570 views

Uploaded by VedasheershBoorla

Mechanics of materials torsion

- Sample Tensiometer Report
- BS en 196-3, 1995-Cement Setting Time and Soundness
- LS DYNA Glass Model
- ME Mech. Design Engineering 2017
- Lec.20.pptx Rheology & Linear Elasticity
- Understanding Nonlinear Analysis
- Abaqus Output Variable Identifier
- FRn_Seminar_Notes.pdf
- T. Lukkezen - Thesis Final
- BS+8006+over+piles+
- 38
- Theory of Failure
- PLASTIC RESISTANCE OF L-STUBS JOINTS SUBJECTED TO TENSILE FORCES
- Dubina_eccs
- 7 Stress & Strain.pptx
- 6C3.pdf
- strengthofmaterials.pptx
- Duaso-Elements.docx
- Chapter4-2.pdf
- Design 11 Oct

You are on page 1of 30

CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

John T. DeWolf

Torsion

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Contents

Introduction

Stress Concentrations

Shaft Deformations

Plastic Deformations

Shearing Strain

Elastoplastic Materials

Residual Stresses

Normal Stresses

Example 3.08/3.09

Example 3.10

3-2

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Interested in stresses and strains of

circular shafts subjected to twisting

couples or torques

Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft

Shaft transmits the torque to the

generator

Generator creates an equal and

opposite torque T

3-3

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Net of the internal shearing stresses is an

internal torque, equal and opposite to the

applied torque,

T dF dA

stresses is known, the distribution of the stresses

is not

Distribution of shearing stresses is statically

indeterminate must consider shaft

deformations

Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads, the

distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional

loads can not be assumed uniform.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3-4

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Torque applied to shaft produces shearing

stresses on the faces perpendicular to the

axis.

Conditions of equilibrium require the

existence of equal stresses on the faces of the

two planes containing the axis of the shaft

The existence of the axial shear components is

demonstrated by considering a shaft made up

of axial slats.

equal and opposite torques are applied to the

ends of the shaft.

3-5

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Shaft Deformations

From observation, the angle of twist of the

shaft is proportional to the applied torque and

to the shaft length.

T

L

of a circular shaft remains plane and

undistorted.

Cross-sections for hollow and solid circular

shafts remain plain and undistorted because a

circular shaft is axisymmetric.

Cross-sections of noncircular (nonaxisymmetric) shafts are distorted when

subjected to torsion.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3-6

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Shearing Strain

Consider an interior section of the shaft. As a

torsional load is applied, an element on the

interior cylinder deforms into a rhombus.

Since the ends of the element remain planar,

the shear strain is equal to angle of twist.

It follows that

L or

max

and max

L

c

3-7

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Multiplying the previous equation by the

shear modulus,

G

G max

max

radial position in the section.

J 12 c 4

the internal stress distribution is equal to

the torque on the shaft at the section,

T dA max 2 dA max J

c

c

J 12 c24 c14

formulas,

max

Tc

T

and

J

J

3-8

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Normal Stresses

Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular

to the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses

only. Normal stresses, shearing stresses or a

combination of both may be found for other

orientations.

Consider an element at 45o to the shaft axis,

F 2 max A0 cos 45 max A0 2

45o

F max A0 2

max

A

A0 2

Element c is subjected to a tensile stress on

two faces and compressive stress on the other

two.

Note that all stresses for elements a and c have

the same magnitude

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3-9

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Ductile materials generally fail in

shear. Brittle materials are weaker in

tension than shear.

When subjected to torsion, a ductile

specimen breaks along a plane of

maximum shear, i.e., a plane

perpendicular to the shaft axis.

When subjected to torsion, a brittle

specimen breaks along planes

perpendicular to the direction in

which tension is a maximum, i.e.,

along surfaces at 45o to the shaft

axis.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 - 10

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Cut sections through shafts AB

and BC and perform static

equilibrium analysis to find

torque loadings

diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm,

respectively. Shafts AB and CD are solid

of diameter d. For the loading shown,

determine (a) the minimum and maximum

shearing stress in shaft BC, (b) the

required diameter d of shafts AB and CD

if the allowable shearing stress in these

shafts is 65 MPa.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

find minimum and maximum

stress on shaft BC

Given allowable shearing stress

and applied torque, invert the

elastic torsion formula to find the

required diameter

3 - 11

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Sample

SOLUTION:Problem 3.1

Cut sections through shafts AB and BC

and perform static equilibrium analysis

to find torque loadings

M x 0 6 kN m TAB

M x 0 6 kN m 14 kN m TBC

TAB 6 kN m TCD

TBC 20 kN m

3 - 12

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Apply elastic torsion formulas to

