and PLCs.
Allows SCADA system engineers to perform both the design and
implementation of a program to be executed on a RTU or PLC.

SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Multiple Remote Terminal Units (also known as RTUs or Outstations).
To physical equipment, and reads status data such as the open/closed status
from a switch or a valve, reads measurements such as pressure, flow, voltage or current.
Has alarms ---Can be activated based on the requirements.

Master Station and HMI Computer(s).


Servers and software responsible for communicating with the field equipment
(rtus, plcs, etc)
Master station may be SINGLE or MULTIPLE SERVERS
SCADA prsents a information as a MIMIC diagram
Mean Time Between Failures Is Very Low

Communication infrastructure

Used Radio And Direct Serial Or Modem Connections To Meet Communication


Requirements
Ethernet and IP over SONET--- railways and power stations
COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS-----Modbus, RP-570 IEC 60870-5-101 or 104,
Profibus and DNP3

FUNCTIONING OF SCADA
SYSTEMS

Channel scanning
Polling
Interrupt Scanning

Conversion into engineeringunits


Data processing

AUTO RECLOSER
Circuit breaker equipped with a mechanism that can

automatically close the breaker after it has been opened due


to a fault.
Used in power distribution circuits .
Protects fromlightning strikes, wind-borne debris, squirrels
climbing insulators .
Made in single-phase and three-phase versions, and use either
oil or vacuum interrupters.

Rating40 amperes at 2400 volts up to 1200 amperes


at 35000 volts.

AUTO RECLOSER

ADVANCED DISTRIBUTION
AUTOMATION
OMS

DER

Distributed
Intelligence

Information Flows within Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA)


WMS

AMR

DSM

AM/FM/GIS/CIS
MFR

SCADA/EMS

VVWC

TM

DOMA

LM
SCADA-ADA-SCADA
INTERFACES

Dispatch
Routine

DOAN

DSPF

FM

Distribution
Operations
Model Analysis

CA

FLIR

Dispatcher

Operations
Engineers

Analysis and
Control
Applications

Planning
Engineers

TM - Topology Model; LM - Load Model; FM - Facility Models; DSPF Distribution System Power Flow; MFR
Multi-Level Feeder Reconfiguration; VVWC Volt/Var/Watt Control; DOAN Distribution Operations
Analysis; CA Contingency Analysis; FLIR Fault Location, Fault Isolation, and Service Restoration;

ADVANCED DISTRIBUTION
AUTOMATION
AIM
To enhance the reliability of power system service, power
quality, and power system efficiency
SCOPE
Data gathering
Integrity checking
Periodic and event-driven system modeling and analysis
Current And Predictive Alarming
Contingency Analysis

SCOPE OF ADA
Coordinated Volt/Var Optimization
Fault Location, Isolation, And Service Restoration
Multi-level Feeder Reconfiguration;
Pre-arming Of Ras And Coordination Of Emergency

Actions In Distribution
Pre-arming Of Restoration Schemes And Coordination
Of Restorative Actions In Distribution, and
Logging and reporting

LOAD MONITORING SYSTEM


using SCADA & PLC
ADVANTAGES

Easy identification of area of fault occurrence


Effective monitoring of utilization of load
Distance between MASTER STATION &RTU can be very
long
Accurate decision making is possible
Mimic diagram representation is possible
High reliability (less mean time between failures)

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL
SYSTEM DCS
Control system for Manufacturing System or Process
Uses computers (usually custom designed processers) as
controllers
Has Computer Buses Or Electrical Buses &
Multiplexers/Demultiplexers

DCS Manufactures
ABB, PHILIPS, PROCONTROL,
HONEYWELL, SIEMENS, TOSHIBA,
ECHELON, BECKMAN, FISHERCONTROLS,
FERRANTI, KENT TELEFUNKEN etc.,

Heirarchy of
DISTRIBUTED CONTROL
SYSTEMS
Management info system

SUPERVISORY CONTROL

Direct Digital Control

Special Digital

PROCESS

DCS AS A LOOP CONTROLLER

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL
SYSTEM BASED ON FIELD
POINT STANDARD

CONCLUSION
Can be used in need of networking of different
systems

DCS may not require the operator intervention in the


normal operation, but IT MAY HAPPEN WHEN
MERGING SCADA &DCS. DCS