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Protective Relays

AVS Ramesh
Sr.Engineer (Operation Services)
POWERGRID

Line Protection
Distance Protection schemes shall have
Three independent zones
Separate measurements for all Phase to Phase & Phase to
ground faults.
Single and three pole tripping capability.
Directional characteristics for Zone-1, Zone-2 and Zone-3.
Capability of operation for close up three phase and switch
on to faults.
Adjustable characteristic angle to match line angle.
Accuracy of better than or equal to 5% of set value for
reach measurement in Zone-1 & Better than equal to 10%
of set value for Zone-2 & Zone-3.

Bus-2

Bus-1

21

Ckt-1

Ckt-2

One and Half Breaker Scheme

Line Protection

Accuracy of better than or equal to 5% of set value


for time measurement of Zone-2 & Zone-3.
Power Swing detection feature for selective blocking,
as required.
Suitable fuse failure protection to monitor all types of
fuse failure and block the protection.

Power Swing
X
Z3

Recoverable
Swing

Z2
Z1

Load
Area

Setting criteria of Distance Protection relay


Reach Setting:

Zone-1 : To cover 80-85% of protected line section.


Zone-2 : To cover minimum 150% of length of
principal line section.

Zone-3 : To cover 120% of principal section plus


adjacent longest section.

Setting Criteria
Zone-3
Zone-2

Zone-1

85%
150%

ZAB + 120%

Setting criteria of Distance Protection relay

Time setting:

Zone-1 : Instantaneous
Zone-2 : 0.3 sec, 0.5 sec
(For long line followed by short line)
Zone-3 : 1.0 sec.

Phase Comparison Protection shall be:

Current Phase comparison type


Suitable for operation without PLCC
High sensitivity for all types of faults
Capable of single and three pole tripping
Provided with comprehensive alarm and test
facilities

Phase Comparison Relay


(Through fault)
A

A+B

A
No Trip

A+B

No Trip

Phase Comparison Relay


(In-Zone fault)
A

A+B

A
Trip

A+B

Trip

Phase Comparison Protection


shall be
Un-Affected by :
Heavy load transfer
Power swings
CT saturation
CT Phase errors
Propagation delays
Capacitance current

Technology comparison for Protective


Relays
Sl. Subject
No.

Electromechanical

Static/Electro
nic

Numerical

1.

Measuring
Elements/
Hardware

Induction disc,
Electromagnets
, Induction cup,
Balance beam

Discrete R, L, C,
Transistors,
Analogue ICs,
Comparators

Microprocesso
rs, Digital ICs,
Digital Signal
Processors

2.

Construction
size

Bulky

Modular,
Compact

Most compact

3.

Parameter
setting

Plug setting,
Dial setting

Thumb wheel,
Potentiometers,
Dual In Line
switches

Keypad for
Numerical
values

Technology comparison for Protective


Relays continued
Sl. Subject
No.

Electromechanic
al

Static/
Electronic

Numerical

4.

CT Loading/
burden

8-10 VA

1 VA

< 0.5 VA

5.

CT Offset
adjustment

No

No

Yes

6.

Self
monitoring

No

Yes
.Hardware
partially
.Power supply

Yes
.Hardware
.Power supply
.Output relays
.Software
.CT, PT, Ckts

Technology comparison for Protective


Relays continued
Sl. Subject
No.

Electromechanical

Static/Electron Numerical
ic

7.

Temperature Yes
stability

No

Yes

8.

Vibration
proof

No

Yes

Yes

9.

Harmonic
immunity

No

Possible through
analog filtering

Yes, digital
filtering
incorporated

10.

Calibration

Frequently
Required as
Not required as
required as
settings drift due settings are
settings drift to ageing
stored in memory
due to ageing
in digital format

Technology comparison for Protective


Relays continued
Sl. Subject
No.

ElectroStatic/Electro
mechanica nic
l

Numerical

11.

Auxilliary
supply

Required

Required

Required

12.

Electromagnet Immune
ic/electrostatic
/HF
disturbance

Susceptible

Immune

13.

Multiple
Not possible Not possible
characteristics

Possible

14.

Integrated
protective
functions

Possible

Not possible Not possible

Technology comparison for Protective


Relays continued
Sl. Subject
No.

ElectroStatic/
mechanical Electronic

Numerical

15.

Range of settings

Limited

Wide

Wide

16.

Operational value
indication

Not possible

Possible

Possible

17.

Fault disturbance
recording

Not possible

Not possible

Possible

18.

Digital
communication
port

Not possible

Not available Available

19.