find minimum and maximum

stress on shaft BC

applied torque, invert the elastic torsion

formula to find the required diameter

2

2

13.92 10

max 2

TBC c2 20 kN m 0.060 m

J

13.92 10 6 m 4

max

Tc

Tc

J c4

2

65 MPa

6 kN m

c3

2

c 38.9 10 3 m

d 2c 77.8 mm

86.2 MPa

min c1

max c2

min

86.2 MPa

45 mm

60 mm

min 64.7 MPa

3 - 13

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Recall that the angle of twist and maximum

shearing strain are related,

max

c

L

are related by Hookes Law,

max

max

G

Tc

JG

solving for the angle of twist,

TL

JG

changes along the length, the angle of rotation is

found as the sum of segment rotations

Ti Li

i J i Gi

3 - 14

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Given the shaft dimensions and the applied

torque, we would like to find the torque reactions

at A and B.

From a free-body analysis of the shaft,

TA TB 90 lb ft

The problem is statically indeterminate.

Divide the shaft into two components which

must have compatible deformations,

1 2

TA L1 TB L2

0

J1G J 2G

LJ

TB 1 2 TA

L2 J1

LJ

TA 1 2 TA 90 lb ft

L2 J1

3 - 15

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Apply a static equilibrium analysis on

the two shafts to find a relationship

between TCD and T0

the angular rotations of the gears

Find the maximum allowable torque

on each shaft choose the smallest

by gears. Knowing that for each shaft

Find the corresponding angle of twist

G = 11.2 x 106 psi and that the

for each shaft and the net angular

allowable shearing stress is 8 ksi,

rotation of end A

determine (a) the largest torque T0

that may be applied to the end of shaft

AB, (b) the corresponding angle

through which end A of shaft AB

rotates.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 - 16

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Apply a static equilibrium analysis on

the two shafts to find a relationship

between TCD and T0

M B 0 F 0.875 in. T0

the angular rotations of the gears

rB B rCC

rC

2.45 in.

C

C

rB

0.875 in.

TCD 2.8 T0

B 2.8C

3 - 17

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Find the T0 for the maximum

Find the corresponding angle of twist for each

allowable torque on each shaft

shaft and the net angular rotation of end A

choose the smallest

A / B

max

T 0.375 in.

TABc

8000 psi 0

0.375 in. 4

J AB

2

TCDc

2.8 T0 0.5 in.

8000 psi

0.5 in. 4

J CD

2

T0 561 lb in.

T0 561 lb in

C / D

T0 663 lb in.

max

561lb in.24in.

TAB L

2

TCD L

2.8 561lb in. 24in.

2

A B A / B 8.26o 2.22 o

A 10.48o

3 - 18

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Principal transmission shaft

performance specifications are:

- power

- speed

Designer must select shaft

material and cross-section to

meet performance specifications

without exceeding allowable

shearing stress.

specified power and speed,

P T 2fT

T

P

2f

exceed the maximum allowable

shearing stress,

max

Tc

J

J 3

T

c

c 2

max

solid shafts

J

4 4

T

c2 c1

c2 2c2

max

hollow shafts

3 - 19

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Stress Concentrations

The derivation of the torsion formula,

max

Tc

J

cross-section loaded through rigid end

plates.

The use of flange couplings, gears and

pulleys attached to shafts by keys in

keyways, and cross-section discontinuities

can cause stress concentrations

Experimental or numerically determined

concentration factors are applied as

max K

Tc

J

3 - 20

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Plastic Deformations

With the assumption of a linearly elastic material,

max

Tc

J

a nonlinear shearing-stress-strain curve, this

expression does not hold.

Shearing strain varies linearly regardless of material

properties. Application of shearing-stress-strain

curve allows determination of stress distribution.

