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Or, more than you really wanted

to know about tense, voice, mood,
person, and number.

By Mrs. W. Warren
2004

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but they also tell you: •Tense = when the action happens: past. •Person = who or what experiences the action. or future. •Mood = the attitude expressed toward the action •Voice = whether the subject does the action or has the action happen to it: active and passive voice.Not only do you learn what kind of action or state of being is expressed through verbs. •Number = how many people or objects act or receive the action. present. Page 2 .

What is verb tense? The tenses of verbs are the forms that help show time. There are six tenses in English: 3 Simple Tenses present tense past tense future tense 3 PerfectTenses present perfect past perfect future perfect Page 3 .

•The principal parts are: •base form •present participle •simple past •past participle Page 4 .Principal Parts of Verbs •All verbs have 4 principal parts and all the six verb tenses are made from these principal parts.

Page 5 .Perfect Tenses Verb Tense Time Line Future Perfect : future action or condition will begin and end before another starts. Simple Tenses Future: action or condition will occur in the future. •constant. Past: action or condition was started and completed in the past. repeated. or habitual action or condition. Present Perfect: •a general truth. •action began in past and still occurs now. Past Perfect: past action or condition began and ended before another past action or condition started. Present: •action or condition exists only now. •action or condition that occurred at an indefinite past time.

It can also express a general truth.The Three Simple Tenses of Verbs 1. or habitual action or condition. The exceptions are the verb have (has) and the verb be. except for the 3rd-person singular. in poetry. This usage is sometimes called the historical present tense. •The present tense expresses a constant. Present Tense •The present tense is the same as the verb’s base form. and journalism to convey to the reader a sense of being there. fiction. which adds -s or -es. Page 6 . more often. •It can also express an action or a condition that exists only now. repeated. •It’s sometimes used in historical writing to express past events and .

•You form the future tense of any verb by using the auxiliary verb shall or will with the base form of the verb. •Nearly all regular and irregular verbs (except be) have just one pasttense form. It’s often formed by adding a -d or ed. Page 7 . Future Tense •The future tense is used to to express an action or a condition that will occur in the future. 3. Past Tense •The past tense is used to express and action or condition that was started and completed in the past.2.

Verb Conjugation Present Tense (Base form on chart) Singular Plural I travel we travel you travel you travel they travel he/she/it travels Past Tense (-d or -ed on regular verbs) Singular Plural I traveled we traveled you traveled you traveled he/she/it traveled they traveled FutureTense ( will or shall + base form) Singular Plural I will travel we will travel you will travel you will travel he/she/it will travel they will travel Page 8 .

•This tense expresses past time .The 3 Perfect Tenses of Verbs 1. Page 9 . The word present in the name refers to the tense of the auxiliary verb has or have. •The present perfect tense can also be used to express the idea that an action or a condition began in the past and is still happening. Adverbs like yesterday cannot be added to make the time more specific.Present Perfect •Use the present perfect tense to express an action or condition that occurred at some indefinite time in the past. •It can refer to completed action in past time only in an indefinite way. •To be specific about completed past time. you would normally use the simple past tense. •Forms the present perfect tense by using has or have with the past participle of a verb.

•Form the future perfect tense by using will have or shall have with the past participle of a verb. 3. •You form the past perfect tense by using the auxiliary (helping) verb had with the past participle of a verb. Future Perfect Tense •Use the future perfect tense to express one future action or condition that will begin and end before another future event starts.2. Page 10 . Past Perfect Tense •The past perfect tense is used to indicate that one past action or condition began and ended before another past action or condition started.

*This means the tense of the helping verb Verb Conjugation Present PerfectTense (have/has + past participle) Singular Plural I have traveled we have traveled you have traveled you have traveled they have traveled he/she/it has traveled Past Perfect Tense (had + past participle) Singular Plural I had traveled we had traveled you had traveled you had traveled he/she/it had traveled they had traveled Future PerfectTense ( will or shall + have + past participle) Singular Plural I will have traveled we will have traveled you will have traveled you will have traveled he/she/it will have traveled they will have traveled Page 11 .

Progressive forms end with . They are formed by using the appropriate tense of the verb be with the present participle.Emphatic Forms (not a verb tense) The simple present tense and the simple past tense each have an additional form called the emphatic form. You form the present emphatic by adding do or does to the base form.ing. Page 12 . Progressive Form (not a verb tense) This verb form is used to show that an event is in progress. The emphatic forms add special emphasis or force to the verb. You form the past emphatic by adding did to the base form of the verb.

Ex: I will have been traveling Page 13 .How to form Progressives Present Progressive: am. is. or are + -ing form Ex: I am traveling we are traveling you are traveling you are traveling he/she is traveling they are traveling Past Progressive: was/were + -ing form Ex: I was traveling you were traveling we were traveling you were traveling he/she was traveling they were traveling Future Progressive: will/shall + be + -ing form Ex: I will be traveling Present Perfect Progressive: has/have + been + -ing form Ex: I have been traveling Past Perfect Progressive: had + been + -ing form Ex: He had been traveling **Future Perfect Progressive: will/shall + have + been+ -ing form.

Shows an action or a condition that began in the past and continues into the present. Shows an action that is in progress now. Page 14 . Shows actions that continued over time in the past.Comparing the Present Tenses (& forms) Shows an action or a condition that is continuously true. Shows an action in the past that came before other actions in the past. Comparing the Past Tenses (& forms) Shows actions that were completed in the past. Shows an action that began in the past and is still in progress. Shows an action that was in progress in the past when another action happened.

Shows an action in progress in the future when another action will happen. Shows an action that will be in progress in the future. Shows an action in the future that will occur before another action.Comparing the Future Tenses (and forms) Shows a condition that will occur in the future. Page 15 .