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WHY MATERIALS ???

Ashby,: Material Selection


in Mechanical Design

Engineering Materials

Materials
Ferrous metals: carbon-, alloy-, stainless-, tool-and-die steels
Non-ferrous metals: aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel,
titanium, superalloys, refractory metals,
beryllium, zirconium, low-melting alloys,
gold, silver, platinum,
Plastics: thermoplastics (acrylic, nylon, polyethylene, ABS,)
thermosets (epoxies, Polymides, Phenolics, )
elastomers (rubbers, silicones, polyurethanes, )
Ceramics, Glasses, Graphite, Diamond, Cubic Boron Nitride
Composites: reinforced plastics, metal-, ceramic matrix composites
Nanomaterials, shape-memory alloys, superconductors,

Properties of materials

Mechanical properties of materials


Strength, Toughness, Hardness, Ductility,
Elasticity, Fatigue and Creep
Physical properties
Density, Specific heat, Melting and boiling point,
Thermal expansion and conductivity,
Electrical and magnetic properties
Chemical properties
Oxidation, Corrosion, Flammability, Toxicity,

MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
Chemical composition
Mechanical properties Strength, hardness (under various conditions:
temperature, humidity, pressure)
Physical properties density, optical, electrical, magnetic
Environmental green, recycling

METALS
Ferrous Metals

Non-ferrous metals

Cast irons
Steels

Aluminum and its alloys


Copper and its alloys
Magnesium and its alloys
Nickel and its alloys
Titanium and its alloys
Zinc and its alloys
Lead & Tin
Refractory metals
Precious metals

Super alloys
Iron-based
Nickel-based
Cobalt-based

GENERAL PROPERTIES AND


APPLICATIONS OF FERROUS ALLOYS
Ferrous alloys are useful metals in terms
of mechanical, physical and chemical
properties.
Alloys contain iron as their base metal.
Carbon steels are least expensive of all
metals while stainless steels is costly.

CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS

Carbon steels
Classified as low, medium and high:
1. Low-carbon steel or mild steel, <
0.3%C, bolts, nuts and sheet plates.
2. Medium-carbon steel, 0.3% ~ 0.6%C,
machinery, automotive and agricultural
equipment.
3. High-carbon steel, > 0.60% C, springs,
cutlery, cable.

CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS

Alloy steels
Steels containing significant amounts of
alloying elements.
Structural-grade alloy steels used for
construction industries due to high
strength.
Other alloy steels are used for its
strength, hardness, resistance to creep
and fatigue, and toughness.
It may heat treated to obtain the desired

CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS

High-strength low-alloy steels


Improved strength-to-weight ratio.
Used in automobile bodies to reduce
weight and in agricultural equipment.
Some examples are:
1. Dual-phase steels
2. Micro alloyed steels
3. Nano-alloyed steels

STAINLESS STEELS

Characterized by their corrosion


resistance, high strength and ductility,
and high chromium content.
Stainless as a film of chromium oxide
protects the metal from corrosion.

STAINLESS STEELS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Five types of stainless steels:


Austenitic steels
Ferritic steels
Martensitic steels
Precipitation-hardening (PH) steels
Duplex-structure steels

TYPICAL SELECTION OF CARBON AND ALLOY


STEELS FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS
TABLE 5.1
Product
Aircraft forgings,
tubing, fittings
Automobile bodies
Axles
Ball bearings and races
Bolts
Camshafts
Chains (transmission)
Coil springs
Connecting rods
Crankshafts (forged)

Steel

Product

Steel

4140, 8740

Differential gears
Gears (car and truck)
Landing gear
Lock washers
Nuts
Railroad rails and wheels
Springs (coil)
Springs (leaf)
Tubing
Wire
Wire (music)

4023
4027,
4140,
1060
3130
1080
1095,
1085,
1040
1045,
1085

1010
1040, 4140
52100
1035, 4042, 4815
1020, 1040
3135, 3140
4063
1040, 3141, 4340
1045, 1145, 3135, 3140

4032
4340, 8740

4063, 6150
4063, 9260, 6150
1055

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED CARBON


AND ALLOY STEELS IN VARIOUS CONDITIONS
TABLE 5.2 Typical Mechanical Properties of Selected Carbon and Alloy Steels in the Hot-Rolled,
Normalized, and Annealed Condition
AISI

Condition

1020

As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed
As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed
Normalized
Annealed
Normalized
Annealed
Normalized
Annealed

1080
3140
4340
8620

Ultimate
tensile
strength
(MPa)
448
441
393
1010
965
615
891
689
1279
744
632
536