Commissioning
No
support from relay

No

Yes

Numerical Distance Relay


Signal Input
Analog filter
Sample & Hold

Trip /alarm

Multiplexer
A/D converter
Digital Filter

Relay logic
Protn. algorithm

Numeric Protection Sample and hold amplifier

Numeric Protection
Signal Sampling principle

Numeric Protection
Typical numeric relay hardware

Numeric Protection
Distance relay model of Transmission Line

Numeric Protection
Impedance measuring algorithm
Vr = Rir + L (dir/dt) -------------- (1)
where
R = Series Resistance
L = Inductance
vr = Relaying voltage
ir = Relaying current
The current derivative of equation (1) can be written as
Vr = Rir + L ir

where ir = (dir/dt)

Numeric Protection
Impedance measuring algorithm ..contd.
To solve for two unknowns, two equations are required..
Hence two sets of relay voltages, currents and current
derivatives are utilised.
Vr1 = Rir1 + L ir1
Vr2 = Rir2 + L ir2
Combining the above two equations,
R = (Vr1ir2 - Vr2 ir1) /(ir1 ir2 - ir2 ir1)
L = (Vr2 ir1 - Vr1ir2 ) / (ir1 ir2 - ir2 ir1 )
For convenience, let D = (ir1 ir2 - ir2 ir1 )

Numeric Protection
Impedance measuring algorithm ..contd

The apparent resistance and reactance presented to the relay


may be calculated as follows:
R x D = (Vr1ir2 - Vr2 ir1) and
X x D = LD = (Vr2 ir - Vr1ir2 )
where is power system frequency and X is reactance

Numeric Protection Impedance measuring


algorithm ..Time spaced solution

Numeric Protection Impedance


measuring algorithm ..current derivative

Numeric Protection Quadrilateral


characteristic and counting strategy

Auto Reclosing scheme

Single Phase and /or three Phase reclosing facilities


Continuously variable single phase and three phase
dead time.
Continuously variable reclaim time
Facility of selecting single phase / three phase /
Single&three phase auto reclosure/Non-auto
reclosure modes.
Facility for selecting check synchronising or dead line
charging features.
Sequential reclosing facility of breakers in multiple
breaker arrangement.

Auto Reclosing scheme

Setting criteria of auto reclosure

Dead time : 1 sec


Reclaim time : 25 Sec

Protections which shall start auto


reclosing

Main-I Protection
Main-II Protection

Auto Reclosure Sequence

R
I

III

II

Auto Reclosing scheme

Protections which block auto reclosing:

LBB
Line reactor Protection
Over Voltage Protection
Bus Bar Protection
Zone-2/3 of distance Protection
Circuit breaker problem
Carrier fail
Receipt of Direct Trip signal.

Over Voltage Protection

Two stages
High drop off to pick up ratio.
Adjustable setting range for voltage and time.
Low set stage and shall monitor any one
Phase Phase voltage and shall have
associated timer.
High set stage shall monitor all three voltage
and shall have associated timer.

59

CVT

Vn

1.1 Vn

Over Voltage Protection

Over Voltage Protection shall be


connected to:

Trip connected line breaker(s)


Start LBB
Block auto reclose
Send direct trip command

Over Voltage ProtectionSettings

Low set stage at 110% with typical time


delay of 5 seconds.
High set stage at 150% with time delay
of 100mSec

Transformer Protection

Transformer differential protection


Restricted earth fault protection
Over fluxing protection
Back up directional Over current &
Earth fault protection on HV side
Back up directional Over current &
Earth fault protection on IV side

Transformer Differential Protection


R
Y
B

R
Y

Transformer Protection

Protections & Monitors built-in to transformer

Buchholz relay
Winding temperature
Oil temperature
Oil level
Pressure relief
Fire protection
Protection of tertiary winding
Over load alarm

Differential Protection

Triple pole feature with individual phase indication


Unrestrained instantaneous high set O/C units which
should not operate during in rush.
Adjustable for multi bias setting
Second harmonic or other inrush proof feature.
One bias winding per phase and per CT input
An adjustable operating current
An operating time not greater than 30mSec at 5
times of setting
Facility for ratio and phase angle correction

Bias
3.0

Operate

2.0

1.0

Non-Operate

0.2
1.0
2.0
3.0
Through Bias Current

4.0

Restricted earth fault


protection
An operating current sensitivity of atleast
10% of nominal current.
Tuned to the system frequency
High or low impedance principle.
Suitable non-linear resistor to limit the
peak voltage during in-zone faults in
case of high impedance principle.

Restricted earth fault protection

64

Over Fluxing Protection

Phase to Phase connected


Operating on the principle of measurement of
voltage to frequency ratio.
Provided with inverse time characteristics
compatible with transformer over fluxing.
Provided with independent alarm with a
definite time delay at value of V/F between
100% to 130% of rated value.
Having high resetting ratio of 98% or better.

