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Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A.

Rathus
Chapter 16

Chapter 16
Adolescence:
Social and Emotional Development

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Development of Identity
and the Self-Concept
Who Am I?
(And Who Else?)

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

What Does Erikson Have to Say About the


Development of Identity During Adolescence?
Identity versus Identity diffusion
Primary task: develop ego integrity

Psychological moratorium
Experimental period

Identity Crisis
Successful resolution is understanding who you are and what you
stand for

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

What Are Marcias Identity Statuses?


Four statues based on two dimensions
Exploration active questioning alternatives in search of goals
Commitment stable investment in goals

Identity diffusion
Low exploration and commitment

Foreclosure
Low exploration; high commitment

Moratorium
High exploration; low commitment

Identity achievement
High exploration and commitment

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Ethnicity and Development of Identity


Development of self-identity is more complex for ethnic minorities
Need to assimilate two sets of values dominant and minority
Prejudice and discrimination
Scarcity of role models

Stages of ethnic identity development


Unexamined ethnic identity (foreclosed state)
Ethnic identity search (moratorium state)
Achieved ethnic identity

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Gender Roles and Development of Identity


Erikson concluded
Career matters were more important to men
Relationships were more important to women

As a result men developed identity before intimacy while women


developed intimacy before identity
Research contradicts this and suggests men and women are
equally concerned about career
Women continue to integrate family and career plans

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

How Does Self-Concept Develop During Adolescence?


Self-descriptions
As children, focus on physical characteristics and actions
As adolescence, incorporate distinct and enduring personality traits

Self-descriptions become more differentiated


With formal-operational skills, able to integrate contradictory
elements

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

What Happens to Self-Esteem During Adolescence?


In early adolescence, self-esteem declines
Disparity between ideal and real self

From age 13, self-esteem gradually improves


May adjust ideas about ideal self
May become less self-critical

Emotional support from family and peers is important


Initially, family support more important
By late adolescence, peer support more important

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Relationships with Parents


and Peers

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

How Do Relationships With Ones Parents and Peers Change


During the Course of the Teenage Years?
Relationship with parents
Time spent with family decreases during adolescence
Boys tend to spend more time alone
Girls tend to spend more time with friends

More time spent with mother


More conflicts but also more support

Remaining close to family


More self-reliant and independence, higher self-esteem and better
school performance

Conflicts are more frequent


Based on issues of control

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

How Do Relationships With Ones Parents and Peers Change


During the Course of the Teenage Years?
Parenting Styles
Authoritative parenting
Teens show more competent behavior than other groups
More self-reliant, do better in school
Better mental health, lowest incidence of problems and misconduct

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

How Do Relationships With Ones Parents and Peers Change


During the Course of the Teenage Years?
Relationship with peers
Role of peers increases throughout adolescence

Friendships
More friends than younger children
One of two best friends
Based on acceptance, intimate self-disclosure and mutual
understanding
Typically same age, race, and sex

Friendship contributes to
Positive self-concept and psychological adjustment

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Ethnicity, Sex and Adolescent Friendships


Children choose friends from their ethnic group
European American female teens report support from friends
African American, male and female, both report support from friends
Ethnic stressors may push minority teens to seek support

Intimacy and closeness more central to girls friendships


Adolescent girls report friendships as more important than boys do

Girls friendship networks are smaller and more exclusive


Girls tend to participate in unstructured activities
Boys engage in organized group activities

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

What Kind of Adolescent Peer Groups Are There?


Cliques
5 to 10 people who hang around together
Shared activities and confidences

Crowds
Larger groups who do not spend much time together
Defined by activity or attitude of group

Adolescent peer groups


Spend considerable time together
Function with little or no adult control
May include teens of other sex

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

When Do Romantic Relationships Develop?


Begin in early to middle adolescence
Sequence of dating

Putting oneself in situations with peers of other sex


Group activities that include peers of other sex
Group dating
Two-person dating

Dating in early adolescence


Casual and short-lived

Dating in later adolescence


More stable and committed

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

How Much Influence Do Peers Have On Each Other?


