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Industrial Training Seminar on


SESSION : 2014-15

Submitted By:Shubham Patel

Final Year
Roll No. 1102731107

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is the worlds seventh largest
telecommunication company and was founded on 15th September 2000.
Its responsibilities includes improvement of the quality of already installed
telecom services, expansion of telecom services in rural areas and acquiring
confidence among its customers.
It provides a comprehensive range of services in India, which include
wireless connections, CDMA mobile, GSM lines, Internet, broadband,
MPLS-VPN (multi protocol label switching-virtual private network), VSAT
(very small aperture terminal) WIMAX, FTTH and VOIP (voice over
Internet protocol).
Within this short span of time, it has also become one of the largest public
sector companies in India.


This section includes brief introduction of how a call is processed
when we dial from one basic telephone to another basic
telephone or from basic to mobile or vice versa.
When a subscriber calls to another subscriber first its request
goes to the nearest switching centre that is PSTN (Public
Switching Telecommunication Network). Then it processes the
caller and subscribers number if it exists in the same BSC (Base
Station Controller) then call setup is completed.

If subscriber is not in the same

BSC then call transfer to MSC
(Mobile Switching Centre) then it
transfers the call to prior BSC then
call setup is completed.
If Caller calls to a mobile
subscriber then call transfer is done
by MTSO(Mobile Telephone
Switching Office)
Now call transfer is done on BTS
(Base Transceiver Station) and call
setup is completed.

Parts of a Telecommunication network

The main parts of a Telecommunication network are:
1.Telephone Exchange
2.Main Distribution Frame (MDF)
3.Switch Room

About the exchange

All telephone subscribers are served by automatic exchanges.
Todays automatic exchanges use a pair of computers.
One running the program that provides services.
Second, monitoring the operation of the first, ready to take over in a few
seconds in the event of equipment failure.
Various exchanges present in BSNL are:

1. C-DOT




M.D.F. is a media between switching network and subscribers line. It is a termination point
within the local telephone exchange where exchange equipment and terminations of local loops
are connected by jumper wires.
All cable copper wires supplying services through user telephone lines are terminated and
distributed through MDF.
The most common kind of large MDF is a long steel rack accessible from both sides. Each
jumper is a twisted wire.
It consists of local connection and broadband connection frames for the main Exchange area.
The MDF usually holds central office protective devices including heat coils and functions as a
test point between a line and the office.
It provides testing of calls.
It checks whether fault is indoor or external.

All lines terminate individually

Structure Of MDF


Vertical side
Horizontal side
Vertical side
Rack:- On the rack, the tags are situated. One rack is having eight tags. The
counting is done from up (0) to down (7).
Tags:- Each rack consists of eight tags
1 tag = 4 core
1 core = 4 bunch
1 bunch = 2 line
N.E:-The word NE stands for the NUMBER OF EQUIPMENT. It is used
for testing number.
Wedge:- Wedge is used as a device for checking the ring. Wedge is
placed in jack strips, which is connected to telephone for checking.

Horizontal side
The horizontal side connected to the underground cable.
This cable is having 100 pairs. These pair are distributed when
company allot the telephone number to the subscriber.
Horizontal side is again subdivided in two parts:
1. One part is connected with the vertical side.
2. Another with the subscriber line by using 100 pair underground

As we know that, the power is the main source or any organization. It is the
case of E-10B exchange. That is the first requirement of any organization is
the input.
The main source of this exchange is AC supply.
The main parts of power room are:1. Batteries for providing 48V supply
2. UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply)
3. Charging - Discharging Unit
4. Inverter and Converter Unit

Switch Room
Switch room consists of BM(Benjamin
Moore) and CM cabinets mounted in
standard switch.
These cabinets are fastened to a switch
Room and interconnected by cables


General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service
available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems, global system for
mobile communications (GSM), as well as in the 3G systems. In 2G systems,
GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbps
GPRS extends the GSM circuit switched data capabilities and makes the
following services possible:
1. Always on Internet access.
2. Multimedia messaging service (MMS).
3. Push to talk over cellular (PoC/PTT).
4. Point to Point (P2P) service: inter-networking with the internet (IP).
5. Increase message sending speed 30 messages per minute approximately.

BSNL Broadband Service

Broadband refers to a connection that has capacity to transmit large amount of
data at high speed. Presently a connection having download speeds of 256
kbps or more is classified as broadband. When connected to the Internet
broadband connection allows surfing or downloading much faster than a dialup or any other narrowband connections. BSNL offers 2 Mbps minimum
download speed for its Broadband connections.

Requirement for providing Broad Band connection

1.Personal Computer
2.ADSL Modem
3.Land Line Connection
4.Splitter for separating telephone from Personal computer
5.High speed Internet Access: This is the always-on Internet access service
with speed ranging from 256 kbps to 8 Mbps.


Optical Fiber is new medium, in which information (voice, Data or Video) is
transmitted on the principle of Total Internal Reflection through a glass or plastic fiber,
in the form of light.
In the following sequence.
1.Information is encoded into Electrical Signals.
2.Electrical Signals are converted into light Signals.
3.Light Travels down the Fiber.
4.A Detector Changes the Light Signals into Electrical Signals.
5.Electrical Signals are decoded into Information.

2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or

1800 MHz bands

GSM-900 uses 890915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the
base station (uplink)
935960 MHz for the other direction (downlink),
providing 125 RF channels (channel numbers 0 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz.
Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used.


Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) consistently provides better capacity
for voice and data communications that other commercial mobile technologies,
allowing more subscribers to connect at any given time, and it is the common
platform on which 3G technologies are built.
CDMA is a spread spectrum technology, allowing many users to occupy the
same time and frequency allocations in a given band/space

1. Increased cellular communications security
2. Simultaneous conversations
3. Low power requirements and little cell-to-cell coordination needed by
4. Extended reach-beneficial to rural users situated far from cells.

MS refers to the physical phone itself

uniquely identified by the International
Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI)
SIM (Subsciber Identification
Module) is small smart card that is
inserted into the phone and carries
information specific to the subscriber
identified by International Mobile
Subscriber Identity (IMSI) number.

It carry out radio communications

between the network and the MS.
It has handles speech encoding,
encryption, multiplexing (TDMA), and
responsible for modulation and
Installed between 1 and 16 Transceivers

It is responsible for allocation of radio

Operates frequency administration
power and signal measurements from the
Mobile station.
handovers from one BTS to another.

It is responsible for call routing, call

setup, and basic switching functions.
Different BSCs are connected to the
Inner-BSC handoffs as well as
coordinates with other MSC's for interMSC handoffs.

HLR(Home Location Register )
maintains subscriber specific
information such as the MS,
ISDN(Integrated Services Digital
Network), IMSI, current location of
the MS, roaming restrictions.
VLR(Visitor Location Register ) is a
database that contains a subset of the
information located on the HLR.


1. Data Communication And Networking- Behrouz A. Foruzan

2. Wireless Communication and Networks-William Stallings
3. Computer Networking Kurose & Ross