Back-Up Over current


protection

3-Pole feature
IDMT characteristic
Variable setting range of 50-200% of rated
current
Characteristic angle 30 / 45 degree lead.
High set unit having variable setting range
typically 500-2000% of rated current
Hand set indicators per phase.

400KV

51
400/220 KV
Transformer
51

220KV

Over Load alarm

Single Pole feature


Definite time over current feature
Continuously variable current range of
50-200% of rated current and
continuously variable timer setting
range of 1 to 10 Secs.
Drop off to Pick up ratio of 95% or
better.

Reactor Protection

Differential Protection
Restricted earth fault Protection
Reactor Back-up protection
Buchholz relay
Winding temperature
Oil Temperature
Pressure relief
Oil Level
Fire Protection

Shunt Reactor
R

Single line to Ground Fault


R

Differential Protection Reactor

Operating current sensitivity of atleast


10% of nominal current
Tuned to system frequency
Suitable non-linear resistors to limit peak
voltage during in-zone faults
High or low impedance principle

Differential Protection Reactor

Operating current sensitivity of atleast


10% of nominal current
Tuned to system frequency
Suitable non-linear resistors to limit peak
voltage during in-zone faults
High or low impedance principle

Backup Protection-Reactor

Either Impedance type or definite time O/C & E/F


type
Impedance type reactor back up Protection shall be
Triple Pole type
Single step Polarised MHO or impedance distance
relay
Having characteristic angle between 60 80
degree.
Provided with adjustable definite time delay relay
Provided with suitable range for covering 60% of
reactor impedance.

Backup Protection-Reactor

Definite time O/C & E/F type

Single stage definite time 3 Pole , O/C


relay with adjustable current and time.
Connected for 2 O/C & 1 E/F connection.
Non-Directional with high reset ratio & low
transient over reach.

Bus Bar Protection

Ckt-1

87

Main Zone

Ckt-2

Check Zone
87

R
Y
B
N

R
Y
B

Bus Bar Protection

3 Phase type and operate selectively for each


bus bar section
Operating on differential principle and shall
provide independent zones of protection for
each bus.
Provided with Zone indication
Stable for through fault condition
Provided with continuous supervision for CT
secondaries.

Bus Bar Protection

Provided with adequate number of of high


speed tripping relays.
Provided with necessary CT switching relays
where ever required and shall have provision
for CT switching incomplete alarm.
Provided with in/out switching facility for
each zone.

Local Breaker Backup


protection

Short operation and drop-off times


Three phase current elements with facility
for phase wise initiation
Current setting range such that the relay can
be set at minimum 200mA (for line) and 50
mA (for generator) for 1Amp CT secondary
Associated timer with adjustable setting.

Distance to Fault locator

Shall be electronic or microprocessor


based
On line type
Shall be suitable for CB operation of 2
cycles
Built-in display(KM)
3% accuracy for all type of faults

Distance to Fault locator

Accuracy shall not be affected by Remote end


infeed

Dc component in fault current


Arc resistance
CVT transients

Mutual compensation facility

Based on traveling wave generated by fault

Event Logger

To record the state of switchyard


equipments and relays.
To record the occurrence of alarms.
To record changes in digital inputs
To record switching of primary plant
within sub-station.

Event Logger

Time synchronised with GPS clock


Permissible drift +/- 0.5seconds/day
Print out of current alarm and plant status
available on request.
To entry of date and time from key board.
Programmability at site.
Shall record 40 changes in 10mSec interval.

Disturbance Recorder-Purpose

To understand behavior of the Power


network before or after any
disturbance.
Useful info in planning of new
installations.
For further improvement in the
equipment

Disturbance RecorderFunctions

Records instantaneous values of V, I, In and open delta


voltage.
Status of relay contacts and CB during disturbance.
Requirement
Recoding capacity-8 analog + 16 digital.
Memory 5 sec
Min. Pre fault 160mSec
Post Fault 2sec- min , not less than 5sec.

Disturbance Recorder-Triggers

Any digital signal triggering.


Analog triggering by threshold levels.
Trigger selection of over/under levels
should be possible.
Time tagging:

Built-in real time clock.


Drift of the clock shall not be more than
0.5sec per day.

Disturbance Recorder

Sampling rate
: 1 Khz
Recording
: 5Hz to 250Hz.
Special requirement:

Sync. With GPS


16Analog + 32 digital for D/C lines
DR + FL
If DR is part of Numerical Protection,external
binary input should be possible.