Peer pressure peaks during mid-adolescence
Peers provide standard for behaviors
Peers provide support

Adolescents are influenced by both parents and peers


Peer influence styles and taste
Parent influence moral principles and future goals

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

What Are Some Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Adolescence?


Masturbation
Most common sexual outlet for teens
Nearly universal among male teens, less among female teens

Sexual Orientation
Sexually attracted to, and interested in forming a relationship
with people of other sex Heterosexual
with people of same sex Homosexual
with people of either sex Bisexual

One may engage in sexual activity outside of sexual orientation

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Homosexual Sexual Orientation


Stages of sexual identity for gay and lesbians

Attraction to members of same sex


Self-labeling as gay or lesbian
Sexual contact with members of same sex
Disclosure of sexual orientation to others/coming out

Depression and suicide - higher among gay youth

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Why Do Some Teenagers Initiate Sexual Activity at


an Early Age, While Others Wait Until Later?
High school students
Since 90s, gradual decline in %age engage in sexual intercourse
Males more likely than girls to be sexually active

Effects of puberty
Early onset puberty earlier sexual activity

Parental influences
Close relationship with parents less early sexual activity

Peer influences
Predictor of sexual activity
Sexual activity of best friend

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Figure 16.1 Percentage of Students in Grades 9-12 Who Report Ever Having Had

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

In This Cultural Setting, Why Do Teenage Girls


Become Pregnant?

Receive little advice about sexuality


Failure to use contraception
Use pregnancy to achieve intimacy, demonstrate rebellion
Uneducated about reproduction and contraception
Half of pregnant teens will get an abortion
Most teen moms will be single moms

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Figure 16.2 Percentage of Sexually Active Students in Grades 9-12 Who Report

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Figure 16.3 Trends in Pregnancy and Birthrates Among Women, Age 15-19, in the
United States and Other Developed Nations

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

What Are the Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy?


Consequences for pregnant teen
More likely to experience medical complications
Less likely to complete education
Lower salaries

Consequences for teen father


Lower grades in school than peers
Enter workforce at earlier age

Consequences for children of teen mom


Lower cognitive functions
More behavioral, emotional problems
More likely to become teen parent

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Preventing Teenage Pregnancy


Sex education programs
Successful programs
Increase knowledge about sexuality
Delay onset of sexual activity

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

What Is Juvenile Delinquency?


Illegal activities committed by child or adolescent
Some activities are illegal only if committed by minors
Status offenses

Ethnicity
Factors for overrepresentation of African American youth in
juvenile justice system
Racial bias
Economic factors

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

What Are the Sex Differences in Delinquent Behavior?


Boys more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors
Boys commit more crimes of violence
Girls commit more status offenses

More girls are likely to be arrested for being runaways


More runaways
Double standard

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Who Is Most Likely to Engage in Delinquent Behavior?


Many risk factors and causality is not clear

Poor school performance


Delinquent friends, substance abuse
Early aggressive or hyperactive behaviors
Low verbal IQ, immature moral reasoning
Low self-esteem and impulsivity
Parents and/or siblings have been involved in antisocial behaviors

Prevention and Treatment


Focus on individual offender
Focus on systems
Early childhood intervention programs

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

How Many Adolescents Commit Suicide? Why?


Among older teens suicide is 3rd or 4th leading cause of death
Risk factors for suicide

Depression and hopelessness


Confusion about self, interpersonal problems
Impulsiveness, emotional instability
Stressful life events

Origins of suicide
Social problems
Less capable of solving problems

Genetics
Suicide and psychological problems runs in families

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

How Do We Define Adulthood?


Many different criterion for adulthood
Historically marriage
Today Independent from parents
Financial and residence

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

How Do We Define Emerging Adulthood?


Distinct period straddles 18 through 25
Extended period for exploration
Appear in affluent societies

Eriksons moratorium
Extended search for identity

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 16

Eriksons Stages of Adulthood?


Intimacy vs Isolation
Generativity vs Stagnation
Integrity vs Despair