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Semester 2, 2007-2008

petrologi
2 SKS teori
1 SKS praktikum
by:
hill. gendoet hartono
Senin, jam 09.50 10.40
jam 10.45 11.35

Sedimentary Rocks
Batuan Sedimen

Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

Rock Cycle

What is a sedimentary rock?


Sedimentary rocks result from mechanical
and chemical weathering
Comprise ~ 5% of Earths upper crust
About 75% of exposed rocks
Contain evidence of past environments
Record how sediment is transported
Often contain fossils

Fossil Fish - 50 Million Year Old Lakes in southern Wyoming

These fish tell us the Wyoming climate


50 million years ago.

Sedimentary Rock made of fine-grained mudstone.

Overview
sediment

production
types of sediment and sedimentary rocks
sediment transport and deposition
depositional systems
stratigraphic architecture and basins
chrono-, bio-, chemo-, and sequence
stratigraphy
Earth history

Sedimentary rocks are the


product of the creation,
transport, deposition, and
diagenesis of detritus and
solutes derived from preexisting rocks.

Sedimentary rocks are the


product of the creation,
transport, deposition, and
diagenesis of detritus and
solutes derived from preexisting rocks.

Steps Involved in Formation of


Clastic Sedimentary Rock
Weathering
Erosion
Transport
Deposition
Lithification
--Compaction
--Cementation

Weathering

Steep terrain accelerates erosion

Turbidity Currents

Ions weather out of rock,


are transported by
groundwater to sediment
layers below

6_11

Ions transported
to lake or
Water enters pore
ocean
spaces between
sediment grains

Ion-rich
groundwater

Dissolved ions precipitate


to form cement between
sediment grains

Diagenesis includes:
Recrystallization growth of stable
minerals from less stable ones
Lithification loose sediment is
transformed into solid rock by
compaction and cementation
Natural cements: calcite, silica, and
iron oxide. Formed from ions in
solution in water.

chemical and physical changes


that take place after sediments are deposited

Diagenesis

Diagenesis

varies with composition

Lithification
Compaction:

As more sediments are piled on


top, compaction drives out the excess water.
Cementation: Precipitation of chemicals
dissolved in water binds grains of a sediment
together.
Remember where the dissolved chemicals come
from?

Compaction and Cementation


of Clastic Sediment into Rock
Overburden

Sediment

Compaction

Cementation

Lithification and compaction of


shale

NB volume loss during compaction

Source area - the locality from which the


sediment was derived: factors used to evaluate
source area include rock type, environment of
deposition, direction (paleocurrents) and distance
from source area

Depositional environment where sediment


is deposited. It can be determined by looking at
sedimentary structures (including fossils), the
bed shape and vertical sequences within the
sedimentary layers, and grain composition

Sedimentary environments & plate tectonic


settings
Convergent boundaries coarse-grained clastic
sediments with abundant volcaniclastic and felsic
material

Sedimentary environments & plate tectonic


settings
Divergent boundaries - thick wedges of gravel and
coarse sand along margins,with lake bed deposits
and associated evaporite rocks possible in bottoms
of rift valleys

What is the economic importance of


sedimentary rocks?

They are important for economic reasons


Remember this
because they contain
when we talk about
Coal
Petroleum

correlation. Note
how beds pinch out
or are offset by
faults

and natural gas


Iron, aluminum, uranium and manganese
Geologists use them to read Earths history