arithmatic

© All Rights Reserved

6 views

arithmatic

© All Rights Reserved

- Intelligences Inventory
- MIT6 042JS15 Hard Primes
- Gen Math Lesson 2
- 20117 (1)
- Chebyshevs Theorem (1)
- Top Ten Math Initiatives for the Next MCPS Superintendent
- Curriculum Cpe
- Force Field Analysis
- 1 5 20-6-13 addition partitioning2
- Brain Teaser Numbes
- Asymptotic Notation
- Ebooksclub.org Measure Integration and Functional Analysis
- nacm-2.pdf
- reflecting on the term
- Date Sheet 8 Sem
- Maths Structure
- ST903 week3sol
- mixtos
- Cal Spring 09 Final
- Mea

You are on page 1of 18

sequences of symbols

A unique identifier or tag is generated for

the sequence to be encoded

This tag is a fraction and it is binary

encoded

The set of tags for representing symbols

are the numbers in the unit interval [0,1)

Number of numbers in the unit interval is

infinite.

Unique tag can be generated for each

sequence.

variables associated with the source is used for

mapping the sequence to a tag.

Generating the tag:

Example:

Consider a three-letter alphabet A = {a1, a2, a3}

with

P(a1) = 0.7,P(a2) = 0.1, and P(a3) = 0.2.

Fx(1) = 0.7, Fx (2) = 0.8, and Fx(3) = 1. This

partitions

the unit interval as shown in Figure.

0.0

a1

0.7

0.49

0.546

a1

a1

a1

0.49

a2

0.8

0.5558

0.539

a2

0.56

a3

1.0

0.0

0.546

a3

0.70

a2

a3

0.56

a2

0.5572

a3

0.56

sequence resides is disjoint from all

intervals in which the tag for any other

sequence may reside.

Any number in this interval can be used as

the tag(say, mid point/lower value).

the tag forms a unique representation for

the sequence. This means that the binary

representation of the tag forms a unique

binary code for the sequence.

x = (x1, x2,.xn)

l ( n ) l ( n 1) (u ( n 1) l ( n 1) ) FX ( xn 1)

u ( n ) l ( n 1) (u ( n 1) l ( n 1) ) FX ( xn )

u (n) l (n)

TX ( x )

2

The only information required by the tag

generation procedure is the cdf of the source,

which can be obtained directly from the probability

model.

P(a1) = 0.8,

P(a2) =0.02

Obtain tag for a1 a3 a2 a1.

Ans. Tag = 0.772352

P(a3) =0.18

of the block

Tag value = 0.772352

subset of every interval obtained in the

encoding process. While decoding, decode

the elements in such a way that upper and

lower limits always contain this tag value.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Let the first element is decoded as x1

Then l(1)= 0 +(1-0)Fx(x1-1)=Fx(x1-1)

u(1) =0 +(1-0)Fx(x1)=Fx(x1)

Find the value of x1 for which this interval

contains the tag value.

If we pick x1=1, the interval is [0,0.8). If

we pick x1=2, the interval is [0.8,0.82),

and if we pick x1=3, the interval is

[0.82,1.0). As 0.77232 lies in the interval

[0.0,0.8), we choose x1=1

l(2)

=

0 +(0.8-0)Fx(x2-1)=0.8 Fx(x2-1)

u(2)

=

0 +(0.8-0)Fx(x2)=0.8 Fx(x2)

If we pick x2=1, the updated interval is [0, 0.64,),

which does not contain the tag.

If we pick x2=2, the updated interval is [0.64,

0.656), which also does not contain the tag.

0.8) which contains the tag.

l (3)

u (3)

= 0.656 +(0.8-0.656) Fx(x3) = 0.656 + 0.144 Fx(x3)

(2)

0.144 x Fx (x3)) contains 0.772352 - 0.656 (Residual tag)

Divide the residual tag value by 0.144 to get 0.808.