Yield
Strength
(MPa)

Elongation in
50 mm (%)

Reduction of
area (%)

Hardness
(HB)

346
330
294
586
524
375
599
422
861
472
385
357

36
35
36
12
11
24
19
24
12
22
26
31

59
67
66
17
20
45
57
50
36
49
59
62

143
131
111
293
293
174
262
197
363
217
183
149

AISI DESIGNATION FOR HIGH-STRENGTH SHEET


STEEL
TABLE 5.3
Yield Strength
psi x 10
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
100
120
140

Chemical
Composition

Deoxidation
Practice

MPa
240
275
310
350
415
485
550
690
830
970

S = structural alloy

F = killed plus sulfide inclusion control

X = low alloy
K = killed
W = weathering
O = nonkilled
D = dual phase

ROOM-TEMPERATURE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND


APPLICATIONS OF ANNEALED STAINLESS STEELS
TABLE 5.4 Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties and Typical Applications of Selected Annealed
Stainless Steels
Ultimate
tensile
Yield
Elongation
AISI
strength
strength
in 50 mm
(UNS)
(MPa)
(MPa)
(%)
Characteristics and typical applications
303
550620
240260
5350
Screw machine products, shafts, valves, bolts,
(S30300)
bushings, and nuts; aircraft fittings; bolts; nuts;
rivets; screws; studs.
304
(S30400)

565620

240290

6055

Chemical and food processing equipment,


brewing equipment, cryogenic vessels, gutters,
downspouts, and flashings.

316
(S31600)

550590

210290

6055

High corrosion resistance and high creep strength.


Chemical and pulp handling equipment,
photographic equipment, brandy vats, fertilizer
parts, ketchup cooking kettles, and yeast tubs.

410
(S41000)

480520

240310

3525

416
(S41600)

480520

275

3020

Machine parts, pump shafts, bolts, bushings, coal


chutes, cutlery, tackle, hardware, jet engine parts,
mining machinery, rifle barrels, screws, and
valves.
Aircraft fittings, bolts, nuts, fire extinguisher
inserts, rivets, and screws.

TOOL AND DIE STEELS

Designed for high strength, impact


toughness, and wear resistance at a
range of temperatures.

BASIC TYPES OF TOOL AND DIE STEELS


TABLE 5.5
Type
High speed
Hot work
Cold work
Shock resisting
Mold steels
Special purpose
Water hardening

AISI
M (molybdenum base)
T (tungsten base)
H1 to H19 (chromium base)
H20 to H39 (tungsten base)
H40 to H59 (molybdenum base)
D (high carbon, high chromium)
A (medium alloy, air hardening)
O (oil hardening)
S
P1 to P19 (low carbon)
P20 to P39 (others)
L (low alloy)
F (carbon-tungsten)
W

PROCESSING AND SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS


OF COMMON TOOL AND DIE STEELS
TABLE 5.6 Processing and Service Characteristics of Common Tool and Die Steels
Resistance to
decarburization
Medium
High
Low
Medium
Medium
Medium

Resistance to
cracking
Medium
High
Medium
Highest
Highest
Highest

Approximate
hardness
(HRC)
6065
6065
6065
3855
5762
3556

Machinability
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium to high
Medium
Medium

Toughness
Low
Low
Low
Very high
Medium
High

Resistance to
softening
Very high
Very high
Highest
High
High
High

D2

Medium

Highest

5461

Low

Low

High

D3
H21

Medium
Medium

High
High

5461
3654

Low
Medium

Low
High

High
High

H26
P20

Medium
High

High
High

4358
2837

Medium
Medium to high

Medium
High

Very high
Low

P21
W1, W2

High
Highest

Highest
Medium

3040
5064

Medium
Highest

Medium
High

Medium
Low

AISI
designation
M2
T1
T5
H11, 12, 13
A2
A9

Source: Adapted from Tool Steels, American Iron and Steel Institute, 1978.

Resistance to
wear
Very high
Very high
Very high
Medium
High
Medium to
high
High to very
high
Very high
Medium to
high
High
Low to
medium
Medium
Low to
medium

ALUMINIUM AND ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Factors for selecting are:


High strength to weight ratio
Resistance to corrosion
High thermal and electrical conductivity
Ease of machinability
Non-magnetic

MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM ALLOYS


Magnesium (Mg) is the lightest metal.
Alloys are used in structural and nonstructural applications.
Typical uses of magnesium alloys are
aircraft and missile components.
Also has good vibration-damping
characteristics.

COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS

Copper alloys have electrical and


mechanical properties, corrosion
resistance, thermal conductivity and wear
resistance.
Applications are electronic components,
springs and heat exchangers.
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.
Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.

NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOYS

Nickel (Ni) has strength, toughness, and


corrosion resistance to metals.
Used in stainless steels and nickel-base
alloys.
Alloys are used for high temperature
applications, such as jet-engine
components and rockets.

SUPERALLOYS

Superalloys are high-temperature alloys


use in jet engines, gas turbines and
reciprocating engines.

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS

Titanium (Ti) is expensive, has high


strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion
resistance.
Used as components for aircrafts, jetengines, racing-cars and marine crafts.

REFRACTORY METALS

Refractory metals have a high melting


point and retain their strength at elevated
temperatures.
Applications are electronics, nuclear
power and chemical industries.
Molybdenum, columbium, tungsten, and
tantalum are referred to as refractory
metal.

OTHER NONFERROUS METALS

1. Beryllium
2. Zirconium
3. Low-melting-point metals:
- Lead
- Zinc
- Tin
4. Precious metals:
- Gold
- Silver
- Platinum

SPECIAL METALS AND ALLOYS

1. Shape-memory alloys (i.e. eyeglass frame,


helical spring)
2. Amorphous alloys (Metallic Glass)
3. Nanomaterials
4. Metal foams

HEAT TREATMENT OF METALS


Annealing
Full annealing
Normalising (faster rate of cooling)
Recovery annealing (longer holding time, slower rate of cooling,)
Stress relieving (lower temperature)
Martensite formation in steel
Austenitizing (conversion to austenite)
Quenching (control cooling rate
Tempering (reduce brittleness)

HEAT TREATMENT OF METALS


Precipitation hardening
Solution treatment (-phase conversion)
quenching
precipitation treatment (aging)
Surface hardening
Carburizing
Nitriding
Carbonitriding
Chromizing and Boronizing

HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

PRECIPITATION HARDENING

Solution treatment
Quenching
Precipitation treatment

SURFACE HARDENING METHODS


Flame hardening
Induction heating
High-frequency resistance heating
Electron beam heating
Laser beam heating

SURFACE HARDENING METHODS

Induction
heating

High frequency
resistance
heating

CLASSIFICATION OF CERAMICS
Ceramics
Traditional ceramics
New ceramics
Glass

CERAMICS
Traditional ceramics
clays: kaolinite
silica: quartz, sandstone
alumina
silicon carbide
New ceramics
oxide ceramics : alumina
carbides : silicon carbide, titanium carbide, etc.
nitrides : silicon nitride, boron nitiride, etc.

GLASS
Glass products
window glass
containers
light bulb glass
laboratory glass
glass fibers
optical glass
Glass ceramics - polycrystalline structure

CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS
Thermoplastics
Thermosets
Elastomers

POLYMERS
Thermoplastics - reversible in phase by heating and cooling. Solid phase at room
temperature and liquid phase at elevated temperature.
Thermosets - irreversible in phase by heating and cooling. Change to liquid phase
when heated, then follow with an irreversible exothermic chemical reaction.
Remain in solid phase subsequently.
Elastomers - Rubbers

THERMOPLASTICS

Acetals
Acrylics - PMMA
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene - ABS
Cellulosics
Fluoropolymers - PTFE , Teflon
Polyamides (PA) - Nylons, Kevlar
Polysters - PET
Polyethylene (PE) - HDPE, LDPE
Polypropylene (PP)
Polystyrene (PS)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

THERMOSETS
Amino resins
Epoxies
Phenolics
Polyesters
Polyurethanes
Silicones

ELASTOMERS
Natural rubber
Synthetic rubbers
butadiene rubber
butyl rubber
chloroprene rubber
ethylene-propylene rubber
isoprene rubber
nitrile rubber
polyurethanes
silicones
styrene-butadiene rubber
thermoplastic elastomers

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITE
MATERIALS
Metal Matrix Composites
Ceramic Matrix Composites
Polymer Matrix Composites

COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)
Mixture of ceramics and metals reinforced by strong, high-stiffness fibers
Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)
Ceramics such as aluminum oxide and silicon carbide embedded with fibers for improved
properties, especially high temperature applications.
Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC)
Thermosets or thermoplastics mixed with fiber reinforcement or powder.

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

1D fibre

Woven fabric

Random fibre

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

TAXONOMY OF MATERIALS SELECTION

Ashby,: Material Selection


in Mechanical Design