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Ratification is dealt in Sec 196 to Sec 200

Sec 196- ratification

Sec 197- it may be expressed or implied
Sec 198- must have knowledge of fact
Sec 199- it ratifies the whole transaction
Sec 200- cant b done if injures third party.

Ratification is essentially a retrospective

granting of approval for the actions of the
agent or the person purporting to be an agent
acting on behalf of the principal. The granting
of authority effectively makes the exercise of
the agents authority valid from the time the
agent first took part in the unauthorised act,
as opposed to the time at which the principal
ratifies the unauthorised act.

The doctrine of ratification comes into play when

a person has done an act on behalf of another
without his knowledge or consent .the
doctrine gives the person on whose behalf the
act is done an option either to adopt the act by
ratification or to disown it . Ratification is thus
a kind of affirmation of unauthorized act

A Ratification when fairly made , will have the

same effect as an original authority has, to
bind the principal, not only in regard to the
agent himself but in regard to third persons;
and the ratification relates back to the
inception of the transaction, and has a
complete retrospective efficacy.

May occur when:

(1) A person acts on behalf of a principal and

enters a contract with a third party, despite

lacking authority to do so, then the principal
may ratify or affirm the unauthorized action.
(2) An agent exceeds the authority given to them

by the principal, the principal may ratify or

affirm the excessive authority.

Agent when contracting must clearly be acting

as an agent, not for themselves, and the third
party must be aware of this.
Principal must exist at the time the agent
Principal must have the required capacity to
contract both at the time of the agents
unauthorised conduct and at the time of

Can only be made by the principal for whom

the agent was acting or purporting to act when
the contract was made.
Ratification must take place within a
reasonable time.
Principal must ratify the whole contract.
Principal must have full knowledge of the
details of the transaction.

Establishes the relationship of principal and

agent between person ratifying an the person
doing the act.

Establishes a relationship of contract between

the principal and the third party

Ratification saves the interest of the working


That is it protects the interest of the agent if he

works for the interest of his principal even
beyond the authority given to him by his