Find the value of x3 for which 0.808 falls in the interval

[Fx(x3-1), Fx(x3) ). It is possible if x3 =2.

(4)

(4)

0.7712 + 0.00288 Fx(x 4-1)

0.7712 +(0.77408-0.7712) Fx(x4) =

0.7712 + 0.00288 Fx(x 4)

(3)

Find the value of x4 for which the interval [0. 00288 x Fx (x4-1),

0. 00288 x Fx (x4)) contains 0.001152 (Residual tag)

Divide the residual tag value by 0. 00288 to get 0.4.

Find the value of x4 for which 0.4 falls in the interval

[Fx(x4-1), Fx(x4) ). It is possible if x4 =1.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

For each k find t* = (tag - l(k-1))/ (u(k-1)- l(k-1))

Fin the value of xk for which Fx (xk-1)

t*

Fx (xk)

Update u(k) and l(k)

Continue until the entire sequence has been

decoded.

T x( x )

log(1 / p( x)) 1

P(a1) = , P(a2) = , P(a3) =

Symbol

Fx

, P(a4) =

Tag

In binary

1

log p( x) 1

Code

0.5

.25

.010

01

0.75

.625

.101

101

0.875

.8125

.1101

1101

1.0

.9375

.1111

1111

Proof: T x( x ) is a unique identifier.

It lies in the interval [Fx(x-1), Fx(x))

We have to show that T ( x) is also contained in this

x

l ( x)

interval

Since we are truncating the binary representation of T x( x )

to T ( x) , T ( x)

is less than or equal to T x( x )

l ( x)

l ( x)

1

0 Tx ( x) Tx ( x) l ( x )

l ( x) 2

Since

< Fx(x), < Fx(x).

T x( x )

Tx ( x)

l ( x)

is greater than or equal to

x

l ( x)

Fx(x-1)

1

1

1

2l ( x )

log

1

p( x)

2

1

1

log

p( x)

1

p( x)

1

2

2

p( x)

p( x)

Tx ( x) Fx ( x 1)

2

1

Tx ( x) Fx ( x 1) l ( x )

2

or Tx ( x) Fx ( x 1)

l ( x)

l ( x)

representation of

1

2n

T x( x )

2

H ( X ) lA H ( X )

m

- Intelligences InventoryUploaded byAlleine Darkweather
- MIT6 042JS15 Hard PrimesUploaded byKariem Mohamed Ragab Hamed
- Gen Math Lesson 2Uploaded byDerren Nierras Gaylo
- 20117 (1)Uploaded byCaroto
- Chebyshevs Theorem (1)Uploaded byseesawupndown
- Top Ten Math Initiatives for the Next MCPS SuperintendentUploaded byParents' Coalition of Montgomery County, Maryland
- Curriculum CpeUploaded byanon-155764
- Force Field AnalysisUploaded byRadhika Joshi
- 1 5 20-6-13 addition partitioning2Uploaded byapi-254860190
- Brain Teaser NumbesUploaded byPatricia Melissa Adisurya
- Asymptotic NotationUploaded byFitriyah Sulistiowati
- Ebooksclub.org Measure Integration and Functional AnalysisUploaded byOsho Arun Love
- nacm-2.pdfUploaded byKetan Joshi
- reflecting on the termUploaded byapi-332715841
- Date Sheet 8 SemUploaded byravi kumar
- Maths StructureUploaded byAnonymous gUjimJK
- ST903 week3solUploaded byLuke Johnston
- mixtosUploaded bysergio
- Cal Spring 09 FinalUploaded byjoediola
- MeaUploaded bynikhil dwivedi
- ReportUploaded byAravind Vinas
- clinical lesson reflection 2 mathUploaded byapi-267980292
- #18 Piecewise Worksheet 1.pdfUploaded byYlliw Mercado Aredin
- Self Survey - subjective vs objectiveUploaded byxenonimous
- POS8thGradeParents2012-13[1]Uploaded byerikparnold
- AC FinalsUploaded byMigo Salvador
- Lecture 17Uploaded bySeban Augustine
- Finite Element MethodUploaded bybabu1434
- The Invisible Man Support Material-P Banerjee,PGT EnglishUploaded byParas Verma
- Modul Ulangkaji 1Uploaded byAzzif Anuwar