The integral of the moments from the internal stress

distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the

section,

c

T 2 d 2 2 d

3 - 21

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Elastoplastic Materials

At the maximum elastic torque,

TY

J

Y 12 c3 Y

c

L Y

c

Y )

(

Y ) develops around an elastic core (

Y

L Y

Y3

2 c3 1 1

Y

3

4

4 T 1 1 Y

3 Y

4 3

c

3

4 T 1 1

3 Y

4

Y3

c3

TP 43 TY plastic torque

3 - 22

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Residual Stresses

Plastic region develops in a shaft when subjected to a

large enough torque

When the torque is removed, the reduction of stress

and strain at each point takes place along a straight line

to a generally non-zero residual stress

On a T- curve, the shaft unloads along a straight line

to an angle greater than zero

Residual stresses found from principle of superposition

Tc

m

J

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

dA 0

3 - 23

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Example 3.08/3.09

SOLUTION:

Solve Eq. (3.32) for Y/c and evaluate

the elastic core radius

Solve Eq. (3.36) for the angle of twist

A solid circular shaft is subjected to a

torque T 4.6 kN m at each end.

Assuming that the shaft is made of an

elastoplastic material with Y 150 MPa

and G 77 GPa determine (a) the

radius of the elastic core, (b) the

angle of twist of the shaft. When the

torque is removed, determine (c) the

permanent twist, (d) the distribution

of residual stresses.

which the shaft untwists when the

torque is removed. The permanent

twist is the difference between the

angles of twist and untwist

Find the residual stress distribution by

a superposition of the stress due to

twisting and untwisting the shaft

3 - 24

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Example

SOLUTION: 3.08/3.09

Solve Eq. (3.32) for Y/c and

evaluate the elastic core radius

1 Y3

4

T 3 TY 1 4 3

1 c 4

2

1

2

1

3

T

4 3

c

TY

25 10 m

3

614 10 9 m 4

TY c

J

J

TY Y

c

150 10 6 Pa 614 10 9 m 4

TY

25 10 3 m

Y

Y

c

Y

Y c

TY L

3.68 10 3 N 1.2 m

Y

JG

614 10 -9 m 4 77 10 Pa

Y 93.4 10 3 rad

93.4 10 3 rad

0.630

8.50 o

3.68 kN m

4.6

4 3

c

3.68

1

3

0.630

Y 15.8 mm

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 - 25

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Example 3.08/3.09

Evaluate Eq. (3.16) for the angle

which the shaft untwists when

the torque is removed. The

permanent twist is the difference

between the angles of twist and

untwist

a superposition of the stress due to

twisting and untwisting the shaft

Tc 4.6 10 3 N m 25 10 3 m

max

J

614 10 -9 m 4

187 .3 MPa

TL

JG

4.6 10 3 N m 1.2 m

116 .8 10 3 rad

p

1.81o

p 1.81o

3 - 26

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Previous torsion formulas are valid for

axisymmetric or circular shafts

Planar cross-sections of noncircular

shafts do not remain planar and stress

and strain distribution do not vary

linearly

For uniform rectangular cross-sections,

max

T

c1ab2

TL

c2 ab3G

shear stress and angle of twist for other

open sections are the same as a

rectangular bar.

3 - 27

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Summing forces in the x-direction on AB,

Fx 0 A t Ax B t B x

At A Bt B t q shear flow

Compute the shaft torque from the integral

of the moments due to shear stress

dM 0 p dF p t ds q pds 2q dA

T dM 0 2q dA 2qA

T

2tA

TL

ds

4 A2G t

3 - 28

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Example 3.10

Extruded aluminum tubing with a rectangular

cross-section has a torque loading of 24 kipin. Determine the shearing stress in each of

the four walls with (a) uniform wall thickness

of 0.160 in. and wall thicknesses of (b) 0.120

in. on AB and CD and 0.200 in. on CD and

BD.

SOLUTION:

tubing walls

Find the corresponding shearing stress

with each wall thickness

3 - 29

Third

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Example 3.10

SOLUTION:

Determine the shear flow through the

tubing walls

stress with each wall thickness

t

0.160 in.

8.34 ksi

A 3.84 in. 2.34 in. 8.986 in. 2

q

T

24 kip - in.

kip

1

.

335

2 A 2 8.986 in. 2

in.

AB AC

0.120 in.

AB BC 11.13 ksi

BD CD

0.200 in.

