Chapter 2, Section

World History: Connection to Today

Chapter 1
(3200 B.C.–500 B.C.)

Mesopotamia

Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

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Class Tutorial

Chapter 1
Main Points to Learn
• Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical settings that supported permanent settlement and early civilizations. 1. What 2 major rivers flowed through Mesopotamia? 2. What good things did the rivers provide for the land that made it good for farming? 3. What made the Fertile Crescent so fertile? Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power. • What techniques did the people develop to better use the water for farming? • What is a surplus? • When a civilization has a surplus (more food than they need), what is the effect? Understand the relationship between religion and the social and political order in Mesopotamia. 1. Describe the religion of early Mesopotamia and Sumeria. 2. What structures did the people build? 3. What were the different social groups in Mesopotamia.Sumeria?

City-States of Ancient Sumer

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• How did geographic features influence the civilizations of the Fertile Crescent? • What were the main features of Sumerian civilization? • What advances in learning did the Sumerians make?

Th e F ertil e Crescent

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The Fertile Crescent is the fertile land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The first civilization in the Fertile Crescent was discovered in Mesopotamia, which means land between the rivers The first Sumerian cities emerged in southern Mesopotamia around 3200 B.C.

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Tigris Now

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Tigris Now
• This region is in the current country of Iraq.

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Euphrates now

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Euphrates Now
• It is still important to the lives of the people who still farm in the region. It provides water and nutrients for the soil used in farming.

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Remains of an Ancient Civilization

Artifacts of Ancient Mesopotamia

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Sumeria n C ivil iza tio n

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GOVERNMENT
City-states with hereditary rulers. Ruler led army in war and enforced laws. Complex government with scribes to collect taxes and keep records.

SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Each state had distinct social hierarchy, or system of ranks. Most people were peasant farmers. Women had legal rights; some engaged in trade and owned property.

RELIGION
Worshiped many gods. Believed gods controlled every aspect of life. Saw afterlife as a grim place. Everybody would go into darkness and eat dust. To keep the gods happy, each city built a ziggurat, or pyramid temple.

Ziggurats

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Ziggurats

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Su me ria n A dvances i n Learning

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• Developed cuneiform, believed to be the earliest form of writing. • Developed basic algebra and geometry. • Made accurate calendars, essential to a farming society. • Made the first wheeled vehicles.

Cuneiform

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Cuneiform: Writing System
• A stylus, a thin writing stick, was used to write in soft clay.

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Section 3 Assessment

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The Fertile Crescent was the land located a) along the Nile river. b) between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. c) between the Euphrates and the Nile rivers. d) between the Tigris and the Nile rivers. Most people in Sumerian city-states were a) priests. b) merchants. c) scribes. d) peasant farmers. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.

Section 3 Assessment

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The Fertile Crescent was the land located a) along the Nile river. b) between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. c) between the Euphrates and the Nile rivers. d) between the Tigris and the Nile rivers. Most people in Sumerian city-states were a) priests. b) merchants. c) scribes. d) peasant farmers. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.

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Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders

• How did early empires arise in Mesopotamia? • How did ideas and technology spread? • How did the Persians unite a huge empire? • What contributions did the Phoenicians make?

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Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders

A series of strong rulers united the lands of the Fertile Crescent into well organized empires. Again and again, nomadic warriors invaded the rich cities of the Fertile Crescent. Some looted and burned the cities. Others stayed to rule them. 2300 B.C. –Sargon, the ruler of Akkad, conquered Sumer and built the first known empire. 1790 B.C.–Hammurabi, King of Babylon, united the Babylonian empire.

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The Code of Hammurabi

Hammurabi’s code was the first attempt by a ruler to codify, or arrange and set down in writing, all of the laws that would govern a state. One section codified criminal law, the branch of law that deals with offenses against others, such as robbery and murder. Another section codified civil law, the branch that deals with private rights and matters, such as business contracts, taxes, and property inheritance.

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Warfa re and the S pre ad of Id eas

Conquerors brought ideas and technologies to the conquered region.
For example, when the Hittites conquered Mesopotamia, they brought the skill of ironworking to that region.

When the conquerors were in turn conquered, they moved elsewhere, spreading their ideas and technologies.
For example, when the Hittite empire was itself conquered, Hittite ironworkers migrated to other regions and spread the secret of iron making across Asia, Africa, and Europe.

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The Persian Empire
Cyrus the Great and his successors conquered the largest empire yet seen, from Asia Minor to India. Emperor Darius unified the Persian empire. Drew up single code of laws for empire. Had hundreds of miles of roads built or repaired to aid communication and encourage unity. Introduced a uniform system of coinage and encouraged a money economy. Before it was a Barter economy-exchanging one set of goods or services for another.

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The Ph oenic ia ns
Occupied string of cities along the eastern Mediterranean coast. Made glass from sand and purple dye from a tiny sea snail. Called “carriers of civilization” because they spread Middle Eastern civilization around the Mediterranean. Most important contribution: Invented the alphabet. An alphabet contains letters that represent spoken sounds.

Section 4 Assessment

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What leader was the first to codify the laws that would govern his state? a) Cyrus the Great b) Sargon c) Hammurabi d) Darius Who invented the alphabet? the Persians the Babylonians the Phoenicians the Assyrians a) b) c) d)

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Section 4 Assessment

Chapter 2, Section 4

What leader was the first to codify the laws that would govern his state? a) Cyrus the Great b) Sargon c) Hammurabi d) Darius Who invented the alphabet? the Persians the Babylonians the Phoenicians the Assyrians a) b) c) d)

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