- Cyclic Redundancy CheckUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Herbs in Magic and AlchemyUploaded byNatalia Alejandra Gonzalez Sanchez
- firpmUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Transform Coding IIUploaded byRakesh Inani
- DEFLATE algoUploaded byRakesh Inani
- EECE 522 Notes_01a Review of Probability.pdfUploaded byRakesh Inani
- frequency Domain FiltersUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Histogram ProcessingUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Haar TransformUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Convex FunctionUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Image EnhancementUploaded byRakesh Inani
- L10_Walsh & Hadamard TransformsUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Difference Between ZIP and GZIP _ Difference Between _ ZIP vs GZIPUploaded byRakesh Inani
- ARC (File Format)Uploaded byRakesh Inani
- JPEGUploaded byRakesh Inani
- discrete Cosine TransformUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Runlength Turnstall GolombUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Burrows–Wheeler Transform - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Dft PropertiesUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Computer Knowledge Capsule IBPS Clerk III IBPSPOCLERKUploaded byAvigyan Mitra
- Lecture BwtUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Compression OverviewUploaded byRakesh Inani
- gzipUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Concave FunctionUploaded byRakesh Inani
- 2. Mathematical PrelimsUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Entropy CodingUploaded byRakesh Inani
- Information Theory 1Uploaded byRakesh Inani
- Context CodingUploaded byRakesh Inani

- CS 4205 Programming&ProblemSolvingUsingCUploaded byAmitJajoo
- Economic Benefits of using StandardsUploaded byWarricktheGrey
- 2012 Syllabus 12 PhysicsUploaded byJinu Madhavan
- snp_logUploaded byDelia Fesus
- Sex Differences in Spatial Navigation and Perception in Human Adolescents and Emerging AdultsUploaded byMuslimin
- Download as Pdf Commercial Display II by HI-DESIGN INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING (HK) CO., LTD.pdfUploaded byElena Alexandra
- Organisational BehaviourUploaded byabhi malik
- Christensen How Will You Measure Your LifeUploaded byBogdan Comsa
- MSE Uptimepro BrochureUploaded byRoozbeh P
- Long Term Effectiveness of Terbinafine vs ItraconazoleUploaded byIndah Cynthia
- Psychological Disorder PresentationUploaded byKayla Iles
- Production-Engineer-Generic-JD1.pdfUploaded bysuranto anto
- SchizophreniaUploaded byatikah
- RP-250_OM_ENG_30470FUploaded bychip8xvn
- Analysis of Infosys Technologies LimitedUploaded byAlumni CMS
- Homework 1 Answers2012SummerAUploaded bynicadagle1996
- Buzzfeed Ethics Case AnalysisUploaded byEduardo J. Tió
- Directed gaze Dance.pdfUploaded byFlor Sfie
- cmap grade 5 cycle 4 ela v2Uploaded byapi-258726870
- ts_136331v150300pUploaded byjai shankar
- OldRRCSetupUploaded byAl Gambardella
- It is Increasingly Common for Multinational Businesses to Send Employees on International AssignmentsUploaded byJonaira Vera
- Vw3a58301 Comm.card Fipio Atv58Uploaded byBogdi Dediu
- lesson plan 4 bad habits 1Uploaded byapi-255312669
- 20130702101737944Uploaded byMuhammad
- FortiGate VMUploaded byvelramsen
- NanoSuite Training Manual Rev CUploaded byPhan MHanh
- Introduction Solid WorksUploaded byAditya Sharma
- EE2112_Lab09_EagleBoardDesignProjectUploaded bynotdrphil
- 7892079Uploaded bydewy