BC CD 6.68 ksi

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 - 30

- Sample Tensiometer ReportUploaded byMohd Firdaus Wahab
- BS en 196-3, 1995-Cement Setting Time and SoundnessUploaded bycemsavant
- LS DYNA Glass ModelUploaded byalexrem
- ME Mech. Design Engineering 2017Uploaded bySagar Sawant
- Lec.20.pptx Rheology & Linear ElasticityUploaded bySalvadora1
- Understanding Nonlinear AnalysisUploaded byAbdul Mannan Bin Mansor
- Abaqus Output Variable IdentifierUploaded bymithun5v5v5
- FRn_Seminar_Notes.pdfUploaded bynamdaeyoung
- T. Lukkezen - Thesis FinalUploaded byDebdeep Sarkar
- BS+8006+over+piles+Uploaded byHesbon Moriasi
- 38Uploaded byTariq Abdulsalam
- Theory of FailureUploaded byMohammad Abdullah
- PLASTIC RESISTANCE OF L-STUBS JOINTS SUBJECTED TO TENSILE FORCESUploaded byAdrian García Moyano
- Dubina_eccsUploaded byZamfira Octavian
- 7 Stress & Strain.pptxUploaded byonkod1
- 6C3.pdfUploaded byRameshNayaka
- strengthofmaterials.pptxUploaded bySureshKorada
- Duaso-Elements.docxUploaded byNenotchka Vallo
- Chapter4-2.pdfUploaded bygetachew ambaye
- Design 11 OctUploaded byViswanathan Srk
- Barkh1Uploaded byDemian Pereira
- 4 TorsionUploaded byVenkata Dinesh
- PTFE Plastic Sheet TDSUploaded byVinothkumar
- 8.CE625AEccentricLoad2014Uploaded byPankaj Saini
- Mechanical ReportUploaded byAyrton Estrada Soto
- Mechanical ReportUploaded byGiovanni QC
- Book1تالتب.pdfUploaded bySamah Soliman
- b16_exam_problems.pdfUploaded byAshebir Asrat
- 1-s2.0-S0143974X08001405-mainUploaded byTatenda Mugabe
- The Strength of Mild Steel.txtUploaded byRajesh Tipnis

- Chapter 04 - Gear TrainsUploaded byMuhammad Zarif
- Chemrite Shotcreate HP-100Uploaded byICPL-RWP
- Panasonic Ag-3da1pe Service ManualUploaded byABUTALEB_535364936
- Heat Exchanger Model-Experiment CourseworkUploaded byLakmal
- Prestressed Wood KevlarUploaded bykurtain
- DensglassUploaded byWendell Ariel Lanzas
- 10) ITP -TANK FABRICATION.pdfUploaded byAndy Chong
- Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts IndexUploaded byHendri Arief Setyawan
- MEM30007A DescriptorUploaded bySeyton123
- 162-pmr-jul07 (1).pdfUploaded byvignesh
- Pellet Plant Presentation by Anubhav 1Uploaded bysinghrakes@gmail.com
- Resinex K-8Uploaded byPT Deltapuro Indonesia
- Project on RIG in KLR industriesUploaded byAmar Boddepalli
- Masonry Design fo Disproportionate CollapseUploaded byterror_ro533
- Boiler Lay Up Procedure AEP1026Uploaded bymasoodism
- 2009Uploaded byankitgaurav3497
- tidal2Uploaded bySanjana Gunasee
- Graftech Engineering ManualUploaded byroscilla
- seminar_ashish.docxUploaded byAshish G
- Job Safety Analysis for Chilling PlantUploaded byBalasubrahmanyam Chakravartula
- ZL50G-6.pdfUploaded bybergman jhody
- Sprocket Guide123456789Uploaded byRamsai Chigurupati
- A TEC Presentation, About A TEC.pptxUploaded byFran Jimenez
- CR1 Controller OperationUploaded bymecanicaadchas
- Computer Integrated ManufacturingUploaded byShanmuga Raja
- Scotch YokeUploaded bySandeela Naveed
- Hydraulic FracturingUploaded byYusmawanGraha
- 5EP-OM1-1Uploaded byzabiruddin786
- PEWJ0115-00Uploaded byMohamed Sayed Abdel Gaffar
- TDS NovtekUploaded byMaria Aiza Maniwang Calumba