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Teaching the language system means that a teacher presents students
with clear information about the language they are learning. It is a
complex task, especially for me, because teacher must show students
what the language means and how it is used, what the grammatical
form of the new language is, and how it is said and written (Harmer,

.Imagine that this cake is a Language.

In order to study a Language it was subdivided by structuralism in to the Following parts: Phonology Lexis Vocabulary Grammar In last two hundred years there were 3 important approaches of Language systems. morphology and syntax . first the structural. covered the study of Language and divided it in: Then the linguistics clasified at 3 levels : phonology.

Then the linguistics clasified at 3 levels : phonology. . morphology and syntax phonology morphology syntax functional situational finally the communicative approach adds 2 more units situational and functional aspects.

Phonology Lexis Vocabulary Grammar morphology Language Systems syntax functional situational It is important to know Language Systems because we need to know how a Language works. how it is formed or constructed. .

affixes.Help us to know the sounds of a Language it helps you to Improve you pronunciation. parts of speech . It is concerns about Vocabulary words. Helps you to know how to make sentences! is the identification. analysis and description of the structure of morphemes and other units of meaning in a language such as words.

the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language This will help you to understand when is proper to use an expression and what expressions are commonly used in certain situations. .

Grammar and Vocabulary Teaching in Malaysian ESL classroom TEACHING METHODS jacinta .

CLT places less emphasis on overt presentation and discussion over grammar rules. Noreiny Maarof & J. Hussein. 1990 cited in Chitravelu et al. “grammar is to be incorporated into four language skills and should be taught in context and in a meaningful way” (Ministry of Education. 2001). Roslan. & Teh 2001). less focus on CLT. .V. Supyan Hussin. Sithamparam.D’Cruz (2000) – ESL teachers who utilised the behaviourist approach adopt the Direct Method which focus on forms. Noordin and Chong (2012) state that communicative approach is the most widely used approach in many Malaysian classrooms in teaching.Grammar & Vocabulary Teaching in M’sian ESL classroom: CLT • • • • • • KBSM syllabus requires the application of the Communicative Approach or CLT in teaching and learning English language (Chitravelu. Teachers use drilling method especially in the primary school level. Grammar is considered as peripheral – teaching it in isolation is not encouraged but must be integrated in order to provide meaningful input (Radika Subramaniam & Mahmud Hassan Khan 2013).

• • First she said that the teachers will instruct and assign students to prepare for the presentation of their discussion. • Rosmah’s (2013) study reveals that teaching English vocabulary using communicative approach to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery was effective. She also explains that teachers will explain the word meaning based on the situations by using role play and reading authentic materials. the related words are practiced. .• Blake (2009 in Kasturi Sivabalan 2013) explains that in communicative approach. • Wu (2009 in Kasturi Sivabalan 2013) explains how communicative approach is applied in vocabulary teaching. vocabulary is given a secondary position to support functional language use. Thus.

use monolingual dictionary.Grammar and Vocabulary teaching: methods. use various English language media and applying new English word in daily conversations. . approaches and strategies • Web-based (Faizah Mohamad 2009) • • • Enhancing grammar using board games (Tengku Nazatul Shima & Rahmah Lob Yusof 2012) Creates excitement and reduces fear Media-based • • • Study supports empirical claims that the Internet is a useful tool in teaching grammar Game-based • • • Internet-based grammar instruction (IBGI) vs Conventional Pen & Board Instruction (CPBI) Teaching vocabulary through music and songs (Kasturi Sivabalan 2013) Vocabulary learning through vocabulary scrapbook (Ann Rosnida Mod Deni et al 2007) Learner-based • • Teach vocabulary learning strategies to learners (Azadeh Asgari & Ghazali Mustapha 2011) – learning words through reading. Strategies related to memory and metacognitive are popular strategies.


TEACHING GRAMMAR • Language Transfer • Interlingual interference usually occurs during the transfer of learner’s first language patterns into those of the second language • the grammatical structures of the first language tend to be transferred to the second language • first language interference is manifested at the levels of phonology. lexis. . syntax and semantics.

the tendency to add the –ed morpheme to any word in the past tense often leads to some wrong forms. • Such rules should therefore be carefully presented and followed up with constant practice and reinforcement inside and outside of the classroom.• Faulty application of rules • those learners who are ignorant of the specific rules of grammar would eventually generalize • For example. .

• Faulty instructional materials and techniques • Teacher’s use of the first language to communicate ideas in the second language does not facilitate the learning of second language and its grammar • A teacher’s technique of teaching can be said to be faulty if he or she fails to make use of instructional materials where they are required • drilling exercise and teacher-fronted explanation • teachers teach too many grammatical skills to students through constant drilling on past year examination questions. worksheets and exercise books .

• However. • Learners should be encouraged to use the dictionary when in doubt about spelling of any word. .• The inconsistency in the orthography of English • This is a prominent problem because of the defect in the English alphabet and sounds. the art of spelling can be perfected through constant practice and reading.

TEACHING VOCABULARY • what to teach • Ur (1996) as cited in the same study stated that there are six vocabulary items must be taught to the students: • The form of the vocabulary (pronunciation and spelling) • Grammar form (irregular or regular) • Collocation • Aspects of meaning (connotation) • Meaning relationships (synonyms and antonyms) • Word formation .

• The study further stated that vocabulary learning depends on the learners’ strategy and motivation towards learning new words. al.. • According to Mohammad Reza et. the basic factors for vocabulary learning which are important and should be emphasized are: • The purpose of vocabulary learning • The real needs of vocabulary learning • The repetition and frequent exposure of vocabulary learning • The presentation of vocabulary learning needs to be meaningful and clear .

• how to teach • One thing for sure is that the major way in which vocabulary knowledge is increased is by learning through context. • incidental learning • reading plus vocabulary enhancement activities . • Learning through context or the written language normally contains enough proportion of difficult or easy words for learners to be exposed on.

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teaching vocabulary and teaching writing .1)Original Video and Sound Effects by Yassaei (2012)    Used the pictures-less technique (listening to the audio before watching the video) Taught modals of speculation Other variation are different grammar points.

marvellous. L3: Same noun + is or are + adj1.g.2 L4: Is or are + adj1. satisfying. splendid L6: Coffee Bean . marvellous. adj2.adj4 L6: New related noun Finished Poem L1:Coffee (title) L2: Coffee is bitter L3: Coffee is bitter. adj2. adj3.:  L1: Noun L2: Same noun + is or are + adj. splendid L5: bitter. adj3 L5:Adj1. adj. basic sentence structure & dictionary usage Adjective Poems (Give students the pattern) e.2)Using Simple Poems by Hawanum (2004)  Obj: Adj. adj after linking verbs. marvellous L4: Is bitter. satisfying.

3) Using Games Yolageldili & Arikan (2011) Findings:     Teachers believe that games are fun & have pedagogical value Games provide opportunities to show their skills not only in grammar but other language areas too An alternative to teach grammar but not use games to break down boredom Games should be given a special role in a foreign language teaching programme .

Some examples of language games by Claudia Pesce 1) Timeline – past perfect tense 2) Action! – regular and irregular verbs 3) Celebrity Profiles – verb tense 4) Celebrity Photos –comparative and superlatives 5) A or An? – article .